AboutKidsHealth is a health education website for children, youth and their caregivers.



Foreskin problemsForeskin problemsForeskin problemsFEnglishUrologyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)PenisPenisConditions and diseasesCaregivers Adult (19+)NAhttps://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/Paraphimosis_MED_ILL_EN.png2019-05-16T04:00:00ZCathy Daniels, RN, MS, ACNP;Sandra Oliver-Homewood, RN, MN;Alia Sunderji, MD8.5000000000000057.90000000000001170.00000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Learn how to treat common foreskin problems and when to see a doctor.</p><p>The penis is attached to a sheath of skin called the foreskin. </p><p>Some children may develop foreskin problems. Many of these issues either go away on their own or with the help of prescription medicine. Proper <a href="/Article?contentid=967&language=English">foreskin care</a> is the best way to prevent many of these issues.</p><p>Other foreskin problems, such as an accidental injury are more serious. These types of issues need treatment right away.</p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>Adhesions can form along the tip of the penis (glans), as the foreskin naturally separates from it. These are normal, require no treatment and go away on their own.</li><li>Pus-like clumps called smegma can sometimes form as the foreskin naturally retracts. This is normal, requires no treatment and goes away on its own.</li><li>Zipper injuries are common and require emergency treatment.</li><li>In babies, a hair or thread may tightly twist around the penis, interfering with blood flow (hair tourniquet). This is serious and requires emergency treatment.</li><li>Some children may forget to unretract their foreskin, causing it to form a painful, tight ring around the penis (paraphimosis). Using anaesthetic cream and pain medicine, a doctor can help push the foreskin to its original position.</li><li>If your child experiences bleeding, irritation or white scarring of the foreskin, take them to see a doctor.</li></ul><h2>Adhesions and smegma</h2><p>As a child gets older, the foreskin naturally separates from the head of the penis (glans). As this happens, the following may occur.</p><ul><li>Parts of the foreskin may remain attached (adhesions). This is normal and does not need any treatment. The foreskin fully separates by the time a child reaches puberty. Until then, there may be temporary soreness or pain while urinating. This usually goes away after a day or two.</li><li>The foreskin naturally sheds, leaving small white or yellow clumps behind. These clumps are called smegma and may look like pus. The smegma eventually goes away on its own. There is no need for treatment.</li></ul><h2>Balanitis</h2><p>Balanitis is an infection which may cause the foreskin to become red, swollen and itchy. You may also notice a build-up of fluid and your child may experience pain while urinating. Proper foreskin care can prevent balanitis.</p><h3>Treating balanitis</h3><p>If the balanitis is mild, your child’s doctor may prescribe an antifungal cream, such as nystatin, clotrimazole or miconazole. If the infection is severe or keeps coming back, circumcision may be an option once the redness and swelling go away. Talk to your child's doctor to learn more. Good hygiene can also help prevent balanitis from coming back.</p><h2>Bacterial infection</h2><p>If there is a cut or sore on the foreskin, bacteria can enter the skin and cause an infection. The bacteriacan quickly spread along the entire foreskin. This can cause a bacterial infection called balanoposthitis. The penis and foreskin swell, become red and feel painful and very sensitive to the touch.</p><h3>Treating bacterial infection in the foreskin</h3><p>If your child has developed a bacterial infection, talk to your doctor about treatment. In most cases, bacterial infection inside the foreskin or penis can be treated using either:</p><ul><li>antibiotics by mouth or</li><li>topical antibiotics (antibiotic creams for the skin)</li></ul><p>Your child’s doctor may prescribe oral and topical antibiotics together.</p><p>In adolescents, other conditions may cause an infection. If your teen develops an infection or inflammation on their penis or foreskin, they should see a doctor.</p><p>To ease pain or discomfort, your child can sit in a warm bath with added bath salts (do not use bubble baths or perfumed soaps). They can also take pain medicine such as ibuprofen or acetaminophen. If your child develops a fever, they should see a doctor.</p><h2>Zipper injury</h2><p>Your child may accidently injure their foreskin by getting it caught in the teeth of a zipper. Aside from being very painful, a zipper injury may damage the tip of the tube inside the penis through which urine flows, called the urethral meatus.</p><p>If a zipper injury happens, take your child to the emergency department right away. Trying to remove skin trapped in a stuck zipper may cause more injury. Leave it alone or cut the clothing around the zipper to make it easier to take them to the hospital.</p><h3>Treating a zipper injury</h3><p>Before detaching the zipper from the penis, your child's doctor may give your child some pain medicine. The doctor may inject a small amount of anaesthetic medicine at the base of the penis to numb it for a short time.</p><h2>Hair tourniquet</h2><p>In babies, a hair or thread may tightly twist around the penis, interfering with blood flow. This is called a hair tourniquet.</p><p>The hair or thread may appear as a thin line around the penis, and the affected area usually swells and reddens. Sometimes the hair or thread may be very difficult to see. If you notice swelling, discoloration or redness of the penis and suspect a hair tourniquet, take your baby to the hospital right away. If it is not dealt with right away, a hair tourniquet can damage nerves or blood vessels.</p><h3>Treating a hair tourniquet</h3><p>Your doctor will try to remove the tourniquet by applying a hair removal cream to the area. They may consult a urologist if the hair is deeply embedded in the skin. More serious cases may require surgery.</p><h2>Paraphimosis</h2><p>As a child gets older, their foreskin loosens and they are able to pull back (retract) the foreskin. They can also push the foreskin back to its original position (unretract), covering the head of the penis (glans).</p><p>Sometimes, a child may forget to unretract their foreskin. As a result, it becomes a tight band around the penis shaft. This is a condition called paraphimosis, which causes swelling and pain. Fluid can also build up around the area, causing further swelling.</p> <figure class="asset-c-80"> <span class="asset-image-title">Paraphimosis</span><img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/Paraphimosis_MED_ILL_EN.png" alt="Normal penis and penis with paraphimosis" /><figcaption class="asset-image-caption">The penis is covered by a ring of tissue called the foreskin. In a normal penis, the foreskin is loose and retractable to show the glans (head of the penis). In a penis with paraphimosis, the foreskin is so swollen and tight around the shaft that it cannot be unretracted to cover the glans.</figcaption> </figure> <h3>Treating paraphimosis</h3><p>If your child develops paraphimosis, take them to the doctor or an emergency department right away. Paraphimosis rarely requires surgery, but only a doctor should unretract the foreskin.</p><p>Before starting, the doctor will apply an anaesthetic cream. They may also prescribe pain medicine to relieve any discomfort. As the swelling reduces, the doctor will gently unretract the foreskin. Most children will need pain management or even sedation for this procedure.</p><h2>Phimosis</h2><p>A related condition, called phimosis, occurs when children are unable to retract the foreskin. In newborns, the foreskin is usually not retractable. As your child gets older, the foreskin will slowly become easier to retract. The foreskin is usually retractable by late childhood or early adulthood. Children who are not experiencing any discomfort or symptoms do not need to be seen by a doctor, even if they cannot fully retract their foreskin.</p><p>Sometimes, children are unable to retract their foreskin due to scarring from a previous infection, trauma or inflammation. In these cases, your child should see a doctor. </p><p>Your child should also see a doctor if they experience:</p><ul><li>irritation or bleeding at the tip of the foreskin</li><li>a ring of white scarring at the tip of the foreskin</li><li>severe ballooning of the foreskin when urinating, requiring pressure to push the urine out(If your child has ballooning of the foreskin while urinating that resolves on its own, they do not need to be seen by a doctor</li><li>recurrent infections of the foreskin that require antibiotic treatment</li></ul><p>For information on treating phimosis, please visit the Health A-Z page on <a href="/Article?contentid=889&language=English">Phimosis</a>.</p>foreskinforeskinMain
Mental healthMental healthMental healthMEnglishPsychiatryTeen (13-18 years)NANAConditions and diseases;Healthy living and preventionTeen (13-18 years)NALanding Page (Overview)Learning Hub<p>Learn how to support your mental health and wellbeing and how to recognize and manage various mental health conditions, with multimedia resources including articles, animations and guided meditations.</p><p>Learn how to support your mental health and wellbeing and how to recognize and manage various mental health conditions, with multimedia resources including articles, animations and guided meditations.</p>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/depression_psychotherapy.jpgmentalhealthmentalhealth Learn how to support your teen’s mental health and wellbeing and how to recognize and manage various mental health conditions.Teens
Belly BonanzaBelly BonanzaBelly BonanzaBEnglishhttps://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/J4K_belly_Bonanza_promo.pngKids ContentKids<p>Follow the adventures of Blueberry and Green Pea to help your child learn how food travels through their digestive system.</p> <figure class="swf-asset-c-80"> <div class="akh-video">src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/BU-tzxqU0CA"</div></figure><br> Follow the adventures of Blueberry and Green Pea to help your child learn how food travels through their digestive system.Kidsbelly-bonanza
Regular eye exams for JIARegular eye exams for JIARegular eye exams for JIAREnglishRheumatology;OphthalmologyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)EyesSkeletal systemTestsAdult (19+)NA2017-01-31T05:00:00ZJennifer Stinson RN-EC, PhD, CPNPLori Tucker, MDAdam Huber, MSc, MD, FRCPC7.6000000000000067.0000000000000592.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>If your child has JIA, regular eye exams are very important for detecting early signs of eye inflammation. Learn what happens during an eye exam.</p><p>Regular eye exams for JIA are important as many children and teens with JIA are at risk for uveitis, which can lead to other eye conditions such as cataracts or glaucoma.</p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul><li>Eye exams are important as eye inflammation (uveitis) usually occurs without any eye symptoms until it is too late.</li> <li>Eye inflammation can lead to cataracts and glaucoma.</li> <li>Various, painless tests will be conducted during the eye exam.</li></ul><h2>Why are eye exams important?</h2><p> <a href="/Article?contentid=1057&language=English">Eye inflammation</a> is called iritis or uveitis. It is another key feature of JIA. There is a high risk (approximately 20%) of eye inflammation among young people with oligoarticular JIA. The risk is highest among young girls who test positive on a blood test called an antinuclear antibody (ANA). However, eye inflammation can still occur in other types of JIA and in those who test negative for ANA.</p><p>Most importantly, eye inflammation usually occurs without any eye symptoms until it is too late. Eye inflammation can lead to other eye conditions such as cataracts or glaucoma. A cataract is when the lens of the eye becomes cloudy. Glaucoma is high pressure in the eye, and it also has no early symptoms.</p><p>This is why having regular eye exams with an eye doctor is important if for children and teens who have JIA.</p><h2>How are eye exams done?</h2><p>First, someone will test your child's vision.</p><p>Next, the eye doctor might put numbing drops in the eyes followed by some other drops. These drops will temporarily dilate the pupils of the eyes, which means the pupils will be larger. It will take 20 to 40 minutes for the drops to take effect, at which time your child's vision will be quite blurry and sensitive to light. These drops will give the eye doctor a clear view of the inside of the eye.</p><p>Another part of the eye exam is called a slit lamp exam. The eye doctor will use a machine called a slit lamp to look at the front parts of the eye. The slit-lamp is a type of microscope. It gives off a blue light. It allows the eye doctor to see any inflammation cells floating in the eye.</p><p>The slit lamp can also help the doctor find other complications such as cataracts or glaucoma. If your child is being tested for glaucoma, they will receive another set of eye drops that allows the eye doctor to test the pressure in the eye.</p><p>Other methods to check eye pressure include a machine that squeezes a puff of air into the eye or using a small hand-held device that looks like a pen, which gently touches the eye. These are painless tests due to the numbing drops they will have already received.</p><p>The entire eye exam is completely painless. Once the exam is over, your child can go home, but they will still have large pupils and blurry vision from the drops. They may also be sensitive to bright light due to the enlargement of the pupils. The blurry vision will last six or more hours. The effect on your child's pupil will last about 24 hours. Bring sunglasses for your child to wear on the way home.</p><p>The recommended frequency of eye checkups will be based on the type of JIA your child has, how long they have had JIA and the presence or absence of autoantibodies.</p>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/regular_eye_exams_for_JIA.jpg If your child has JIA, regular eye exams are very important for detecting early signs of eye inflammation. Learn what happens during an eye exam.Main
Viral gastroenteritis (stomach flu)Viral gastroenteritis (stomach flu)Viral gastroenteritis (stomach flu)VEnglishInfectious Diseases;GastrointestinalChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)Stomach;Small Intestine;Large Intestine/ColonImmune systemConditions and diseasesCaregivers Adult (19+)Abdominal pain;Diarrhea;Fever;Headache;Vomiting2019-03-12T04:00:00ZLaurie Streitenberger, RN, BSc, CIC;Anne Matlow, MD, FRCPC;Natasha Collia, MD10.000000000000048.1000000000000861.000000000000Health (A-Z) - ConditionsHealth A-Z<p>Viral gastroenteritis, often called "stomach flu," is an infection that causes inflammation of the stomach and intestines. Learn the symptoms and treatment of viral gastroenteritis.</p><h2>What is viral gastroenteritis?</h2><p>Gastroenteritis is the inflammation of the stomach and small and large intestines. Viral gastroenteritis means the inflammation is caused by infection from a virus. It often causes <a href="/Article?contentid=746&language=English">vomiting</a> (throwing up), <a href="/Article?contentid=7&language=English">diarrhea</a> or both.</p><p>Viral gastroenteritis is often called "stomach flu," but it is not caused by the influenza virus. Viruses that cause viral gastroenteritis include rotaviruses, torovirus, adenoviruses, caliciviruses, astroviruses, and a group of Norwalk-like viruses.</p><h3>Viral gastroenteritis is NOT caused by any of the following, although the symptoms may be similar:</h3><ul><li>bacteria such as salmonella or E. coli </li><li>parasites such as Giardia </li><li>medications </li><li>other medical conditions </li></ul><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>Viral gastroenteritis is an infection of the stomach and intestines, caused by a virus.</li><li>The main symptoms include diarrhea and vomiting.</li><li>Diarrhea and vomiting can cause a loss of fluids, also called dehydration.</li><li>If dehydration is severe, patients may have to be given fluid intravenously (IV) at the hospital.</li><li>Viral gastroenteritis can spread by sharing food, water and utensils. Frequent hand washing can help prevent the spread of infection to others.</li><li>Viral gastroenteritis is usually not a serious illness. However, people who have weak immune systems are at risk for more serious infection.</li></ul><h2>What are the symptoms of viral gastroenteritis?</h2><p>Diarrhea and vomiting are the main symptoms of viral gastroenteritis.</p><p>In addition to diarrhea and vomiting, a child with viral gastroenteritis may have the following symptoms. </p><ul><li> <a href="/Article?contentid=30&language=English">Fever</a></li><li>Stomach cramps or a sore stomach</li><li> <a href="/Article?contentid=29&language=English">Headache</a></li><li>Sore throat</li><li>Decreased activity level</li><li>Increased sleepiness</li><li>Decreased appetite </li></ul><p>In general, the symptoms begin one to two days after catching the virus. They can last for one to 10 days.</p><h2>Viral gastroenteritis can be spread</h2><h3>Viral gastroenteritis can spread through the following methods:</h3><ul><li>sharing food, water or eating utensils such as forks and knives with someone who has the virus</li><li>not washing hands after touching items that may have the virus on their surface</li><li>not washing hands after diaper changes or toileting</li></ul><p>It is important to clean and disinfect surfaces and items that your child touches, including toys, and wash laundry thoroughly to remove the virus from your home. </p><h2>Anyone can catch viral gastroenteritis</h2><p>People of all ages and backgrounds can get viral gastroenteritis. However, different groups often get different viruses:</p><ul><li>Babies and toddlers tend to get rotaviruses and torovirus more often. </li><li>Adenoviruses and astroviruses tend to cause diarrhea mostly in young children. </li><li>Norwalk-like viruses are more likely to cause diarrhea in older children and adults. </li></ul><h2>Treating viral gastroenteritis</h2><p>The best treatment for viral gastroenteritis in children and adults is to prevent <a href="/Article?contentid=776&language=English">dehydration</a>. Dehydration happens when more fluid leaves the body than enters it.</p><h3>Symptoms of dehydration include:</h3><ul><li>Dry, cracked lips and a dry or sticky mouth </li><li>Thirst </li><li>Low or no urine output; concentrated urine appears dark yellow </li><li>Not producing tears </li><li>Being fussy or cranky </li><li>Seeming bored or uninterested </li><li>Headache </li><li>Dizziness </li><li>Cramps </li><li>Chills </li><li>Fatigue </li></ul><h3>In severe cases, dehydration can cause:</h3><ul><li>Sunken eyes </li><li>Sunken fontanelle (soft spot) on the top of a baby's head </li><li>Nausea or vomiting </li><li>Irritability</li><li>Lethargy (little to no energy)</li></ul><p>If your child becomes severely dehydrated, they may need to be treated at the hospital. In the hospital, fluids can be replaced through an intravenous line (IV) if necessary. </p><h2>Viral gastroenteritis is rarely a serious illness</h2><p>For most people, viral gastroenteritis is not a serious illness. People who get viral gastroenteritis almost always recover completely without any long-term problems. How fast a child recovers from viral gastroenteritis partly depends on which virus is causing the illness.</p><p>Viral gastroenteritis can be a serious illness in people who are unable to drink enough fluids to replace what they lose through vomiting or diarrhea. Babies, young children, and people who are unable to care for themselves, such as the disabled or elderly, are at risk for dehydration from losing too much of the body's water.</p><p>People with immune system problems are at risk for dehydration because they may get more severe symptoms, including more vomiting and diarrhea. People with severe symptoms may need to stay in the hospital to treat or prevent dehydration.</p><h2>You can prevent viral gastroenteritis with good hand washing</h2> <h3>To avoid catching or spreading viral gastroenteritis, you should do the following things:</h3> <ul> <li>Wash hands well and often. This is especially important at hospitals and other medical facilities. </li> <li>Do not visit anyone in hospital when you are ill with symptoms of viral gastroenteritis. Ask other family members and friends to do the same. </li> </ul><h2>If your child is in hospital, help stop viral gastroenteritis from spreading</h2><ul><li>Your child may be placed in a single room and will not be able to visit the playroom until they are feeling better. </li><li>Wash your hands often before and after touching your child and before leaving your child's room. Expect hand washing by hospital staff as well. </li><li>If you or anyone else who has visited becomes ill with symptoms of viral gastroenteritis, let your child's doctor or nurse know.</li><li>If your child has symptoms of viral gastroenteritis and they are in the hospital, all staff caring for your child should wear gloves and a gown. </li></ul><img alt="" src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/viral_gastroenteritis_flu.jpg" style="BORDER:0px solid;" />stomachflustomachfluhttps://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/viral_gastroenteritis_flu.jpg Stomach flu is an infection that causes inflammation of the stomach and intestines. Learn the symptoms and treatment of stomach flu.Main



Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccineHuman papillomavirus (HPV) vaccineHuman papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine: What you need to knowHEnglishPharmacyPre-teen (9-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)PelvisReproductive systemDrugs and SupplementsCaregivers Adult (19+)NAhttps://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/ICO_DrugA-Z.png2013-04-29T04:00:00ZElly Berger, BA, MD, FRCPC, FAAP, MHPE8.7000000000000056.50000000000001144.00000000000Flat ContentDrug A-Z<p>The human papillomavirus (HPV) is an infection that spreads through sexual intercourse and sexual contact. The HPV vaccine protects against the most common strains of the virus.<br></p><h2>What is human papillomavirus (HPV)? </h2><p>The <a href="/Article?contentid=25&language=English">human papillomavirus (HPV)</a> is a virus that spreads through sexual intercourse, oral sex, anal sex and also sexual touching (hand to genital contact). HPV is the most common sexually transmitted disease in Canada. Most people do not know that they have HPV because they do not have any symptoms. Unfortunately, they can still pass on the virus to their partner. Persistent HPV infection can lead to certain types of cancers. </p><p>HPV is very common. About one in four Canadians under the age of 25 have HPV. </p><p>There are many different strains of HPV. The HPV vaccine protects against the four most common strains:<br></p><ul><li>The strains HPV-6 and HPV-11 cause <a href="/Article?contentid=25&language=English">genital warts</a>.</li><li>HPV-16 and HPV-18 are the leading cause of cancers of the cervix, which is the lower part of the uterus that narrows into a canal and opens into the vagina. These strains can also cause cancers in the penis and anus as well as cancers of the head and neck. </li></ul><p>In Canada, two vaccines can protect against HPV: Gardasil and Cervarix. </p><h2>How can the HPV vaccine help protect against HPV? </h2><p>Gardasil protects against four types of HPV: </p><ul><li>HPV-16 and HPV-18, which cause about 70 percent of all cancers of the cervix</li><li>HPV-6 and HPV-11, which cause about 90 percent of all genital warts </li></ul><p>Gardasil can be prescribed to females between the ages of nine and 45. The vaccine is licensed for use in males age nine to 26. It offers protection against certain cancers of the penis, anus, head and neck. It also protects the partners of males who have had the vaccine. Unfortunately, the cost of the vaccine for boys is not yet funded by most public health programs. </p><p>Cervarix protects against HPV-16 and HPV-18. It is given to females between the ages of 10 and 25. </p><p>Both vaccines require three doses to be given over the course of six months (Cervarix is given at zero, one and six months; Gardasil is given at zero, two and six months). In Canada, one of the vaccines is given to females in school in Grade 4-8, depending on the province (see table below). </p><h2>Important facts about the HPV vaccine</h2><p>There are many common misconceptions about the HPV virus and vaccine. The correct information is provided below so that you have all the facts when discussing sexual health and the HPV vaccine with your child.</p><h3>The HPV vaccine is <em>not</em> a substitute for regular checkups </h3><p>The vaccine protects against some types of HPV that can potentially lead to cancers. Regular checkups with the doctor are still important. About 30% of cervical cancers will not be prevented by the vaccine because it does not cover all HPV strains. Women should continue to be screened for cervical cancer with pap smears, even after getting all three shots of either HPV vaccine. </p><h3>The vaccine <em>cannot </em>treat HPV infections or HPV-related disease </h3><p>HPV vaccine helps prevent HPV-related infections or disease but will not treat an infection. It is most effective in women who are not yet sexually active because they are less likely to have contracted an HPV infection. </p><h3>There is currently <em>no medical cure</em> for the HPV virus </h3><p>Once someone is infected it can take weeks to months before genital warts become apparent. Warts inside the vaginal or anal areas may not be obvious. Some home therapies and other treatments in the doctor's office can be used to treat warts, but none can completely eliminate the virus. Even if the warts disappear, the virus can remain and warts recur. When warts are treated it can take 8 months or longer for them to disappear. </p><h3>HPV vaccines <em>do not </em>protect against other sexually transmitted infections </h3><p>The HPV vaccine protects against genital warts, which is one type of sexually transmitted infection (STI). It cannot protect against all types of STIs, such as HIV, chlamydia, or gonorrhea. It is important to practice safe sex. Parents should advise teens on how to reduce their risk of contracting STIs.<br></p><h3>The HPV vaccine <em>will not</em> make your child more promiscuous </h3><p>There is no evidence that giving the vaccination will increase sexual activity. </p><p>The HPV vaccination is an opportunity for parents to discuss sex and health with their children. <a href="/Article?contentid=718&language=English">Parents should be talking about sex with their children </a>regularly. </p><p>Studies show that sex education does not increase sexual activity. In fact, sex education may decrease early sexual activity, especially if the message encourages delaying sex and having protected sex. </p><h2>Can sexually active females benefit from the vaccine? </h2><p>The vaccines are most beneficial when given to girls before becoming sexually active. For this reason, doctors usually prescribe HPV vaccines to girls between the ages nine and 13. However, few sexually active women are infected with all types of HPV. For this reason, the vaccine can still help prevent infection and can be given to girls older than 14 years of age. A person with HPV usually has it for life. However, the vaccine can still help prevent recurrences. </p><h2>Is the vaccine protection long-lasting? </h2><p>Studies show that people exhibit strong immunity against HPV. Scientists do not know exactly how long the vaccine protects again HPV because long-term studies have not been done, but protection is for at least five years. </p><h2>Are the HPV vaccines safe? </h2><p>Studies show both HPV vaccines are safe. For both vaccines, the most common side effect is soreness at the site of injection. This is temporary. </p><p>The only reason not to get the vaccine would be if you have had an allergic reaction to a previous dose of the vaccine or if you are pregnant. </p><p>The vaccines contain particles from part of the virus. They cannot infect you with HPV. The vaccines also do not contain any antibiotics or preservatives, such as mercury or thimerosal. Cervarix contains a new additive called (ASO4). According to Health Canada, ASO4 is safe. </p><p>For more information, visit <a href="http://healthycanadians.gc.ca/health-sante/sexual-sexuelle/hpv-vph-eng.php">Health Canada</a>. </p>Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine Separate fact from fiction with up-to-date and accurate information on the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine.Main
Halloween safetyHalloween safetyHalloween safetyHEnglishPreventionChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)NANAHealthy living and preventionCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2013-10-08T04:00:00ZElly Berger, BA, MD, FRCPC, MHPE6.4000000000000072.70000000000001067.00000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Halloween is a time for dressing up, eating candy, carving pumpkins and decorating homes. Learn how to make it safe as well as fun.<br></p><p>Halloween is a time when children get dressed up in costumes and roam their neighbourhoods in search of candy. It is a time for carving pumpkins and decorating your home with spider webs, bats and maybe a few tombstones. This can be a lot of fun, but can also create some safety issues.</p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>Make sure children can be seen. Use bright colours, reflective tape in costumes. Have children carry some sort of light such as a flashlight or glow stick.</li><li>Make sure children can see. Make sure hats, wigs and scarfs are secure and do not cover or slip over their eyes. Use not-toxic face paint or makeup instead of masks.</li><li>Make sure costumes fit properly and are not a tripping hazard.</li><li>Make sure children know how to cross the street safely.</li><li>Make sure children know not to eat any treats before you can inspect them.</li></ul><h2>Costumes</h2><p>Costumes should let your child see and be seen. They should also fit properly and not be able to cause harm to your child or anyone else.</p><ul><li>Make sure drivers can see your child. Ideally, use costumes with bright fabrics. Keep ninjas and assassins visible with reflective tape. </li><li>Give each child a flashlight or battery-operated lantern to carry. Robots and wielders of magic wands can incorporate lights right into their costumes. Glow sticks are fun and can also make children more visible, but make sure they do not break, as the liquid inside them can irritate your child's skin and eyes.</li><li>Make sure your child can see. Masks can cut down on your child's range of vision. Instead use hypoallergenic, non-toxic face paint or makeup for your Lone Ranger or superhero. If your child's costume involves a hat, wig or scarf, fasten it securely so it will not slip over your child's eyes.</li><li>To prevent tripping, make sure shoes fit properly (sorry, clowns and scuba divers) and make sure the length of your child’s costume does not go below their ankles (sorry, wizards and witches).</li><li>Devils and dragons should not have real flames. Make sure your child's costume cannot catch fire easily. If you are buying a costume, look for a label with the words "flame resistant." Avoid costumes with loose sleeves, baggy pants and billowing skirts.</li><li>For obvious reasons, your musketeer's or pirate's sword, cutlass or dagger should not be sharp. Look for or make "weapons" in soft, flexible materials.</li></ul><h2>Trick-or-treating</h2><p>Supervise younger children when trick-or-treating. Make sure all children know the <a href="/Article?contentid=1955&language=English">rules for crossing the street safely</a>: </p><ul><li>Before crossing the street, stop and look left, right and straight ahead – then do it again.</li><li>Cross the street only at crosswalks or intersections. Do not cross between parked cars or other obstacles, such as giant pumpkins or tombstones. If you must cross at a spot with poor visibility, be extra careful about looking left, right and straight ahead before crossing. </li><li>Walk, do not run, from house to house, and stay on the sidewalk or at the side of the road facing traffic.</li><li>Rather than crossing and recrossing the street, go up one side of the street and down the other. Keep in mind that Halloween is exciting, and children may forget the rules they follow every day when walking to school.</li></ul><h3>Other trick-or-treating safety tips:</h3><ul><li>Young children should be supervised by an adult when trick-or-treating.</li><li>If not with an adult, older children should trick-or-treat in a group.</li><li>Children should stay in well-lit areas and should only visit homes that have their outside lights turned on. Children should not go inside homes. </li><li>Tell your children to bring their treats home before eating them so you can inspect them. Discard any treats without wrappers, or treats whose wrappers are damaged. </li></ul><h2>Halloween tips for children with food restrictions</h2><p>With some planning, even if your child has <a href="/Article?contentid=804&language=English">food allergies</a>, <a href="/Article?contentid=1718&language=English">diabetes</a> or other food restrictions, they should still be able to enjoy Halloween! Here are some tips: </p><ul><li>Try not to make treats the main focus of Halloween. Instead, focus on the fun of making a great costume, decorating the house and carving a pumpkin. You could throw a party, watch scary movies or go to a community activity such as a haunted house. </li><li>Talk to your child before they go out trick-or-treating and agree on some ground rules. For example, your child with food allergies could agree not to eat any candy until you look at it and say it is OK. </li><li>If your child has food allergies, carry their epinephrine auto-injector and some safe treats with you while trick-or-treating. Read the labels on treats before letting your child eat them. You may prefer to buy allergy-safe treats in advance and exchange the treats your child collected for treats you know are safe. </li><li>If your child has diabetes, they can still have some treats. Remember to build the carbohydrates into their meal plan and <a href="/Article?contentid=1724&language=English">check blood glucose</a> as usual. Talk to your diabetes nurse or dietitian for more ideas. You can also use low-fat candy such as lollipops or hard candy (but not chocolate) to treat low blood glucose all year round. </li><li>Exchange treats for small toys, stickers, temporary tattoos and other items your child will enjoy.</li></ul><h2>Jack-o'-lanterns and other home decorating</h2><ul><li>Obviously, you do not want your young child carving a pumpkin on their own. Share the job instead! Have young children draw the face on the pumpkin and scoop out the seeds, while older children or adults do the actual carving.</li><li>Make your home safe for trick-or-treaters: turn on your outside light and remove tripping hazards. </li><li>Be careful with candles. Keep them out of children's reach and away from anything that could catch fire. You can use small flashlights to light jack-o'-lanterns safely.</li></ul><h2>Driving</h2><p>Halloween means many children are out and about on the streets. If you do not need to be out, stay home and run errands another time. If you have to drive, try to avoid residential streets during prime trick-or-treating time (5:00 to 9:30 p.m.).</p><ul><li>Drive slowly in residential areas and check your speed often. </li><li>Watch for pedestrians on sidewalks, crossing streets and coming from between parked cars. Children will be excited and they move fast.</li><li>Take extra care when entering and exiting driveways and alleys.</li></ul><p>Have a safe and spooky Halloween!<br></p>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/halloween_safety.jpgMain
Pain relief: Comfort kitPain relief: Comfort kitPain relief: Comfort kitPEnglishPain/AnaesthesiaBaby (1-12 months);Toddler (13-24 months);Preschooler (2-4 years);School age child (5-8 years);Pre-teen (9-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)BodyNervous systemNon-drug treatmentCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2018-12-18T05:00:00ZKimberly O'Leary, MEd;Amanda English, BA, CCLS;Jane Darch, BA/BEd, CCLS;Jennifer Butterly, MA6.0000000000000074.1000000000000782.000000000000Health (A-Z) - ProcedureHealth A-Z<p>Learn techniques to help your child manage their pain in the hospital and at home.<br></p><p>Children can experience pain from an illness or injury or from hospital procedures or treatments. Each child copes with pain differently. Some children will not talk about their pain, while others will cry loudly. However, being engaged in a fun activity helps ease pain and anxiety for all children.</p><p>A comfort kit contains toys and other items that can help distract your child from their pain. These items will work in the hospital or at home and can be used alongside any pain medication your child may need. As your child gets older, it is a good idea to let them choose a few things that may work best for them to reduce pain.</p><p>Talk to your child's nurse or child life specialist for more ideas.</p> <h2>Key points</h2><ul> <li>When children are involved in an activity they enjoy, their pain and anxiety decreases.</li><li>A comfort kit contains toys and other distracting objects to help your child deal with painful tests or procedures.</li><li>As your child gets older, encourage them to choose what might best distract them from their pain.</li></ul><h2>Wand</h2><p>A wand helps your child pay attention to something other than pain and encourages imagination.</p><h3>Ideas for use</h3><ul><li>Use the wand to make the hurt disappear in the same way you might kiss something to make it better.</li><li>Concentrate on the movement of the sparkles.</li><li>Make the wand magic and pretend to travel to a favourite place.</li></ul><h2>Bubbles</h2><p>Bubbles can help teach deep breathing, which can relieve stress and anxiety.</p><h3>Ideas for use</h3><ul><li>Blow with long slow breaths.</li><li>Have the child blow the hurt away.</li><li>Predict where the bubbles will land and pop.</li><li>Have a contest to see who can blow the bubbles the furthest.</li><li>Ask your child how many bubbles they can blow at once.</li></ul><h2>Story and activity books</h2><p>Books and stories can help your child pay attention to something other than the pain and encourage imagination.</p><h3>Ideas for use</h3><ul><li>Books for younger children involve touching various textures, rhymes and pop-ups.</li><li>Books for older children involve mazes, searches and puzzles.</li><li>Pick books that are simple and familiar. A more challenging activity may be frustrating.</li><li>Ask questions about the book that your child cannot answer with just a yes, no or maybe. For example, ask, "What do you think will happen next?"</li></ul><h2>Music</h2><p>Music can help your child relax. It can be useful when a child is not able to do a more engaging activity.</p><h3>Ideas for use</h3><ul><li>Encourage your child to sing or hum along with the music.</li><li>Use soothing music for younger children.</li><li>Consider playing music in the background while focusing on another activity.</li><li>Older children might benefit from music that encourages them to move. If the music is fast-paced, encourage your child to clap, bang their fists or click their tongue to the beat of the music.</li></ul><h2>Virtual reality headset</h2><p>A virtual reality headset provides a highly engaging 3D visual distraction.</p><h3>Ideas for use</h3><ul><li>Have your child choose a slide.</li><li>Let the child tell you what they see.</li><li>Let child create their own story based on what they see.</li></ul><h2>Stress ball</h2><p>A stress ball can give your child a "job" to do or a place to transfer nervous energy.</p><h3>Ideas for use</h3><ul><li>Encourage your child to transfer pain or stress out of their body and onto the ball.</li><li>Count how long you can squeeze the ball without stopping.</li><li>Count while opening and closing your fist around the ball.</li><li>Transfer the ball from one hand to the other.</li></ul><h2>Video games, computer and television</h2><p>These things are usually familiar and can be relaxing.</p><h3>Ideas for use</h3><p>While your child is in the hospital, balance videogames, computer use and TV with more creative and expressive experiences such as dancing or drawing.<br></p><h2>SickKids comfort kit</h2><p>Each unit has a comfort kit created by the Child Life team. The kits include:</p><ul><li>bubbles</li><li>a squeeze ball</li><li>a light globe</li><li>a ‘search and find’ book</li><li>a breathing sphere (Hoberman)</li><li>a Find-it Tube</li><li>shakers</li><li>I Spy Wonder Tube</li><li>Tube Shaker</li><li>board games.</li></ul><p>The comfort kit items are available for your child to use before and during their needle poke. Once the procedure is finished, we ask that you clean and return all the items you borrowed so another child can use them.</p> <h2>Further information</h2><p>​For more information about the Comfort Promise bundle of options to reduce the pain of needle pokes, please see the following pages:</p><p><a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=989&language=English">Needle pokes: Reducing pain in infants aged up to 18 months</a><br></p><p> <a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=990&language=English">Needle pokes: Reducing pain in children aged 18 months or over</a></p><p> <a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3627&language=English">Needle pokes: Reducing pain with numbing cream</a><br></p><p> <a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3628&language=English">Needle pokes: Reducing pain with sucrose or breastfeeding</a></p><p> <a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3629&language=English">Needle pokes: Reducing pain with comfort positions and distraction</a><br></p>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/pain_relief_comfort_kit.jpg Learn techniques to help distract your child from, and manage, their pain in the hospital and at home.Main
RehabilitationRehabilitationRehabilitationREnglishOtherChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)NANANon-drug treatmentCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2018-01-19T05:00:00Z000Landing PageLearning Hub<p>There are many reasons your child may need rehabilitation therapy. A therapist can help with things such as feeding problems or hand difference. If you child has a health condition they may need physiotherapy to help them recover.</p><p>There are many reasons your child may need rehabilitation therapy. An occupational therapist can help with things such as feeding problems, brachial plexus palsy or hand difference. If you child has a health condition or has had surgery they may need physiotherapy to help them recover and stay active.</p><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h2 class="panel-title">Infant development</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>Flattened head syndrome can develop when a baby spends a lot of time on their back. Uneven neck muscles (torticollis) can lead a baby to tilt their head. Find out how occupational therapy and tummy time can prevent and help your child overcome these conditions.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=24&language=English">Positional plagiocephaly (flattened head syndrome)</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=972&language=English">Positional plagiocephaly: Treatment with a corrective helmet</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=947&language=English">Torticollis</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=296&language=English">Tummy time: Helping your baby</a></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h2 class="panel-title">Feeding your baby</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>Feeding problems can be stressful, especially if there is an underlying medical condition. Learn how an occupational therapist identifies feeding problems and can offer different feeding methods to help your baby eat and drink safely.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=968&language=English">Cleft lip and cleft palate: Spoon feeding and cup drinking</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1684&language=English">Feeding a baby with a heart condition</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2450&language=English">Feeding studies</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=719&language=English">Formula feeding when you cannot provide breastmilk for your baby</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1790&language=English">Nutrition and feeding consultants</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=31&language=English">Sensitive gag reflex: Transition to textured foods</a></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h2 class="panel-title">Congenital conditions</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>A different-shaped hand can present challenges to babies and parents alike. Nerve damage in the upper arm, which can occur during birth, can also affect everyday living skills. Discover how families adapt to these conditions and how they can be treated.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=849&language=English">Brachial plexus palsy</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1033&language=English">Brachial plexus operation</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=942&language=English">Congenital hand anomaly (hand difference)</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1025&language=English">Pollicization</a></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h2 class="panel-title">Rehabilitation and health conditions</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>Long-term health conditions and recovery from surgery can often affect a child’s ability to be physically active. Find out how simple exercises can ease muscle or joint pain, help your child stay active and improve your child’s strength and balance.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1544&language=English">Blood and marrow transplant: Exercise and movement after surgery</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1973&language=English">Cystic fibrosis: Physical activity and exercise</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1048&language=English">Crutches: How to use</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1004&language=English">Exercises for enthesitis and arthritis</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1013&language=English">Heart surgery: Physiotherapy after surgery</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=981&language=English">Incentive spirometry or bubbles: Encouraging deep breathing to clear the lungs</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=946&language=English">Toe walking, idiopathic</a></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h2 class="panel-title">Rehabilitation and brain conditions</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>Brain conditions can affect a child's speech, memory and movement, among many other things. Find out how treatments and therapies can help your child if they experience infantile seizures, have a brain tumour or are recovering from a head injury.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1406&language=English">Brain tumours: Occupational therapy</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1405&language=English">Brain tumours: Physiotherapy</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1407&language=English">Brain tumours: Speech therapy</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=766&language=English">Head injury and concussion</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1984&language=English">Head injury prevention in children</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=859&language=English">Infantile spasms</a></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h2 class="panel-title">Pain management</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>Pain is an everyday occurrence, but acute (sudden) and chronic (long-term) pain often call for different responses. Find out how different therapies can help your child cope with the pain associated with procedures, treatments or ongoing health conditions.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=3005&language=English">Pain management: Exercise and physiotherapy</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=3004&language=English">Pain management: Heat and cold</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=3006&language=English">Pain management: Massage and nerve stimulation</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=3003&language=English">Pain management: Physical treatments</a></li></ol></div>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/rehabilitation_landing_page.jpgrehabilitation,rehabrehabilitation There are many reasons your child might need rehabilitation therapy. Learn how occupational therapy and physiotherapy can help your child.Main

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