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COVID-19COVID-19COVID-19CEnglishInfectious DiseasesChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)NAImmune systemConditions and diseasesAdult (19+) CaregiversNA2020-03-26T04:00:00Z000Landing PageLearning Hub<p>Learn about COVID-19 and how to talk to and support your family. Also find resources such as videos and audio meditations to help you cope.</p><p>This hub includes resources on COVID-19 and how to help you cope. There are resources on how to support your child's mental health and general wellbeing through physical activity, sleep, nutrition and learning. Also included are videos and audio meditations to help you cope with stressful thoughts and experiences that occur throughout your day.</p><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h2 class="panel-title">COVID-19 information</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>Find information about COVID-19 from AboutKidsHealth.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=3863&language=English">COVID-19: Information for parents of immunocompromised children and children with chronic medical conditions</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1981&language=English">Hand hygiene</a></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h2 class="panel-title">Other reliable resources to learn more about COVID-19</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>Find other helpful and reliable resources to learn more about COVID-19.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://www.canada.ca/en/public-health/services/diseases/coronavirus-disease-covid-19.html">Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) (Public Health Agency of Canada)</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://covid19healthliteracyproject.com/#languages">COVID-19 fact sheets in 34 different languages (Harvard Health Publishing)</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://www.publichealthontario.ca/en/diseases-and-conditions/infectious-diseases/respiratory-diseases/novel-coronavirus/public-resources">COVID-19 public resources (Public Health Ontario)</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://www.ontario.ca/page/2019-novel-coronavirus">The 2019 Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) (Ontario Ministry of Health)</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://www.brainson.org/shows/2020/03/10/understanding-coronavirus-and-how-germs-spread-for-kids?fbclid=IwAR21Y_n6fsy33QD2s07In2Q892xQoI5OEFMMZ5vcMyVoLdkH8tv4yZjaZsc">Understanding coronavirus and how germs spread (Brains On!)</a></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h2 class="panel-title">Helpful resources for parents</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>Helpful resources to learn how to talk to your child about the virus and how to take care of yourself and your family.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h3>Talking to your child</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="http://hollandbloorview.ca/services/family-workshops-resources/family-resource-centre/explaining-covid-19-kids">Explaining COVID-19 and Coronavirus to children (Holland Bloorview)</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://www.cps.ca/en/blog-blogue/how-can-we-talk-to-kids-about-covid-19">How can we talk to kids about COVID-19? Be “realistically reassuring” (Canadian Pediatric Society)</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://www.pbs.org/parents/thrive/how-to-talk-to-your-kids-about-coronavirus#.XmuZ3QV_gax.twitter">How to Talk to Your Kids About Coronavirus (PBS)</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://www.cmho.org/blog/blog-news/6519918-talking-to-your-anxious-child-about-covid-19">Talking to your anxious child about COVID-19 (Children's Mental Health Ontario)</a></li></ol></li><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h3>Taking care and coping</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://youtu.be/9Ay4u7OYOhA">6 steps to prevent COVID-19 (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://www.caringforkids.cps.ca/handouts/disaster">Helping children and teens cope with stressful public events (Caring for Kids)</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://www.camh.ca/en/health-info/mental-health-and-covid-19">Mental health and the COVID-19 pandemic (CAMH)</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://www.youtube.com/watch?time_continue=9&v=7PKwE1jIuws&feature=emb_title">Protect don’t infect (CHEO)</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://afirm.fpg.unc.edu/supporting-individuals-autism-through-uncertain-times">Supporting individuals with autism through uncertain times (Autism Focused Intervention Resources & Modules)</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://kidshelpphone.ca/get-info/were-here-for-you-during-covid-19-novel-coronavirus/">We’re here for you during COVID-19 (novel coronavirus) (Kids Help Phone)</a></li></ol></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h2 class="panel-title">Taking care of your mental health</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>Taking care of your mental health during difficult and stressful times is important. Learn more about anxiety and depression.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=18&language=English">Anxiety: Overview</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://teens.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3810&language=English">Anxiety and anxiety disorders</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=19&language=English">Depression: Overview</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://teens.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3777&language=English">Stress and health</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=626&language=English">Resilience</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://teens.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3778&language=English">How to become more resilient</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=630&language=English">Self-efficacy in children</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1964&language=English">Self-efficacy: How to foster in children</a></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h2 class="panel-title">Wellbeing</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>Find out how physical activity, a healthy sleep routine, screen time limits and balanced nutrition can boost your child's mental health and support them to achieve better academic success and help them through difficult times. </p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h3>Physical activity</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=642&language=English">Physical activity: Guidelines for children and teens</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=641&language=English">Physical activity: Benefits of exercise for health and wellbeing</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1950&language=English">Enhancing movement skills in your child</a></li></ol></li><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h3>Sleep</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=645&language=English">Sleep: Benefits and recommended amounts</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=646&language=English">How to help your child get a good night's sleep</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=647&language=English">How to help your teen get a good night's sleep</a></li></ol></li><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h3>Screen time</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=643&language=English">Screen time: Overview</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=644&language=English">How to help your child set healthy screen time limits</a></li></ol></li><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h3>Nutrition</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=639&language=English">Nutrition: How a balanced diet and healthy eating habits can help your child's mental health</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=639&language=English">How a balanced diet and healthy eating habits can help your child's mental health</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1464&language=English">School-aged child, tween and teen meal ideas</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=638&language=English">Healthy eating for teens</a></li></ol></li><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h3>Learning</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=6511&language=English">Reading and writing milestones</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1903&language=English">Reading problems: How to help your child</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=722&language=English">Mathematics milestones</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1899&language=English">Mathematics: How to help your child</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=649&language=English">Spatial reasoning skills: How to foster in children</a></li></ol></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h2 class="panel-title">Videos to support sleep and mindfulness</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>Find videos that will help you prepare for sleep and for when you need a moment of peace, to understand your situation more clearly and coping with stressful thoughts and experiences.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h3>Sleep video</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://youtu.be/2fbaoqkY0Qk">Sleep: A bed time story</a></li></ol></li><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h3>Mindfulness videos</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://youtu.be/nQdM_Cku9pA">A moment of peace</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://youtu.be/cFCiUlFKuO4">Two wings to fly</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://youtu.be/jaNAwy3XsfI">Being with all of your experiences</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://youtu.be/0QXmmP4psbA">You are not your thoughts</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://youtu.be/Ty93GRPplJo">Dealing with difficult moments</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://youtu.be/QTsUEOUaWpY">Everyday mindfulness</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://youtu.be/GgBVIZAEQqU">STOP for mindfulness</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KYcLfBf-T9c">Stress and thinking: The mind/body connection</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://youtu.be/EWzDHN7Jdg8">Dealing with flares: Controlling the controllables</a></li></ol></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h2 class="panel-title">Audio meditations for mindfulness and coping</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>Listen to these meditations in a quiet, comfortable spot to practise mindfulness, learn about ways to cope with physical and emotional pain or discomfort and to help you with stress throughout your day.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h3>Mindfulness</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://youtu.be/3cevA6EjCbE">5 senses</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://youtu.be/gqMu6kFfQcE">Dropping the anchor</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://youtu.be/O5F3-Xw2XPE">The mountain</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://youtu.be/84Tr734KXO8">Dilute the yuck</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://youtu.be/YnL-hjXo4EQ">Self-compassion</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://youtu.be/fZdw6wm3A3E">Body scan</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://youtu.be/jc64ap852FU">Circle of gratitude</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://youtu.be/LMu-r-KZ_l8">Tree meditation</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://youtu.be/xcO8IIeV12M">Mindfulness of thought</a></li></ol></li><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h3>Coping with physical and emotional pain</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://youtu.be/84Tr734KXO8">Dilute the yuck</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://youtu.be/3IK7yWuEs3k">Visualize your pain</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://youtu.be/UbTyPgHf8z4">Soften, soothe, allow</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://youtu.be/NN7fz8lMTIM">Ice cube</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://youtu.be/e0JMtabUVvQ">Comfort your pain</a></li></ol></li><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h3>Finding calm/coping with stress</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://youtu.be/RQJNdVtHxlY">Time for rest</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://youtu.be/RpHvQkHYrZ0">Allowing rest</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://youtu.be/gqMu6kFfQcE">Dropping the anchor</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://youtu.be/EnrNtaMskik">Breathing meditation</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://youtu.be/CMcx9tJ70rA">Joy</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://youtu.be/EL_fvAepwv8">Equal breathing</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://youtu.be/QSf0JS0O16Q">Key word guided meditation</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://youtu.be/Tsi2np8xtVY">Bell meditation</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://youtu.be/263e093H5eM">Bell sounds</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://youtu.be/Jqu3SOEKtvE">Progressive muscle relaxation with tension</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://youtu.be/4ilNITE3-fE">Relaxation with imagery</a></li></ol></li></ol></div>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/iStock-1157093074.jpgCOVID-19,COVID19COVID-19Main
COVID-19: Information for parents of immunocompromised children and children with chronic medical conditionsCOVID-19: Information for parents of immunocompromised children and children with chronic medical conditionsCOVID-19: Information for parents of immunocompromised children and children with chronic medical conditionsCEnglishInfectious DiseasesChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)NAImmune systemConditions and diseasesAdult (19+) CaregiversFever;Cough;Runny nose2020-03-18T04:00:00Z10.000000000000051.1000000000000798.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Children who are immunocompromised and children with chronic medical conditions may be at higher risk of complications from the novel coronavirus COVID-19.</p><p>Children who are immunocompromised and children with chronic medical conditions may be at higher risk of complications from the novel coronavirus COVID-19. The following questions and answers may help you during this outbreak.</p> <h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>SickKids is safe for you and your child to come to for assessment as directed by your primary care team.</li><li>Children who are immunocompromised and children with chronic medical conditions may be at higher risk of developing complications if they do get COVID-19.</li><li>Washing your hands frequently using an alcohol-based hand sanitizer, or by using soap and water for 20 seconds will help to prevent you from getting COVID-19.</li><li>Your child should continue to take their regular medications as prescribed by their primary care team unless specifically instructed otherwise.</li></ul> <h3>What is novel coronavirus (COVID-19)?</h3><p>A new or novel strain of coronavirus was identified in Wuhan, China in late 2019, and has now spread across the globe. The World Health Organization has named this novel coronavirus COVID-19 and has declared the outbreak a pandemic.</p><h3>Is my child immunocompromised?</h3><p>Immunocompromised children have weak immune systems. A weak immune system could be caused by many different medical conditions or medications. Some examples include children who have:</p><ul><li>had a solid organ transplant (i.e. heart, kidney, lung, liver, intestinal)</li><li>had a bone marrow transplant</li><li>cancer</li><li>congenital or primary immunodeficiency</li><li>HIV/AIDS</li><li>rheumatological disease</li><li>gastrointestinal disease</li><li>severe burns</li></ul><p>And those who are:</p><ul><li>taking selective immunomodulators (i.e. anti-TNF agents, azathioprine, MMF and all immunosuppressive agents).</li><li>taking long-term steroid therapy</li><li>in a severely malnourished state</li></ul><p>If you are unsure if your child is immunocompromised, please check with your primary care team at the hospital.</p><h3>Is my child at higher risk of getting COVID-19?</h3><p>There is still a lot being learned about COVID-19. At this time, serious illness in children appears to be less common than it is in adults. It is not yet clear whether children with underlying or chronic medical conditions are at greater risk of being infected with COVID-19, or of serious illness if they get the infection. Based on what is known about the influenza virus, it would not be unexpected for immunocompromised children, or children with an underlying chronic medical condition (i.e. chronic lung disease) to be at increased risk of complications from a COVID-19 infection.</p><h3>How do I know if my child has COVID-19?</h3><p>Your child may have COVID-19 if they have some or all of the following symptoms:</p><ul><li> <a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=30&language=English">fever</a></li><li> <a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=774&language=English">cough</a> or sneezing</li><li> <a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=748&language=English">sore throat</a></li><li>difficulty breathing or fast breathing</li><li>body aches</li><li> <a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=29&language=English">headache</a></li><li>chills</li><li>fatigue</li><li> <a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=7&language=English">diarrhea</a> and <a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=746&language=English">vomiting</a></li><li>runny or stuffy nose that progresses to one of the above symptoms</li></ul><p>While fever may be the main symptom in immunocompromised children, not all children with COVID-19 will have a fever. For children who have a runny or stuffy nose you should be most concerned about a possible COVID-19 infection if other symptoms develop. It is not yet known if immunocompromised children with a COVID-19 infection have different symptoms.</p><h3>Should I come to the hospital if I think my child has COVID-19?</h3><p>If your child has symptoms of COVID-19 contact your primary care team at the hospital before coming. They will help you determine if your child needs to be seen and where you should go.</p><p>You should come to the hospital right away if your child has the following symptoms:</p><ul><li>fast breathing or trouble breathing</li><li>bluish skin color</li><li>not drinking enough fluids</li><li>not waking up or not interacting</li><li>being so irritable that the child does not want to be held</li><li>fever with a rash</li></ul><p>In an emergency please call an ambulance and tell the emergency services team that you are concerned your child may have a COVID-19 infection.</p><h3>Is testing for COVID-19 available at SickKids?</h3><p>Yes, testing is available at SickKids for children with weakened immune system that have concerning symptoms, such as fever and cough. Testing is usually done with a nose swab to try to identify various viruses. These swabs now test for COVID-19 as well.</p><h3>If my child is diagnosed with COVID-19, how long will they be sick?</h3><p>There is still a lot to be learned about COVID-19. Children with weakened immune systems may be sick for a longer period of time than other children. How long will vary from child to child.</p><h3>Should my child avoid public places such as shopping malls, public transit and playgrounds?</h3><p>At this time, it is recommended that social distancing including avoiding crowded environments is appropriate, in keeping with current public health recommendations. In crowded situations that cannot be avoided, extra precautions should be taken such as frequent handwashing. If you have alcohol-based hand sanitizer carry it with you to use when soap and water are not available. At this point, firm recommendations regarding summer camps cannot be made, however such camps will likely be cancelled if the outbreak continues unabated.</p><h3>What are effective measures to prevent COVID-19 spread?</h3><ul><li>Like other respiratory viruses, including influenza, it is recommended that you wash your hands frequently by using alcohol-based hand sanitizer, or by using soap and water for 20 seconds.</li><li>Limit touching your face, nose and eyes.</li><li>Avoid close contact with people who have a fever or cough.</li><li>Practice cough etiquette by keeping a distance from other people, coughing and sneezing into your sleeve or a tissue or a respiratory mask, and practicing frequent hand washing.</li></ul><h3>Are there any extra precautions that my child or I should be taking?</h3><p>Encourage your child to wash or sanitize their hands frequently. For example, if they are in school, provide them with a bottle of alcohol-based hand sanitizer. Avoid having your child be in close contact with anyone who has symptoms of COVID-19. Be vigilant for signs of infection in your child.</p><h3>Should my child wear a face mask when in public?</h3><ul><li>There is no current evidence that wearing a mask in public spaces will help your child to avoid infection from COVID-19. Other measures, such as careful hand washing and social distancing have been demonstrated to be effective in reducing transmission of the infection.</li><li>If your child has respiratory symptoms (i.e. fever, cough) and they are at the hospital for assessment, it is important that they wear a mask to avoid spreading infection to others. If you do not have a mask for this purpose you should ask for one when you arrive at the hospital.</li><li>Your primary care team may also advise your child to wear a mask for other reasons and you should follow this advice.</li></ul><h3>Should my child continue on their immunosuppressive medications?</h3><p>Your child should continue to take their regular medications as prescribed, unless directed differently by your primary care team at the hospital. Make sure you have enough medication and supplies on hand to last for 30 days, in case you need to stay home for a prolonged period of time.</p><h3>Should we cancel our upcoming trip or vacation?</h3><p>Yes. At this time, it is recommended that any upcoming trips or vacations be cancelled until further notice.</p><h3>Can my child go to school?</h3><p>Please follow the guidance from the Ontario Ministry of Education and your child’s local school regarding mandatory school closure. If your child has any signs or symptoms of COVID-19 do not send them to school even if their school remains open.</p><h3>What should I do if I am unwell myself, or my child’s sibling becomes unwell with symptoms of COVID-19 infection?</h3><p>Contact your family doctor or paediatrician as it is recommended that unwell siblings or parents of children who are immunocompromised be tested for COVID-19. It is also advised that you practice social distancing at home as much as possible. You can also refer to Ontario general guidelines of who should be tested for COVID-19 and ways of accessing testing at <a href="https://www.ontario.ca/page/2019-novel-coronavirus">https://www.ontario.ca/page/2019-novel-coronavirus</a>.</p><h3>What should I do if a member of my household has recently returned from travel outside of Canada?</h3><p>People returning from travel outside of Canada should self-isolate for 14 days, in keeping with current public health recommendations. During that time period your child should avoid close contact with this person as much as possible.</p><h3>Should I or my teen who is immunocompromised go to work?</h3><p>Follow public heath guidelines and practice social distancing when appropriate. This may include avoiding work environments that involve contact with large groups of people. It is recommended that you or your teen who is immunocompromised try to work from home as much as possible.</p><h3>If my child requires assessment for symptoms other than COVID-19 infection what should we do?</h3><p>Continue to follow the recommendations for getting your child assessed according to your primary care team’s instructions, as you would do normally. For example, if your child is on medication that causes them to have a low white blood cell count and they develop a fever, you should still go to the hospital for assessment and let the primary care team know about your child’s symptoms as per normal procedure.</p><h3>Should I reschedule my upcoming routine appointment?</h3><p>Clinic appointments are being reviewed and many upcoming visits may be rescheduled or moved to virtual care by video or telephone, if possible. Medically necessary appointments will continue. Please contact your primary care team at the hospital for questions regarding your upcoming appointments.</p><h3>What if the province orders a lockdown and mandates people staying in their homes? Will we be able to get to the hospital?</h3><p>Even in those countries that have ordered lockdowns, people have still been able to travel for medically necessary reasons.</p><h3>Is it safe for my child to come to SickKids during the current outbreak?</h3><p>Yes, the hospital is safe for you and your child to go to for assessment as directed by your primary care team. At all times SickKids has clear procedures in place for protecting your child from getting an infection when visiting the hospital. During this time additional measures to protect you and your child have been put in place. Please follow SickKids instruction regarding the number of visitors permitted to accompany your child. Please see <a href="https://www.sickkids.ca/coronavirus"> https://www.sickkids.ca/coronavirus</a> for further information.</p>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/COVID-19--Information_for_parents.jpgCOVID-19: Information for parentsMain
Developmental paediatriciansDevelopmental paediatriciansDevelopmental paediatriciansDEnglishOtherChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)NANAHealth care professionalsCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2015-08-17T04:00:00Z13.300000000000032.1000000000000722.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Developmental paediatricians are doctors who specialize in child development. Learn what they do and how they can help your child.</p><h2>What is a developmental paediatrician?</h2> <p>Developmental paediatricians are doctors who specialize in child development. They see children with a wide variety of developmental, learning and behavioural issues from infancy to young adulthood.</p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul> <li>Developmental paediatricians are doctors who have completed extra training in the field of child development.</li> <li>Developmental paediatricians assess all aspects of development, including language, social communication and interaction skills, play behavior, motor skills and some cognition. </li> <li>Developmental paediatricians work together with other care providers to help ensure their patients are getting the extra support they need in a variety of different settings. </li> <li>If you are concerned that your child is having delays in their development, speak with your doctor.</li> </ul><h2>What types of patients are seen by developmental paediatricians?</h2><p>Developmental paediatricians assess, diagnose and support children who have problems with any aspect of their development. This may include:</p><ul><li>Gross motor skills (e.g. sitting, walking, climbing)</li><li>Fine motor skills (e.g. feeding, printing)</li><li>Speech and language (e.g. articulation, pronunciation, receptive and expressive language delays)</li><li>Social communication and interaction skills, play and behaviour (e.g. developmental delay, <a href="/autism">Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)</a><br></li><li>Attention, hyperactivity, impulsivity (e.g. <a href="/Article?contentid=1922&language=English">ADHD</a>)</li><li>Cognitive (e.g. Global Developmental Delay (GDD), Intellectual Disabilities (ID), Learning Disabilities (LD)</li></ul><p>Many children will have problems in more than one aspect of their development. Some children may have problems with their development as a result of a medical condition or a brain injury. Other children are healthy, but develop differently than other children their age. Common conditions that developmental paediatricians treat are <a href="/Article?contentid=21&language=English">Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)</a>, <a href="/Article?contentid=847&language=English">Cerebral Palsy (CP)</a> and <a href="/Article?contentid=653&language=English">Learning Disabilities (LDs)</a>. </p><h2>What does a developmental paediatrician do?</h2><p>On your child’s visit to a developmental paediatrician, the doctor will talk to you about your concerns and then ask a lot of questions about your child and their development. This will include questions about the pregnancy and birth, early development such as babbling, first words, gestures, social skills (joint attention, smiling), play skills and interests, behaviours, motor skills and overall medical health. They may ask you to fill out a questionnaire regarding your child’s development. If your child is daycare- or school-aged, then information will also be collected from caregivers and teachers. Additional reports from other therapists your child may be seeing (resource educator, early childhood consultant, speech and language pathologist, psychologist, occupational therapist) will also be collected and interpreted.</p><p>Depending on your child’s challenges, the developmental paediatrician will interact with and observe your child playing and/or ask them to participate in some play-based evaluations. The developmental paediatrician will use these evaluations in combination with the history to assess your child and determine their developmental needs. Often these evaluations take place over two or even three assessment times. This allows for a more balanced view of your child’s skills (instead of doing it all at one setting especially if your child is having a difficult day) and is also done so your child does not become too tired. Some of these evaluations may involve a team of other health professionals including a psychologist, speech language pathologist, occupational therapist.</p><p>At the end of your visits, the developmental paediatrician will summarize what they have learned. They will help you identify some of the developmental problems that your child is having. Sometimes a diagnosis is made. If required, they will then make referrals for different therapies your child might benefit from (e.g. speech or language therapy, physiotherapy, occupational therapy) although many children may have already had these in advance or as part of the assessment. In some cases, blood work and other tests (hearing, vision, psychological testing) may be warranted.</p><p>Developmental paediatricians work closely with these other health professionals, as well as teachers, parents, day care workers and other care providers to help them develop strategies to deal with the different concerns a child might be having. In certain cases, a diagnosis is needed to access additional services like behavioural therapy, funding support etc.</p><h2>How do I find a developmental paediatrician?</h2><p>If you are concerned about your child’s development, you should speak with your primary care doctor. They may refer you to a general paediatrician first for further assessment or directly to a developmental paediatrician if your doctor feels that your child’s challenges require further help and expertise.</p>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/developmental_paediatricians.jpgMain
Mental healthMental healthMental healthMEnglishPsychiatryChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)NANANACaregivers Adult (19+)NALanding PageLearning Hub<p>Learn how to support your child’s wellbeing with activity, sleep and nutrition; and how to recognize and manage various mental health conditions.</p><p>This hub includes resources for parents on how to support your child's mental health and general wellbeing through physical activity, sleep and nutrition. It also provides information on the signs, symptoms and treatments of different mental health conditions, including anxiety, bipolar disorder, depression, behavioural disorders, anorexia nervosa and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.<br></p><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h2 class="panel-title">Wellbeing</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>The everyday pressures of growing up can put a strain on any child's mental wellbeing. Find out how physical activity, a healthy sleep routine, screen time limits and balanced nutrition can boost your child's mental health and support them through difficult times.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h3>Physical activity</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=642&language=English">Physical activity: Guidelines for children and teens</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=641&language=English">Physical activity: Benefits of exercise for health and wellbeing</a></li></ol></li><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h3>Sleep</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=645&language=English">Sleep: Benefits and recommended amounts</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=646&language=English">How to help your child get a good night's sleep</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=647&language=English">How to help your teen get a good night's sleep</a></li></ol></li><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h3>Screen time</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=643&language=English">Screen time: Overview</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=644&language=English">How to help your child set healthy screen time limits</a></li></ol></li><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h3>Nutrition</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=639&language=English">Nutrition: How a balanced diet and healthy eating habits can help your child's mental health</a></li></ol></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h2 class="panel-title">Anxiety disorders</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>Every child feels anxiety at some point as a natural part of growing up. An anxiety disorder, however, is when anxious feelings interfere with a child's everyday routine. Learn more about the signs, symptoms and range of anxiety disorders and how they ​are treated.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=18&language=English">Anxiety: Overview</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=271&language=English">Anxiety: Signs and symptoms</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=270&language=English">Types of anxiety disorders</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=701&language=English">Anxiety: Treatment with medications</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=702&language=English">Anxiety: Psychotherapy and lifestyle changes</a></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h2 class="panel-title">Obsessive compulsive disorder</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) occurs when a person suffers from troubling and intrusive thoughts and/or follows repetitive or strict routines to feel less worried. Learn about the causes, signs and impact of this disorder and how you can help your child.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=285&language=English">Obsessive compulsive disorder: Overview</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=288&language=English">OCD: Signs and symptoms</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=286&language=English">How OCD affects your child's life</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=709&language=English">OCD: Psychotherapy and medications</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=287&language=English">OCD: How to help your child at home</a></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h2 class="panel-title">Depression</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>Depression is an illness that causes someone to feel deep sadness or a lack of interest in activities that they once enjoyed. Discover how this condition affects a child's mood, sleep, concentration and energy levels, and how it can be treated.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=19&language=English">Depression: Overview</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=284&language=English">Depression: Signs and symptoms</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=707&language=English">Depression: Treatment with medications</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=708&language=English">Depression: Psychotherapy and lifestyle changes</a></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h2 class="panel-title">Bipolar disorder</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>When a person has bipolar disorder, they alternate between low and elevated moods for days, weeks or months at a time. Learn about the bipolar disorder spectrum, the symptoms of manic and depressive episodes and how medications, therapy and lifestyle changes can help.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=279&language=English">Bipolar disorder: Overview</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=280&language=English">Bipolar disorder: Signs and symptoms</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=704&language=English">Bipolar disorder: Treatment with medications</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=705&language=English">Bipolar disorder: Psychotherapy and lifestyle changes</a></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h2 class="panel-title">Suicide and self-harm</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>A child who experiences thoughts of suicide or self-harm is often suffering from overwhelming emotional pain. Find out how to help your child cope with difficult emotions, how to support and protect your child and where to find professional help.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=291&language=English">Suicide in children and teens: Overview</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=289&language=English">Self-harm in children and teens: Overview</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=290&language=English">Signs and symptoms of suicide risk</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=293&language=English">How to help your child with difficult emotions</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=292&language=English">How to protect your child from harm</a></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h2 class="panel-title">Eating disorders</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>An eating disorder not only risks your child's health but can also disrupt family life. Find out about the symptoms and treatment of anorexia, bulimia, avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder and binge eating disorder and how you can help your child recover.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h3>Anorexia nervosa</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=268&language=English">Anorexia nervosa: Overview</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=269&language=English">Anorexia: Signs and symptoms</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=267&language=English">Anorexia: Medical complications</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=700&language=English">Anorexia: Treatment options</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=266&language=English">Anorexia: How to help your child at home</a></li></ol></li><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h3>Bulimia nervosa</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=282&language=English">Bulimia nervosa: Overview</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=283&language=English">Bulimia: Signs and symptoms</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=281&language=English">Bulimia: Medical complications</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=706&language=English">Bulimia: Treatment options</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=294&language=English">Bulimia: How to help your child at home</a></li></ol></li><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h3>Avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder (ARFID)</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=274&language=English">Avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder: Overview</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=275&language=English">ARFID: Signs and symptoms</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=273&language=English">ARFID: Medical complications</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=703&language=English">ARFID: Treatment options</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=272&language=English">ARFID: How to help your child at home</a></li></ol></li><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h3>Binge eating disorder (BED)</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=277&language=English">Binge eating disorder: Overview</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=278&language=English">BED: Signs and symptoms</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=640&language=English">Obesity: Medical complications</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=276&language=English">BED: How to help your child at home</a></li></ol></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h2 class="panel-title">Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) involves difficulties with controlling attention and regulating behaviour. Discover the main symptoms of ADHD in children and teens, how the disorder is diagnosed and how to help your child at home and at school.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1922&language=English">Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: Overview</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1923&language=English">ADHD: Signs and symptoms</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1997&language=English">ADHD: How to help your child at home</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1999&language=English">ADHD: Communicating with your child's school</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1998&language=English">ADHD: Treatment with medications</a></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h2 class="panel-title">Behavioural disorders</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>Behavioural disorders include oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder. Learn how these disorders differ from typical misbehaviour, how therapy and medications can help and how you can manage problematic behaviour at home.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1924&language=English">Behavioural disorders: Overview</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1925&language=English">Behavioural disorders: Signs and symptoms</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2000&language=English">Behavioural disorders: Treatment with psychotherapy and medications</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2001&language=English">Behavioural disorders: How to help your child at home</a></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h2 class="panel-title">Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is triggered by experiencing or witnessing a terrifying event. Learn about the main symptoms of PTSD, how the condition is diagnosed and how psychotherapy and medications can help your child.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1927&language=English">Post-traumatic stress disorder: Overview</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1928&language=English">PTSD: Signs and symptoms</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2005&language=English">PTSD: Treatment with psychotherapy and medications</a></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h2 class="panel-title">Brain disorders and mental health</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>A brain disorder includes a condition, illness or injury that affects the brain and how it develops before or after birth. Find out how a brain disorder can affect your child's learning, mood and social skills, how its impact on mental health is assessed and how to help your child cope.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1926&language=English">Brain disorders and mental health: Overview</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2002&language=English">Brain disorders: Assessing your child for neuropsychological difficulties</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2003&language=English">Brain disorders: How to help your child cope</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2004&language=English">Brain disorders: Common treatments</a></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h2 class="panel-title">Parenting a child with a chronic condition</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>A chronic conditions can affect a child's mental health and everyday routines. Discover how parents and caregivers can help manage both their child's health care and routines, and support their own mental health.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=3400&language=English">Living with a chronic condition: Overview</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=3401&language=English">Living with a chronic condition: Helping your child manage their health</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=3402&language=English">Living with a chronic condition: Maintaining your child's everyday routines</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=3403&language=English">Living with a chronic condition: Supporting yourself as a caregiver</a></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h2 class="panel-title">Substance use disorder</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>Substance use is the use of alcohol, tobacco and other drugs for pleasure or enjoyment. Learn about the signs and symptoms of substance use and how you can help your teen if you suspect they have a substance use disorder.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=3663&language=English">Substance use disorder: Overview</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=3664&language=English">Substance use disorder: Signs and symptoms</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=3665&language=English">Substance use disorder: How to help your teen at home</a></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h2 class="panel-title">Understanding somatization</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>Somatization involves expressing distress through physical symptoms. Find out about the mind-body connection, signs of somatization and the various ways to support your child or teen.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=3667&language=English">Mind-body connection</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=3668&language=English">Somatization: Signs and symptoms</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=3669&language=English">Somatization: Common treatments</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=3770&language=English">Somatization: How to help your child or teen cope</a></li></ol></div>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/Mental_health_landing-page.jpgmentalhealthhealthylivingMain
SedationSedationSedationSEnglishPain/AnaesthesiaChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)BodyNervous systemDrug treatmentCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2019-11-13T05:00:00Z6.2000000000000076.40000000000001430.00000000000Health (A-Z) - ProcedureHealth A-Z<p>Learn about sedation. Sedation is medicine to make your child sleepy or more comfortable during a hospital test or treatment.</p><h2>What is sedation?</h2> <p>Sedation is medicine to make your child sleepy or more comfortable during a hospital test or treatment.</p> <p>This information will help you prepare your child for their test or treatment. It describes what sedation is, what happens when your child gets sedation, and how to care for your child after the test or treatment. </p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul> <li>Your child's stomach must be empty during and after sedation. If your child's stomach is not empty, your child could vomit while asleep and damage their lungs. </li><li>Eight hours before your child's test or treatment, your child should only have clear liquids such as water, ginger ale or clear apple juice. Your child should not eat or drink any solid food, gum, candy, milk or orange juice. </li><li>Two hours before the operation, test or treatment, stop giving your child anything to drink. </li><li>If possible, bring another adult with you when you take your child home from the hospital.</li> </ul><h2>Sedation is used to help your child relax</h2><p>Your child may find the test or treatment frightening or uncomfortable. Your child may need sedation to help them relax and stay still during the test or treatment. The sedation may make your child fall asleep or just feel sleepy. The sedation may also help make your child forget what happened during the treatment. </p><p>For treatments that are painful, your child will also be given medicine for pain.</p><h2>The nurse or doctor will watch your child closely during sedation</h2> <p>Before your child gets the sedation, the nurse or doctor will ask you and your child some important questions. They will do a physical exam to make sure that it is okay for your child to get the sedation. </p> <p>While your child is sedated, the nurse or doctor will monitor your child's blood pressure, heartbeat and breathing often. The nurse may use several different machines, called monitors, to check on your child. </p> <p>After the sedation, the nurse or doctor will watch your child closely until they are ready to go home.</p><h2>Sedation may cause minor side effects</h2> <p>Your child may have side effects (problems) after the sedation is given. Usually these side effects are minor. They may include:</p> <ul> <li>throwing up </li><li>upset mood, feeling grumpy or tearful </li><li>feeling sleepy</li> <li>dizziness or instability</li> </ul> <p>Sometimes, instead of making your child sleepy, the sedation may make your child overly active and upset. If this happens, the nurse or doctor will stay with your child until they calm down, but the test or treatment may have to be arranged for another day. </p> <p>There is also a very small chance that your child may have an allergic reaction to the sedation. There is an even smaller chance that your child may need help with their breathing because of the sedation. This is why we watch your child very closely during and after the sedation. </p> <h2>The nurse will let you know when you can be with your child</h2> <p>For most tests or treatments, you will be allowed to be with your child. In some cases, you may have to wait in the waiting area during your child's test or treatment. Your child's nurse will let you know more about this. </p> <p>When the test or treatment is over, you can be with your child while they recover from the sedation.</p> <h2>Your child will be asleep for a short time after sedation</h2> <p>The amount of time that your child is asleep after sedation depends on the type of sedation, the drug and the dose. In most cases, your child will be asleep for one to two hours. Your child's nurse will let you know how long to expect. </p> <p>We will try to keep the amount of time your child is asleep as short as possible. This will allow them to recover quickly when the test or treatment is over. </p> <h2>Going home</h2> <h3>Your child will be ready to go home when they are awake</h3> <p>Your child will be ready to go home when they are awake and able to drink clear fluids. This may take one or two hours. </p> <h3>Taking your child home from the hospital</h3> <p>Bring another adult with you when you take your child home from the hospital.</p> <p>If you are driving home, it is strongly recommended that the second adult is available to sit beside and watch your child in the car. Please make sure your child wears their seat belt. </p> <p>If your child uses a stroller, bring it with you to the hospital. Your child may be dizzy and unable to walk on their own.</p> <p>You will get written instructions from your nurse before leaving the hospital. These notes will tell you what you need to know once you are at home. </p> <p>For more information, please read <a href="/Article?contentid=1251&language=English">Sedation: Caring for your child at home</a>.</p><h2>Before sedation</h2><h3>A nurse or doctor will decide if your child needs sedation</h3><p>After you come to the hospital for your child's test or treatment, a nurse or doctor will check your child. Then, you and the nurse or doctor will decide if your child should have sedation. </p><h3>A nurse or doctor will give your child sedation</h3><p>A nurse or doctor at the hospital will give your child sedation. This person will also watch your child closely while they are sedated. </p><p>Do not give your child any other medicine that may calm, relax or make them sleepy before coming to the hospital.</p><h2>There are different ways your child can get sedation</h2><p>Sedation can be given in the following ways:</p><ul><li>as a drink </li><li>as a pill to swallow </li><li>through a mask </li><li>through an intravenous line (IV), a small tube that is placed in a vein in an arm or leg using a small needle</li></ul><p>The doctor or nurse will decide and discuss with you which type of sedation is best for your child for the procedure. If your child is having sedation through an IV, ask for cream to numb the area where the <a href="/Article?contentid=990&language=English">needle goes in so it does not hurt your child</a>. You should ask for the cream as soon as you arrive on the day of your appointment. </p><h2>What to feed your child before sedation</h2><p>Your child's stomach must be empty before sedation. If your child has even a small amount of food or drink in the stomach, your child could <a href="/Article?contentid=746&language=English">throw up</a> (vomit) and damage their lungs. An empty stomach lowers the chance that your child will vomit. </p><p>Follow these instructions to make sure your child's stomach is empty. If you do not follow these instructions, your child's procedure will be delayed or cancelled. </p><ul><li>Eight hours before the sedation, your child must stop eating solid food, gum, candy, milk or orange juice. Your child can still drink clear liquids, which means liquids you can see through like a window. Clear liquids include water, ginger ale and clear apple juice. </li><li>Two hours before the sedation, your child must stop drinking clear liquids. Your child should not take anything by mouth until after they wake up. </li><li>If your child needs to take prescription medicine, talk to the doctor who prescribed the medicine before giving it.</li></ul><p>Your child is having the sedation at this time: ___________________________________</p><p>Your child should stop drinking clear fluids at this time: ____________________________</p><h3>For babies</h3><p>If your baby is breastfeeding, stop breastfeeding your baby four hours before the sedation.</p><p>If your baby drinks formula, stop giving formula six hours before the sedation.</p><h3>Summary: Eating and drinking before the sedation</h3><table class="akh-table"><thead><tr><th>Time</th><th>What your child can eat and drink</th></tr></thead><tbody><tr><td>8 hours before the sedation</td><td><p>No more solid food, gum, candy, milk or orange juice.</p><p>Your child can only drink clear liquids, including water, ginger ale and clear apple juice.</p></td></tr><tr><td>6 hours before the sedation</td><td>Stop giving your baby formula.</td></tr><tr><td>4 hours before the sedation</td><td>Stop breastfeeding your baby.</td></tr><tr><td>2 hours before the sedation</td><td>No more clear liquids. Your child should not eat or drink anything until they wake up.</td></tr><tr><td colspan="2">If your child takes prescription medicine, ask your child's doctor when and how to give the medicine.</td></tr></tbody></table><h2 class="pdf-page-break">Tell your child what will happen</h2><p>It is important to tell your child what will happen during the test or treatment. Tell your child who will be staying with them, what kinds of things will happen, and how they may feel during and after the test or treatment. </p><p>Your nurse can help you explain the test or treatment to your child. It is important to be honest. Children feel less anxious and scared when they know what to expect. </p>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/sedation.jpgMain

 

 

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and diabetesNon-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and diabetesNon-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and diabetesNEnglishEndocrinologyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)Pancreas;LiverEndocrine system;Digestive systemConditions and diseasesAdult (19+)Abdominal pain;Fatiguehttps://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/non_alcoholic_fatty_liver_disease_EN.jpg2017-11-20T05:00:00Z7.5000000000000067.9000000000000322.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Learn about non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and why it occurs more often in people with type 2 diabetes.</p><p>Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a condition where fat builds up in the <a href="/Article?contentid=1468&language=English">liver</a>. The liver is a large organ on the upper right side of the abdomen (belly). It has many important jobs including cleaning the blood of toxins, controlling cholesterol levels and managing the body’s fuel supply.</p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul><li>NAFLD occurs more often in people with type 2 diabetes and in people who are overweight.</li> <li>Children and teens who have type 2 diabetes should have an annual blood test to screen for NAFLD.</li> <li>Treatment for NAFLD includes gradual weight loss and proper blood sugar control.</li></ul><figure class="asset-c-80"><span class="asset-image-title">Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)</span><img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/non_alcoholic_fatty_liver_disease_EN.jpg" alt="Location of the liver in the body shown with a side by side comparison of a healthy liver and liver cells versus non-alcoholic fatty liver and fatty cells" /><figcaption class="asset-image-caption">Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a condition where fat builds up in the liver.</figcaption> </figure> <p>NAFLD occurs more often in people with <a href="/Article?contentid=1721&language=English">type 2 diabetes</a> and in people who are overweight. About one in every five teenagers or children with type 2 diabetes has NAFLD. If NAFLD is not treated, it can lead to scarring of the liver and may even lead to liver cancer or liver failure. Many people with NAFLD have no symptoms. Others may have belly pain, fatigue or jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes). </p><h2>Diagnosis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)</h2><p>A blood test can be done to help look for NAFLD. This test looks at a specific enzyme called alanine aminotransferase (ALT), which is a marker of damage to the liver. Teens and children with type 2 diabetes should have this blood test done every year starting at diagnosis. </p><h2>Treatment of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)</h2><p>The main treatment for NAFLD is gradual weight loss and keeping blood glucose (sugar) levels in target. It is important to work with the <a href="/Article?contentid=2511&language=English">diabetes team</a> to make sure you lose weight safely.</p><p>For more information, visit the <a href="https://www.liver.ca/patients-caregivers/liver-diseases/nafld-in-childhood/" target="_blank">Canadian Liver Foundation​</a> website.</p> ​​ NAFLD and diabetes Learn about non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and why it occurs more often in people with type 2 diabetes and those who are overweight.Main
Sleep and mental health: Sorting out your sleep routineSleep and mental health: Sorting out your sleep routineSleep and mental health: Sorting out your sleep routineSEnglishAdolescent;PsychiatryTeen (13-18 years)NANAHealthy living and preventionTeen (13-18 years)NAhttps://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/Sleep_vid.jpg2019-01-04T05:00:00Z6.6000000000000076.4000000000000466.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>​You can do a number of things to set yourself up for good quality <a href="/Article?contentid=3632&language=English">sleep</a> night after night. <br></p><h2>Develop healthy bedtime habits</h2><ul><li>Follow a regular schedule. Go to bed at around the same time every night and wake up at the same time in the morning. On weekends, your bedtime might be later, but try not to go to bed (or wake up) more than two hours after your usual times during the week.</li><li>Avoid coffee, tea, soda or pop, energy drinks and chocolate a few hours before bed. Caffeine and sugar tell your brain to stay up even later than usual. Cigarettes and alcohol will also interfere with your sleep.</li><li>If you’re having trouble sleeping at night, take some deep relaxing breaths, focusing on your breath as it goes in and out. Deep breathing for five to 10 minutes may help you become more relaxed and sleepy. You can also listen along to these audios that help you prepare for sleep.</li></ul><div class="call-out"><div class="asset-video vid-small"> <iframe src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/RQJNdVtHxlY?rel=0" frameborder="0"></iframe><span class="vid-title">Time for rest</span><span class="vid-type">audio</span> </div><p> <strong>How to use: </strong>This audio meditation can help you relax. You may use this meditation whenever you need to take a nap or go to sleep. Get yourself into a comfortable position lying down and make sure you will not be disturbed.<br><br><br></p></div><div class="call-out"><div class="asset-video vid-small"> <iframe src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/RpHvQkHYrZ0?rel=0" frameborder="0"></iframe><span class="vid-title">Allowing rest</span><span class="vid-type">audio</span> </div><p> <strong>How to use: </strong>This audio meditation helps your body and mind relax. Use this meditation to find moment of rest and peace or when you need to take a nap or go to sleep. Get yourself into a comfortable position lying down and make sure you will not be disturbed.</p></div><ul><li>If you tend to feel wide awake at bedtime, try doing some <a href="/Article?contentid=3783&language=English">physical activity</a> earlier in the evening so you naturally feel more tired. If that doesn’t work, do something relaxing to help you wind down and feel more sleepy. Yoga, light stretching, reading a book or writing in a journal can all help.</li><li>Keep a diary or a to-do list by your bed so you can jot down any tasks or worries before you go to sleep. This reduces the chance that you’ll wake up feeling worried or stressed. You can also watch this animation, which reminds you how you can get ready for a good night’s sleep.</li></ul><div class="call-out"><div class="asset-video"> <iframe src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/2fbaoqkY0Qk?rel=0" frameborder="0"></iframe><span class="vid-title"><strong>Sleep: A bedtime story</strong></span></div><p> <strong>How to use: </strong>This is a bedtime ritual you may follow every night, if you wish. It walks you through preparing for sleep. It’s best to view this on a tablet or cellphone that you can put aside easily. You may stop and start the video at any time. In case you fall asleep, keep the volume low and turn autoplay to off.<br></p></div><h2>Create a comfortable sleep environment</h2><ul><li>Make sure your room is cool and dark enough.</li> Keep your bed for sleeping only. Don’t do homework in bed. This activity can make your brain link bedtime with stress or active thinking when you are trying to sleep. <li>Avoid having a television, computer, tablet or cell phone in the bedroom. These can stimulate your brain rather than relax it and add to your daily screen time.</li></ul><h2>Have a good start to your morning</h2><ul><li>Get in the habit of planning and prepping your breakfast before bed. This could be as simple as cutting up some fruit or making a breakfast wrap that you can quickly grab in the morning.</li><li>Pack your backpack and lay out your clothes the night before. At night there is more time to look for missing homework or that favourite T-shirt that might still be in the washing machine.</li><li>If you have trouble waking up in time to shower in the morning, take your shower before bed or earlier in the evening.</li><li>Set an alarm clock to wake you up in the morning so that you don’t need to rely on someone else to wake you.</li></ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/iCanCopeSCD/goals_of_module_sleep_teen_SCD_J4T.jpgSleep: A bedtime story Use this video to help your child or teen learn about and develop a bedtime ritual so they can fall asleep more easily.Teenshttps://www.youtube.com/embed/2fbaoqkY0Qk?rel=0
Brain disorders and mental health: OverviewBrain disorders and mental health: OverviewBrain disorders and mental health: OverviewBEnglishPsychiatryChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)BrainBrainConditions and diseasesCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2017-07-12T04:00:00Z9.2000000000000049.9000000000000867.000000000000Health (A-Z) - ConditionsHealth A-Z<p>Find out how brain disorders can affect a child's mental health and overall functioning.</p><h2>What are brain disorders?</h2><p>Brain disorders include underlying genetic and medical conditions, brain injuries and illnesses that affect the brain and how it develops both before birth and throughout childhood development. The brain can also be affected by certain medical treatments and exposure to certain toxins.</p><p>Common brain disorders include:</p><ul><li>a brain injury from a trauma to the head, stroke, lack of oxygen or an infection</li><li>neurological conditions such as <a href="/Article?contentid=848&language=English">spina bifida</a>, <a href="/Article?contentid=858&language=English">hydrocephalus</a>, <a href="/Article?contentid=847&language=English">cerebral palsy</a>, <a href="/Article?contentid=845&language=English">epilepsy</a>, <a href="/Article?contentid=864&language=English">neurofibromatosis</a>, tuberous sclerosis or a <a href="/Article?contentid=1306&language=English">brain tumour</a></li><li>other medical conditions such as <a href="/prematurebabies">prematurity</a>, <a href="/Article?contentid=2483&language=English">diabetes</a>, chronic (long-term) heart or breathing problems, certain genetic disorders</li><li>negative effects of treatments for <a href="/leukemia">leukemia</a>, a brain tumour or other childhood cancers</li><li>exposure to alcohol, smoking or certain drugs before birth</li><li>exposure to <a href="/Article?contentid=1917&language=English">lead</a>, street drugs or poisonous gases, such as <a href="/Article?contentid=1117&language=English">carbon monoxide</a></li></ul> <br><h2>How are mental health conditions related to brain disorders?</h2> <p>The brain manages the most complex of human functions such as thinking, problem solving, emotions, consciousness and social behaviour.</p> <p>A brain disorder can alter a child's typical development. This can contribute to certain mental health issues related to their learning or behaviour depending on their age and the type and severity of the brain disorder.</p> <p>Generally, mental health issues can arise from one, or both, of the following:</p> <ul> <li>difficulties with thinking, communication, emotional control and social skills</li> <li>difficulties adjusting to the stress associated with living with a brain disorder.</li> </ul> <h3>Difficulties with cognitive abilities — how the brain thinks</h3> <p>Mental health issues can be directly related to the way the brain is affected by a condition or injury. The changes in brain structure and connections as a result of a brain disorder can cause a child to have difficulties thinking, controlling behaviour, and dealing with emotions and stress. This is illustrated by the following examples.</p> <ul> <li><a href="/Article?contentid=1922&language=English">Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)</a> is one of the most common diagnoses following an illness or injury that affects the brain.</li> <li>Learning and intellectual disabilities are also frequent in children who have a brain disorder.</li> <li>Symptoms of <a href="/Article?contentid=284&language=English">depression</a> and <a href="/Article?contentid=271&language=English">anxiety</a> are also common outcomes. Sometimes these relate to the pattern of the brain injury, which may lead a child or teen to get stuck on persistent negative thoughts.</li> <li>Children with different types of brain injury may also struggle socially because of their difficulties communicating and knowing how to act with other kids.</li> </ul> <h3>Difficulties adjusting to and coping with a brain disorder</h3> <p>Adjusting to or coping with the effects of a childhood brain injury or a related condition can be stressful and can increase mental health issues for children and their families. Common experiences may include: </p> <ul> <li>child frustration and sadness about their perceived differences at school or with peers (which may become more apparent in their teen years) </li> <li>child and parent stress about frequent doctor and hospital visits</li> <li>parental worry about a child’s current and future education and independence</li> <li>changes in parent-child relationships related to increased parental monitoring, attention or worry. This can become especially challenging when a teen wants more independence but needs parental monitoring and reminders for their health.</li> </ul><h2>Key points</h2> <ul> <li>Brain disorder is an all-inclusive term for disruption to the brain because of an underlying medical condition, illness or injury.</li> <li>A child with a brain disorder should have a thorough assessment to check for any related mental health conditions.</li> <li>ADHD, learning disability, social challenges, depression and anxiety are commonly linked with brain disorders.</li> <li>If you suspect that a mental health issue is connected to your child’s brain disorder, talk to your family doctor or your child’s neurologist, ask for input from your child’s teachers and consider a neuropsychological assessment.</li> </ul><h2>What to do if you think your child has a mental health issue related to their brain disorder</h2> <p>There are a number of things you can do if you are concerned about a mental health issue in your child. </p> <ul> <li>You can raise your concerns with your child’s neurologist or neurology team.</li> <li>You can talk to your family doctor.</li> <li>You can ask your child’s doctor or neurology team for a <a href="/Article?contentid=2002&language=English">neuropsychological assessment</a>.</li> <li>You can share your concerns with your child’s teachers or school principal. </li> </ul><h2>Further information</h2> <p>For more information on brain disorders and related mental health challenges, please see the following pages:</p> <p><a href="/Article?contentid=2002&language=English">Brain disorders and mental health: Assessing your child for neuropsychological difficulties</a></p> <p><a href="/Article?contentid=2003&language=English">Brain disorders and mental health: How to help your child cope</a></p> <p><a href="/Article?contentid=2004&language=English">Brain disorders and mental health: Common treatments</a></p> <h2>Resources</h2> <p>The following books offer useful information about brain disorders and related mental health issues.</p> <p>Dawson, P. & Guare, R. (2009). <em>Smart but Scattered. </em>New York, NY: The Guildford Press.</p> <p>Dawson, P. & Guare, R. (2010). <em>Executive Skills in Children and Adolescents</em>. New York, NY: The Guildford Press.</p> <p>Greene, R. W. (2014). <em>The Explosive Child.</em> New York, NY: HarperCollins.</p> <p>Guare, R. & Dawson, P. (2013). <em>Smart but Scattered TEENS. </em>New York, NY: The Guildford Press.</p> <p>Huebner, D. (2005). <em>What to Do When You Worry Too Much: A Kid's Guide to Overcoming Anxiety</em>. Magination Press.</p> <p>Siegel, D. J. (2013). <em>Brainstorm. </em>New York, NY: Penguin Group.</p> <p>Siegal, D. J. & Bryson, T. P. (2011). <em>The Whole Brain Child</em>. New York, NY: Random House.</p>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/brain_disorders_and_mental_health.jpgBrain disorders and mental health ​Brain disorders can be caused by medical conditions, illness or injury. Find out how they can affect a child's mental health and overall functioning.Main
Diaper rashDiaper rashDiaper rashDEnglishDermatologyNewborn (0-28 days);Baby (1-12 months);Toddler (13-24 months)SkinSkinConditions and diseasesCaregivers Adult (19+)Rash2019-10-30T04:00:00Z6.8000000000000066.7000000000000536.000000000000Health (A-Z) - ConditionsHealth A-Z<p>Diaper rash is usually caused by the skin coming into contact with urine and stool. Learn how to treat it and the best way to prevent your baby from getting it.</p><h2>What is diaper rash? </h2> <p>Diaper rash is a skin irritation that affects babies or toddlers in the diaper area. Most often, it is due to contact between urine and stool with your baby's sensitive skin. Most babies will have at least one diaper rash before being toilet trained. </p> <h2>Key points</h2> <ul> <li>Diaper rashes are common in infants and toddlers.</li> <li>Irritant diaper dermatitis is most common.</li> <li>Keeping the area clean and dry will help prevent rashes.</li> </ul><h2>Signs and symptoms of diaper rash</h2> <p>A baby with diaper rash may show these signs or symptoms:</p> <ul> <li>pink or red patches on the skin<br></li> <li>irritated or painful skin </li> <li>spots or blisters in the diaper area </li> <li>bright red patches and sometimes open sores (these are often very painful)</li> </ul> <h2>Causes</h2> <p>The most common cause of diaper rash is contact with urine and stool. This is called "irritant diaper dermatitis." It often occurs when the baby has <a href="/Article?contentid=7&language=English">diarrhea</a>. It most commonly affects the buttocks and thighs. Snug-fitting, plastic pants or diapers that prevent wetness from drying can make the rash worse.</p> <p>Diaper rash can also be caused by yeast infection (Candida). This fungal infection thrives in warm, moist area such as skin creases. Yeast diaper dermatitis looks red, and often has small red spots around the edges. It is usually not painful. It can be caused or becomes worse when the baby is on antibiotics.</p> <p>Other rashes can occur in the diaper area. These include <a href="/Article?contentid=773&language=English">eczema</a>, bacterial, viral and allergic rashes. They may also be seen on other parts of the body as well.</p> <h2>Treatment</h2><p>Leave the diaper off. Expose your baby's skin to warm, dry air as much as you can.</p><p>When changing the diaper, wash your baby's bottom with mild soap and warm water, rinse and pat dry. It may be less painful for your baby if you wash the area in a warm bath. Avoid wipes with alcohol; this may cause more pain.</p><p>Use an unscented barrier ointment, such as zinc oxide, to protect the area after each diaper change. If the diaper rash is more severe, use an ointment with a higher percentage of zinc oxide (up to 40%). Put a thick layer of the ointment on the affected area after each diaper change. Try not to scrub it off with diaper changes. Do not share creams with other children. Do not contaminate the cream. Wash your hands before putting them into the jar.</p><p>Candida (yeast) diaper dermatitis should be treated with a topical antifungal cream such as mycostatin or clotrimazole. </p><h2>Prevention</h2> <p>The best way to prevent diaper rash is to change your baby's diaper often. If your baby has diarrhea, change the diaper even more often. Applying a thin layer of unscented barrier cream can also protect the skin. It is not known whether cloth or disposable diapers are better in preventing diaper rashes.</p> <h2>When to see a doctor</h2> <p>Make an appointment with your child's doctor if the rash does not get better within a few days or if the baby seems unwell or has a fever. </p> <img alt="" src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/diaper_rash.jpg" style="BORDER:0px solid;" />diaperrashdiaperrashhttps://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/diaper_rash.jpg Learn about what causes your baby’s diaper rash, how to treat it and the best way to prevent your baby from getting it.Main