AboutKidsHealth is a health education website for children, youth and their caregivers.



After your child’s COVID-19 testAfter your child’s COVID-19 testAfter your child’s COVID-19 testAEnglishInfectious DiseasesChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)NAImmune systemTestsAdult (19+) CaregiversNA2020-12-27T05:00:00Z8.6000000000000059.3000000000000869.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Learn about what you should do after your child has been tested for COVID-19. And what to do if they test positive or negative. Also learn what it means if your child must isolate and what everyone else in the household needs to do. </p><p>Your child has been tested for COVID-19 either because they had contact with someone who tested positive for COVID-19 or because they have symptoms of a COVID-19 infection.</p><p>COVID-19 is a viral infection. Most children will have mild symptoms, if any. The most common symptoms are fever and cough. Less common symptoms include sore throat, runny nose, vomiting, diarrhea, muscle aches, tiredness, skin changes and shortness of breath.</p> <h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>Your child has been tested for COVID-19, it is important they rest and take care of themselves while isolating at home until they receive their results.</li><li>When speaking to your child about COVID-19 you can start by asking them what they know or have heard and then address their concerns.</li><li>Isolating can be difficult for families but there are many strategies that can be used to help navigate this challenging experience.</li></ul> <h2>After your child’s COVID-19 test</h2><p>If your child had contact with someone who tested positive for COVID-19 or they have symptoms of a COVID-19 infection they must isolate while waiting for their test results.</p><p>As with most viral infections, you can manage your child's fever and pain with medications such as acetaminophen and ibuprofen, unless a doctor has advised you that your child should not take these.</p><p>You should encourage your child to stay hydrated by drinking fluids often. <br></p><p></p><div class="asset-video"><p></p> <iframe src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/8d9SPC7T6KM">frameborder=&amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;quot;0&amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;quot;</iframe>  <br> <p> Please visit the <a href="https://youtube.com/playlist?list=PLjJtOP3StIuU99GGMBBV2N_b2tsRwMx0m">COVID-19 Videos for Kids playlist</a> from The Hospital for Sick Children for additional videos.<br></p><p> </p><h2>What if my child tests positive?</h2><p>If your child tests positive, then your local public health unit will contact you. In Ontario you can also check results online at https://covid19results.ehealthontario.ca:4443/agree.</p><ul><li>If your child has symptoms, they will be required to isolate for 14 days, starting from the day their symptoms started. Your local public health unit will give you guidance about when your child can stop isolating.</li><li>If your child has no symptoms, they will be required to isolate for 14 days starting from the day they were tested.</li></ul><h2>What if my child tests negative?</h2><p>If your child tests negative, you will not receive a call but can check the test results online. In Ontario please visit https://covid19results.ehealthontario.ca:4443/agree.</p><ul><li>If your child’s test is negative, they should remain isolating until they are symptom free.</li></ul><h2>What does isolating mean for a child?</h2><p>If your child is isolating they should:</p><ul><li>Stay home</li><li>Not go for walks outside</li><li>Not have visitors to the home</li><li>Avoid contact with others as much as possible (especially with any at risk people)</li><li>Cough and sneeze into their elbow</li><li>Wash their hands frequently</li><li>Wear a mask when around other people</li></ul><p>Other people in the same household as your child should self-monitor for symptoms. Keep in mind that it can take up to two weeks for someone who was exposed to start showing symptoms. Other people in the same household as your child should:</p><ul><li>Avoid contact with the child as much as possible</li><li>Use a separate bathroom if possible</li><li>Wear a mask when in the same room</li><li>Try to clean household surfaces often</li><li>Make sure EVERYONE washes their hands frequently</li></ul><h2>Talking to kids about COVID</h2><p>It is important to provide accurate information to your child that is appropriate to their developmental level. Here are some suggestions.</p><ul><li>Share ‘need to know’ information with your child, using age-appropriate language.</li><li>Answer questions directly and honestly and do not make false promises.</li><li>It is okay if you do not know all the answers; focus on the short-term plan for the whole family.</li><li>Ask your child how they are feeling. Let them know what they are feeling is OK and many other people are having the same feelings. Use words to share your own feelings, tell your child if you are anxious, worried, sad etc.</li><li>Model healthy coping skills and take care of your own physical and mental health.</li></ul><p>Visit www.aboutkidshealth.ca/COVID-19 for more information and resources.</p><h2>Coping with isolation</h2><p>Here are some ideas you can try to help your child cope with feelings of isolation.</p><ul><li>Work with your child to develop a daily schedule: This could include academic and learning activities, leisure and creative activities and physical activities. Try to stick to a consistent routine for waking up, meals and snacks, and bedtime. Routines offer security and predictability to children.</li><li>Use creative ways to stay in contact virtually with family and friends. Set up regular video calls and encourage children to stay connected as much as possible.</li><li>If your child is upset, validate their feelings. Offer concrete reassurance by saying for example: <em>“I am here for you when you are ready, or if you need me”</em> and <em>“We will get through this together.”</em> For younger children, distraction and redirection can also be helpful. For example, you can suggest reading a book together.</li></ul><p>Remember that most children are adaptable and resilient by nature.</p><h2>When to call a doctor</h2><p>If at any time your child becomes more unwell, or their symptoms get worse, contact your health-care provider or if you are in Ontario call Telehealth Ontario at 1-866-797-0000.</p><p>In a medical emergency, call 911 immediately.</p></div>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/iStock-931043378.jpg Learn about what you should do after your child has been tested for COVID-19 and what to do if they test positive or negative.Main
Balancing your family's diet and fitting in treats Balancing your family's diet and fitting in treats Balancing your family's diet and fitting in treats BEnglishNutritionChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)NADigestive systemHealthy living and preventionCaregivers Adult (19+) Educators Hospital healthcare providers Community healthcare providers Remote populations First nationsNA2020-06-05T04:00:00Z7.8000000000000067.0000000000000692.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Learn how to help your family eat a balanced diet and how to incorporate treats in a healthy way.</p><h2>What is a balanced diet?</h2><p>A balanced diet is one that provides all the nutrients that your body needs to function properly. To practice eating a healthy balanced diet, focus on including <a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=1437&language=English">vegetables and fruit</a>, <a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=1438&language=English">whole grains</a>, and lean protein foods, and limit your intake of highly processed foods. Processed foods can contain excess sodium (salt), sugar and saturated fat that may displace other more nutritious foods, and they should be eaten less often. However, there is room in a healthy diet for foods that provide extra enjoyment (i.e., treats) even if they have little to no nutritional value.</p><p>In general, it is often helpful to think of eating a balanced diet over the course of a week instead of trying to aim for perfection every day.</p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>A balanced diet includes all foods, with a focus on nutritious options.</li><li>Moderation is important.</li><li>Limit the amount of processed, high sugar, high sodium (salt) foods in your house.</li><li>Try to avoid banning treats or making children feel guilty about eating treats.</li><li>Limit sugary drinks. Encourage water.</li><li>Make healthy treats fun.</li></ul><h2>Treats</h2><p>Treats are foods that bring us joy. These often include foods that have intense flavors, like sweet or tart or salty. Some of these foods may be nutritious and some may provide very little nutritional value. A healthy perspective on a balanced diet allows for “all foods to fit”, so try not to make children feel guilty for wanting the occasional ‘less nutritious’ treat. Offer healthier treats more often.</p><p>Nutritious and tasty treats to try:</p><ul><li>Fresh or dried fruit (encourage your child to brush their teeth after eating dried fruit to prevent <a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=1994&language=English">tooth decay</a>)</li><li>Banana or apple slices with nut butter</li><li>Yogurt or frozen yogurt (top with fresh, frozen or dried fruit)</li><li>Tortilla chips with salsa or guacamole</li><li>Vegetables with hummus</li><li>Whole grain crackers with cheese</li><li>Trail mix with raisins, nuts and/or seeds*</li><li>Popcorn*</li><li>Whole grain toast with jam and/or nut butter</li><li>Homemade (lower sugar) baked goods, like cookies, muffins or granola bars</li><li>Frozen fruit popsicles</li></ul><p> <em>*These are only suitable for children aged four and older. They can be a serious choking hazard for younger children.</em></p><h3>TRUE or FALSE? To maintain a healthy body weight, my child should avoid treats.</h3><div class="asset-video"> <iframe src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/LEtxzKs74Qc" frameborder="0"></iframe> <br></div><p>For more videos from SickKids experts in collaboration with Youngster, visit <a href="https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCoKMd2cYwegtZX19uHdNLQA">Youngster on YouTube</a>.</p><h2>Drinks</h2><p>Fluids are essential to keeping your body working at its best, but it is important to be mindful of your choice of fluids. Some drinks can contribute a lot of additional calories from added sugar without adding much nutritional value.</p><p>Try to <strong>limit</strong> the following drinks in your family's diet:</p><ul><li>Fruit-flavoured sugared drinks</li><li>Soft drinks (pop or soda)</li><li>Sports and energy drinks</li><li>Sweetened hot or cold drinks</li></ul><p>To keep hydrated, <a href="https://food-guide.canada.ca/en/healthy-eating-recommendations/make-water-your-drink-of-choice/">water should be your beverage of choice</a>, and you should drink it regularly. It is the best way to quench thirst. Young children and older adults are especially at risk of dehydration if they do not drink enough, so remind them to drink regularly, especially in hot weather.</p><h2>Helpful ideas for snacking and drinking</h2><ul><li>Always keep healthy snacks stocked where children can see them in your kitchen.</li><li>Drink water frequently throughout the day with, and between, your meals. Keep water cold by storing it in the fridge. Use a portable water container for school and at work.</li><li>Add lemon, lime, cucumber or orange wedges to tap water or sparkling water for additional variety and flavour. This is enjoyed by children and adults!</li><li>Be a good role model for healthy eating. If you make healthy choices, your child will be encouraged to make healthy choices too.</li><li>Snack only when hungry, and keep portions in mind. Use single serving bowls instead of large ones for treats.</li><li>Replace processed foods with healthier homemade options made from the ingredients that you choose. Make a double or triple batch and freeze them.</li><li>Try not to offer sugary treats to kids as a reward for good behaviour. Instead use non-food items, such as hugs, stickers or even movie nights.</li><li>Make healthy treats fun!</li></ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/developing_positive_eating_habits.jpgBalancing your diet and treats Learn how to help your family eat a balanced diet of nutritious foods and how to incorporate treats in a healthy way.Main
COVID-19COVID-19COVID-19CEnglishInfectious DiseasesChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)NAImmune systemConditions and diseasesAdult (19+) CaregiversNA2020-03-26T04:00:00Z000Landing PageLearning Hub<p>Learn about COVID-19 and how to talk to and support your family. Also find resources such as videos and audio meditations to help you cope.</p><p>This hub includes resources on COVID-19 and how to help you cope. There are resources on how to support your child's mental health and general wellbeing through physical activity, sleep, nutrition and learning. Also included are videos and audio meditations to help you cope with stressful thoughts and experiences that occur throughout your day.<br></p> <br> <div class="asset-video"> <iframe src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/jwwwF9KQ7CQ"></iframe> <br></div> <br><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h2 class="panel-title">COVID-19 information</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>Find information about COVID-19 from AboutKidsHealth.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3872&language=English">Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) </a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3907&language=English">Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C)</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://www.canada.ca/en/public-health/services/diseases/coronavirus-disease-covid-19.html">Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) (Public Health Agency of Canada)</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3863&language=English">COVID-19: Information for parents of immunocompromised children and children with chronic medical conditions</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3870&language=English&hub=COVID-19">COVID-19: Information for parents of children with congenital heart disease</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://covid19healthliteracyproject.com/#languages">COVID-19 fact sheets in 34 different languages (Harvard Health Publishing)</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://www.publichealthontario.ca/en/diseases-and-conditions/infectious-diseases/respiratory-diseases/novel-coronavirus/public-resources">COVID-19 public resources (Public Health Ontario)</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://www.pcmch.on.ca/covid-19-resources-for-children-youth-and-families/">COVID-19 resources for children, youth, and families (Provincial Council for Maternal and Child Health)</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://www.caringforkids.cps.ca/handouts/the-2019-novel-coronavirus-covid-19">The 2019 Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) (Caring for Kids)</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://www.ontario.ca/page/2019-novel-coronavirus">The 2019 Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) (Ontario Ministry of Health)</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://youtu.be/9Ay4u7OYOhA">6 steps to prevent COVID-19 (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)</a></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h2 class="panel-title">COVID-19 testing</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>Find information that will help you and your child prepare or either a saliva test or a nasopharyngeal swab.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/COVID-19%20Testing%20How%20to%20prepare%20and%20comfort%20your%20child.pdf">COVID-19 Testing: How to prepare and comfort your child</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://youtu.be/pEQAxM4pKtU">Saliva testing (video)</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://youtu.be/nO1L-oYo9TA">Nasopharyngeal (NP) swab (video)</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3908&language=English">After your child’s COVID-19 test</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://youtu.be/8d9SPC7T6KM">After your child's COVID-19 test - Virtual discharge (video)</a></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h2 class="panel-title">Talking to your child about COVID-19</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>Helpful resources that provide information about how to explain and talk to your child about COVID-19. </p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3866&language=English">How to talk to your child about COVID-19</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="http://hollandbloorview.ca/services/family-workshops-resources/family-resource-centre/explaining-covid-19-kids">Explaining COVID-19 and Coronavirus to children (Holland Bloorview)</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://www.cps.ca/en/blog-blogue/how-can-we-talk-to-kids-about-covid-19">How can we talk to kids about COVID-19? Be “realistically reassuring” (Canadian Pediatric Society)</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://www.pbs.org/parents/thrive/how-to-talk-to-your-kids-about-coronavirus#.XmuZ3QV_gax.twitter">How to Talk to Your Kids About Coronavirus (PBS)</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3869&language=English">Supporting your child with a neurodevelopmental disorder through the COVID-19 crisis</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://www.cmho.org/blog/blog-news/6519918-talking-to-your-anxious-child-about-covid-19">Talking to your anxious child about COVID-19 (Children's Mental Health Ontario)</a></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h2 class="panel-title">Coping</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>Information on how to help your child cope with stress during the COVID-19 crisis and how to help them deal with separation from family and friend. </p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3868&language=English">Coping with separation from family and friends during COVID-19</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3882&language=English">COVID-19: Frequently asked questions</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3883&language=English">COVID-19: Well-being and mental health resources</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3888&language=English">Stressed adults and anxious young children: Supporting infants, toddlers and preschoolers through COVID-19</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3867&language=English">Is my child or adolescent feeling stressed about COVID-19?</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://www.caringforkids.cps.ca/handouts/disaster">Helping children and teens cope with stressful public events (Caring for Kids)</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://www.cps.ca/en/blog-blogue/how-to-help-youth-tackle-the-blues-during-covid-19">How to help youth tackle the blues during COVID-19 and #physicaldistancing (Canadian Pediatric Society)</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://afirm.fpg.unc.edu/supporting-individuals-autism-through-uncertain-times">Supporting individuals with autism through uncertain times (Autism Focused Intervention Resources & Modules)</a></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h2 class="panel-title">Mental health</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>Taking care of your mental health during difficult and stressful times is important. Learn more about anxiety and depression.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=18&language=English">Anxiety: Overview</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://teens.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3810&language=English">Anxiety and anxiety disorders</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/Anxiety%20Individual%20handout_Eng%2004_03_2020_v2.pdf">CARD: Coping with your own fears and anxiety</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/Anxiety%20caregiver%20handout_Eng%2004_03_2020.pdf">CARD: Helping your child cope with anxiety</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=19&language=English">Depression: Overview</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://www.camh.ca/en/health-info/mental-health-and-covid-19">Mental health and the COVID-19 pandemic (CAMH)</a></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h2 class="panel-title">Parenting</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>Find some helpful information on parenting during the COVID-19 crisis. </p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://youtu.be/jwwwF9KQ7CQ">Parenting during COVID-19 and beyond (podcast)</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://www.caringforkids.cps.ca/handouts/health_information_on_the_internet">A parent’s guide to health information on the Internet (Caring for Kids)</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://www.cps.ca/en/blog-blogue/covid-youth-and-substance-use-critical-messages-for-youth-and-families">COVID, youth, and substance use: Critical messages for youth and families (Canadian Pediatric Society)</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://www.cps.ca/en/blog-blogue/parenting-during-covid-19-a-new-frontier">Parenting during COVID-19: A new frontier (Canadian Pediatric Society)</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://www.sickkids.ca/en/news/archive/2021/updated-covid19-school-operation-guidance-document-released/">SickKids - Updated guidance for school operation during the pandemic</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://hollandbloorview.ca/sites/default/files/2020-07/HB-BackToSchool-Recommendations.pdf">Return to school recommendations for children with special needs (Holland Bloorview)</a></li><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h3>Learning</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=651&language=English&hub=COVID-19">Reading milestones</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=1903&language=English&hub=COVID-19">Reading: How to help early and struggling readers</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3871&language=English&hub=COVID-19">Writing milestones</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=1881&language=English&hub=COVID-19">Visual-motor skills: How to foster in children</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=722&language=English&hub=COVID-19">Mathematics milestones</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=721&language=English&hub=COVID-19">Mathematics: How to help your pre-school and school-aged child</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=649&language=English&hub=COVID-19">Spatial reasoning skills: How to foster in children</a></li></ol></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h2 class="panel-title">Well-being</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>Find out how physical activity, a healthy sleep routine, screen time limits and balanced nutrition can boost your child's mental health and support them to achieve better academic success and help them through difficult times. </p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h3>Handwashing</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=1981&language=English">Hand hygiene</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://www.caringforkids.cps.ca/handouts/handwashing">Handwashing for parents and children (Caring for Kids)</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://www.youtube.com/watch?time_continue=9&v=7PKwE1jIuws&feature=emb_title">Protect don’t infect (CHEO)</a></li></ol></li><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h3>Sleep</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=645&language=English">Sleep: Benefits and recommended amounts</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://teens.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3632&language=English">Sleep and your mental health: Overview</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://teens.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3633&language=English">Sleep and mental health: Sorting out your sleep routine</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=646&language=English">How to help your child get a good night's sleep</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=647&language=English">How to help your teen get a good night's sleep</a></li></ol></li><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h3>Physical activity</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://teens.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3783&language=English">Physical activity and mental health: Overview</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://teens.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3784&language=English">Physical activity and mental health: Types of physical activity</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=641&language=English">Physical activity: Benefits of exercise for health and wellbeing</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=642&language=English">Physical activity: Guidelines for children and teens</a></li></ol></li><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h3>Nutrition</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://teens.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3773&language=English">Nutrition and mental health: The basics of a healthy diet</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=639&language=English">How a balanced diet and healthy eating habits can help your child's mental health</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://teens.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3774&language=English">Nutrition and mental health: Developing positive eating habits</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=1464&language=English&hub=COVID-19">Meal ideas for school-aged children, tweens and teens</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=638&language=English">Healthy eating for teens</a></li></ol></li><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h3>Screen time and social media</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=643&language=English">Screen time: Overview</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://teens.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3775&language=English">Screen time for teens: Overview</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=644&language=English">How to help your child set healthy screen time limits</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://teens.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3776&language=English">Setting limits and staying safe with screen time</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3894&language=English">Supporting healthy and responsible screen use during COVID-19</a></li></ol></li><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h3>Stress and resilience</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://teens.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3777&language=English">Stress and health</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://teens.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3778&language=English">How to become more resilient</a></li></ol></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h2 class="panel-title">Tools, videos and resources for you and your child</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>Find helpful resources including handouts, videos and other resources about COVID-19.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/Anxiety%20Individual%20handout_Eng%2004_03_2020_v2.pdf">CARD: Coping with your own fears and anxiety</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/Anxiety%20caregiver%20handout_Eng%2004_03_2020.pdf">CARD: Helping your child cope with anxiety</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fBkA2ZTUnyI&feature=youtu.be">Dr. Cheddar chats with Dr. Ronni from SickKids (video)</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://youtu.be/nO1L-oYo9TA">Nasopharyngeal (NP) swab (video)</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=r51gYrDzpHQ">Physical distancing (video)</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://www.youtube.com/watch?time_continue=9&v=7PKwE1jIuws&feature=emb_title">Protect don’t infect (CHEO)</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://www.brainson.org/shows/2020/03/10/understanding-coronavirus-and-how-germs-spread-for-kids?fbclid=IwAR21Y_n6fsy33QD2s07In2Q892xQoI5OEFMMZ5vcMyVoLdkH8tv4yZjaZsc">Understanding coronavirus and how germs spread (Brains On!)</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://kidshelpphone.ca/get-info/were-here-for-you-during-covid-19-novel-coronavirus/">We’re here for you during COVID-19 (novel coronavirus) (Kids Help Phone)</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sNinywG7BtY">What is personal protective equipment (PPE) (video)</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://youtu.be/gqeyRuvF9WU">Your virtual video visit overview</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3889&language=English">Virtual care at SickKids</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3910&language=English">Virtual care: How to accurately measure your child’s height and weight at home</a></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h2 class="panel-title">Videos to support sleep and mindfulness</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>Find videos that will help you prepare for sleep and for when you need a moment of peace, to understand your situation more clearly and coping with stressful thoughts and experiences.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h3>Sleep video</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://youtu.be/2fbaoqkY0Qk">Sleep: A bed time story</a></li></ol></li><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h3>Mindfulness videos</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://youtu.be/nQdM_Cku9pA">A moment of peace</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://youtu.be/cFCiUlFKuO4">Two wings to fly</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://youtu.be/jaNAwy3XsfI">Being with all of your experiences</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://youtu.be/0QXmmP4psbA">You are not your thoughts</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://youtu.be/Ty93GRPplJo">Dealing with difficult moments</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://youtu.be/QTsUEOUaWpY">Everyday mindfulness</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://youtu.be/GgBVIZAEQqU">STOP for mindfulness</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KYcLfBf-T9c">Stress and thinking: The mind/body connection</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://youtu.be/EWzDHN7Jdg8">Dealing with flares: Controlling the controllables</a></li></ol></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h2 class="panel-title">Audio meditations for mindfulness and coping</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>Listen to these meditations in a quiet, comfortable spot to practise mindfulness, learn about ways to cope with physical and emotional pain or discomfort and to help you with stress throughout your day.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h3>Mindfulness</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://youtu.be/3cevA6EjCbE">5 senses</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://youtu.be/gqMu6kFfQcE">Dropping the anchor</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://youtu.be/O5F3-Xw2XPE">The mountain</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://youtu.be/84Tr734KXO8">Dilute the yuck</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://youtu.be/YnL-hjXo4EQ">Self-compassion</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://youtu.be/fZdw6wm3A3E">Body scan</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://youtu.be/jc64ap852FU">Circle of gratitude</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://youtu.be/LMu-r-KZ_l8">Tree meditation</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://youtu.be/xcO8IIeV12M">Mindfulness of thought</a></li></ol></li><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h3>Coping with physical and emotional pain</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://youtu.be/84Tr734KXO8">Dilute the yuck</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://youtu.be/3IK7yWuEs3k">Visualize your pain</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://youtu.be/UbTyPgHf8z4">Soften, soothe, allow</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://youtu.be/NN7fz8lMTIM">Ice cube</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://youtu.be/e0JMtabUVvQ">Comfort your pain</a></li></ol></li><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h3>Finding calm/coping with stress</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://youtu.be/RQJNdVtHxlY">Time for rest</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://youtu.be/RpHvQkHYrZ0">Allowing rest</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://youtu.be/gqMu6kFfQcE">Dropping the anchor</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://youtu.be/EnrNtaMskik">Breathing meditation</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://youtu.be/CMcx9tJ70rA">Joy</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://youtu.be/EL_fvAepwv8">Equal breathing</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://youtu.be/QSf0JS0O16Q">Key word guided meditation</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://youtu.be/Tsi2np8xtVY">Bell meditation</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://youtu.be/263e093H5eM">Bell sounds</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://youtu.be/Jqu3SOEKtvE">Progressive muscle relaxation with tension</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://youtu.be/4ilNITE3-fE">Relaxation with imagery</a></li></ol></li></ol></div> <div class="asset-video"> <br> <iframe src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/videoseries?list=PLjJtOP3StIuU99GGMBBV2N_b2tsRwMx0m"></iframe> <p>Above is our COVID-focused playlist. See "Tools, videos and resources for you and your child" in the menu above for more videos or visit the <a href="https://www.youtube.com/user/Aboutkidshealth">AboutKidHealth YouTube channel</a>.</p></div>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/iStock-1157093074.jpgCOVID-19,COVID19COVID-19Main
Down syndrome: Related medical conditionsDown syndrome: Related medical conditionsDown syndrome: Related medical conditionsDEnglishGeneticsChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)NANAConditions and diseasesAdult (19+) CaregiversNA2017-10-16T04:00:00Z11.600000000000041.50000000000001379.00000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Children with Down syndrome may be at a higher risk for some medical conditions. Learn what these conditions are and how to manage them.</p><p>​<a href="/Article?contentid=9&language=English">Down syndrome</a> is a common congenital condition affecting about one in every 700 babies in Canada. Children with Down syndrome have extra genetic material from chromosome 21, most often a third copy of chromosome 21. While Down syndrome is associated with medical and developmental challenges, each child is affected differently. The medical and developmental issues may be more serious in some children than in others. </p><p>There are several medical conditions that can affect children with Down syndrome. </p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>Down syndrome is a common genetic condition present at birth and is due to the presence of extra genetic material from chromosome 21.<br></li><li>Down syndrome is associated with developmental and medical challenges.</li><li>Each child is unique and is affected differently.</li><li>Hearing and vision problems are the most common medical conditions associated with Down syndrome.</li></ul><h2>Heart</h2><p>About 40–50% of children with Down syndrome have a congenital heart defect. Congenital means they were born with the condition or defect. Many of these defects can be corrected through surgery.</p><p>Children with Down syndrome are routinely screened for congenital heart defects. Sometimes a congenital heart defect can be detected before a baby is born. <a href="/article?contentid=1608&language=English">Atrioventricular septal defects (AVSDs)</a> are the most common type of heart defect in children with Down syndrome. AVSD is caused by a failure of the heart’s four chambers to form properly. Other types of congenial heart conditions such as <a href="/article?contentid=1607&language=English">atrial septal defects</a>, <a href="/article?contentid=1626&language=English">ventricular septal defects</a>, <a href="/article?contentid=1617&language=English">patent ductus arteriosus</a> and <a href="/article?contentid=1621&language=English">tetralogy of Fallot</a> are also common.</p><p>These conditions may be detected and diagnosed by an experienced health-care provider listening for a heart murmur or if the baby has low oxygen levels. However, it is possible to have a major heart problem without hearing a murmur or having low oxygen levels. It is very important for every baby with Down syndrome to have an <a href="/article?contentid=1642&language=English">echocardiogram</a> (heart ultrasound) even if the prenatal ultrasounds were normal. </p><p>Certain kinds of congenital heart defects need to be repaired by surgery early in a baby’s life, while other types of congenital heart disease can be observed closely by a cardiologist. A paediatric cardiologist is a specialist who can diagnose and treat children with congenital heart disease. Speak to your child’s cardiologist for more details about the care plan for your child’s heart condition. </p><h2>Gastrointestinal tract</h2><p>A smaller number of children are born with <a href="/article?contentid=1467&language=English">gastrointestinal tract</a> abnormalities. The gastrointestinal tract includes the esophagus, stomach and intestines. Surgery can correct many of these gastrointestinal congenital abnormalities.</p><p>Some of the common gastrointestinal and digestive problems that affect children with Down syndrome are listed below.</p><h3>Gastrointestinal narrowing</h3><p>If a newborn with Down syndrome has severe vomiting from birth, they may be among the approximately 12% of babies with Down syndrome who have a gastrointestinal narrowing (atresia). Most commonly, the first part of the small intestine—the duodenum—is blocked. The end result is that digested food cannot pass through the duodenum. The treatment for this is surgical removal of the blockage. </p><h3>Hirschsprung disease</h3><p> <a href="/article?contentid=830&language=English">Hirschsprung disease</a> affects fewer than 1% of infants with Down syndrome. Hirschsprung disease occurs when the last part of the large intestine does not function properly due to a lack of nerve cells. As a result, affected individuals have severe constipation. When this is severe, it may cause a bowel obstruction. The treatment involves surgically removing the portion of colon that does not function properly.<br></p><h3>Constipation</h3><p>People with Down syndrome can be <a href="/article?contentid=6&language=English">constipated</a> for all of the same reasons that people without Down syndrome become constipated, such as poor diet and lack of exercise. However, people with Down syndrome are also prone to conditions that can result in constipation, including <a href="/article?contentid=2309&language=English">hypothyroidism</a>, Hirschsprung disease, and <a href="/article?contentid=816&language=English">celiac disease</a>. If constipation is not related to these conditions, caregivers and physicians should work together to explore safe laxative medications.</p><h2>Hearing loss</h2><p>In children, hearing loss can affect educational, language-related, and emotional development. Monitoring and treatment of the ears and ear diseases can lessen the incidence of hearing loss. The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) recommends audiologic testing at birth, then again between six and 12 months of age, followed by yearly hearing tests. Hearing aids should be considered even in cases of mild hearing loss to prevent delays in educational, emotional and language-related development.</p><h2>Visual impairment </h2><p>The greatest concern for children with Down syndrome is congenital <a href="/article?contentid=837&language=English">cataracts</a> (lack of clearness to the lens of the eye). If cataracts are present and left untreated, this condition can lead to blindness. Cataracts may not be visible to the naked eye. The proper way to test for cataracts is to have an experienced health care provider examine the eyes using an ophthalmoscope. Congenital cataracts usually need to be surgically repaired immediately. If caught early, vision can be restored and blindness can be avoided. Ophthalmologists are the eye doctors and surgeons who treat cataracts and similar eye conditions. </p><p>Refractive error (the need for glasses) is much more common in children with Down syndrome than in the general population. <a href="/article?contentid=836&language=English">Strabismus</a> (eye misalignment), also known as lazy eye, is also more common. It is important to diagnose strabismus as a child, as this condition can result in <a href="/article?contentid=835&language=English">amblyopia</a>, which is a loss of vision or stereopsis which is a loss of depth perception.</p><p>In addition to the need for eyeglasses, many children with Down syndrome have tear duct abnormalities, which caregivers will notice as frequent discharge and tearing from the eyes, worsened by colds. This should be monitored by an eye doctor if is it not improving, as sometimes this condition may need to be surgically corrected.</p><h2>Thyroid dysfunction </h2><p> <a href="/article?contentid=2309&language=English">Hypothyroidism​</a> is the most common endocrine problem in children with Down syndrome. It is estimated that approximately 10% of children with Down syndrome have congenital or acquired thyroid disease. Thyroid hormone is important for growth and cognitive (brain) development throughout childhood. Abnormal thyroid levels can be detected through routine blood tests. </p><h2>Increased likelihood of certain infections </h2><p>Individuals with Down syndrome may have a high frequency of infections, usually of the upper respiratory tract. The infections are characterized by increased severity and prolonged course of disease, which are partially related to differences in their immune system. Non-immunological factors, including abnormal anatomical structures (e.g. small ear canal, narrow trachea) and gastro-esophageal reflux, may also play a role in the increased frequency of respiratory tract infections. </p><h2>Cervical spine instability or dislocation </h2><p>Up to 25% of children with Down syndrome may have atlantoaxial instability (AAI). This is a developmental abnormality of their spinal column that causes increased flexibility between the first and second bones of the cervical spine (neck). Most of the time this does not cause any symptoms or problems. It is important to be aware of the potential for problems, however, because dislocation of the vertebrae that protect the spinal cord may lead to spinal cord injury. Routine neck X-rays are no longer recommended by the AAP. Symptoms that are associated with AAI include a change in the way the individual walks, difficulty using their arms or hands, changes in bowel or bladder function, weakness, or if there is new onset neck pain or head tilt. You should contact your doctor immediately if any of these concerns are present. </p><h2>Seizures</h2><p> <a href="/article?contentid=2060&language=English">Seizures​</a> are caused by abnormal brain activity that lead to abnormal body movements. Children with DS are five times more likely than the general population to have seizures. This may occur in infancy or later in life. It is important to detect and treat seizures early to ensure the best brain and cognitive development. </p><h2>Blood disorders</h2><p>Individuals with Down syndrome occasionally have abnormalities in their blood cells. This is why it is recommended that they have a complete blood count done at birth, followed by annual testing. In many instances, the abnormalities resolve spontaneously over a period of time, and this is especially common among newborn babies with Down syndrome. Rarely, if the condition persists, this may lead to a type of cancer called leukemia. Leukemia is a treatable blood cancer that needs to be cared for by a blood specialist called an oncologist.<br></p><p>If you have questions or concerns about any of these conditions, speak with your child’s doctor.</p>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/down_syndrome_medical_conditions_affecting_children.jpgMain
Virtual care: How to accurately measure your child’s height and weight at homeVirtual care: How to accurately measure your child’s height and weight at homeVirtual care: How to accurately measure your child’s height and weight at homeVEnglishNAChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)NANAProceduresAdult (19+) CaregiversNAhttps://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/Height_measurement_Over_2yrsold.jpg2021-01-14T05:00:00Z6.5000000000000073.10000000000001106.00000000000Health (A-Z) - ProcedureHealth A-Z<p>Be prepared for a virtual care visit by learning how to accurately measure your child’s height and weight at home. These measurements are an important part of your child’s assessment.</p><p>Measurements of height and weight are key components in evaluating your child's health status. You should be prepared to provide your child’s most current height and weight measurements to their health-care providers at every visit, as these measurements are often used to calculate medication dosages or nutrition needs.</p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>You will need a flat surface or vertical wall, straight ruler, measuring tape and pencil to measure your child’s height.</li><li>You will need a digital weighing scale to measure your child’s weight.</li><li>If your child is an infant or under two years of age, their height should be measured while lying down.</li><li>If your child is two years of age or older and can stand independently, their height should be measured while standing up.</li><li>Repeat all measurements at least twice to ensure they are accurate.</li></ul><h2>Measuring height</h2><h3>Measuring height if your child is under two years of age</h3><p>If your child is an infant or under two years of age, their height should be measured while they are lying down. This is a measurement of distance from the top of the head to the soles (heels) of the feet when your child is lying down. It is recommended that this measurement be taken with the help of two caregivers.</p> <figure class="asset-c-80"> <span class="asset-image-title">Reading your child’s height measurement while they are lying down</span><img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/Height_measurement_Under_2yrsold.jpg" alt="Two caregivers measuring their baby's height, while the child is lying down. The woman is holding the child's head, while the man is holding the child's feet." /><figcaption class="asset-image-caption">The red arrow shows where your child's head should be, straight and flush to the wall. The green arrow shows the direction you should flex your child’s feet so that their legs are fully stretched out.</figcaption></figure> <p>To measure your child’s height accurately at home while they are lying down, you will need to:</p><ol><li>Place your child on their back on a flat, firm surface. Your child may remain diapered, but you should remove any bulky clothing. Ensure that the top of your child's head is directly against a flat wall or headboard.</li><li>Have two caregivers obtain the measurement. Two people are required to accurately measure your child’s height; one to hold your child's head straight and flush to the wall, and one to fully stretch your child’s legs.</li><li>Place the measuring tape on the flat surface directly beside your child. It may be helpful to tape the measuring tape to the lying surface.</li><li>Measure the distance from the top of your child’s head to the soles (heels) of their feet.</li><li>Read and record the height to the nearest 0.1 cm.</li></ol><p> <em>Note: There may be a difference between measurements of height while lying down and height while standing up of up to 2.5 cm.</em></p><h3>Measuring height if your child is two years of age or older</h3><p>If your child is two years of age or older and can stand and maintain the correct erect posture against a wall, their height should be determined by measuring their height while they are standing up.</p> <figure class="asset-c-80"> <span class="asset-image-title">Reading your child’s height measurement while they are standing up</span><img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/Height_measurement_Over_2yrsold.jpg" alt="A caregiver measuring their child's height, while the child is standing up." /><figcaption class="asset-image-caption">The red arrows show the points on your child’s body that should be flush against the wall. Depending on your child’s body shape, all points may not touch the wall.</figcaption></figure> <p>To measure your child’s height accurately at home while they are standing up, you will need to:</p><ol><li>Stand your child on a flat, uncarpeted floor with their feet flat, together, and against a vertical wall. The back of their head, shoulder blades, buttocks, and heels should be against the wall. Depending on the overall body shape of your child, all points may not touch the wall.</li><li>Make sure your child’s legs are straight, arms are at their sides, and their shoulders are level. Ensure your child is standing as still as possible.</li><li>Have your child look straight ahead.</li><li>Place a ruler on top of your child's head (refer to image above).</li><li>Have your eyes at the same level as the ruler.</li><li>Mark where the bottom of the ruler meets the wall. Use a measuring tape to measure from the base of the floor to the marked measurement on the wall.</li><li>Read and record the height to the nearest 0.1 cm.</li></ol><p> <strong>Helpful tips</strong></p><ul><li>Remove shoes, socks, bulky clothing and hair accessories.</li><li>Make sure your child’s hair is down (e.g., no ponytails, buns, etc.).</li><li>Use a sticky note to mark on, instead of the wall or hard surface.</li><li>Repeat all measurements at least twice to ensure they are accurate.</li><li>Be sure to verify if you are measuring in centimetres vs. inches.</li></ul><h2>Measuring weight</h2><p>To measure weight accurately at home, you will need to:</p><ol><li>Use a digital scale. Avoid using bathroom scales that are spring-loaded. Place the scale on firm flooring rather than carpet.</li><li>Have your child remove their shoes and heavy clothing.</li><li>Have your child stand/lie as still as possible in the centre of the scale.</li><li>Record your child’s weight to the nearest decimal fraction (e.g., 0.1 kg, 0.1 oz, 0.1 lbs).</li></ol><p> <strong>Helpful tips</strong></p><ul><li>If your child is too young or unable to stand independently on a scale, you can first independently weigh yourself, then re-weigh yourself while holding your child. You can subtract your independent weight from the combined weight to identify the difference.</li><ul><li>For example: <em>weight of both caregiver and child</em> – <em>weight of caregiver</em> = <em>weight of child alone</em></li></ul><li>Repeat all measurements at least twice to ensure they are accurate.</li><li>Be sure to verify if you are measuring in pounds vs. kilograms.</li></ul><h2>Preparing to measure height and weight</h2><p>In order to accurately measure your child’s height and weight, you will need the following supplies:</p><ul><li>A flat, hard surface that is directly against an upright wall or headboard to measure your child’s height while they are lying down; <strong>or</strong></li><li>A flat, uncarpeted floor and an upright wall (preferably without baseboards) to measure your child’s height while they are standing up.</li><li>A straight ruler.</li><li>A measuring tape.</li><ul><li>To ensure an accurate measurement, be sure to check where the zero is located on the tape. Some tapes start at zero and others have some lead-in space.</li></ul><li>A pencil.</li><li>A sticky note. This is optional, if you do not want to mark the wall or hard surface.</li><li>A digital weighing scale.</li></ul><h2>References</h2><p>Centres for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). <em>Measuring Children's Height and Weight Accurately At Home</em>. Retrieved from: <a href="https://www.cdc.gov/healthyweight/assessing/bmi/childrens_bmi/measuring_children.html/">https://www.cdc.gov/healthyweight/assessing/bmi/childrens_bmi/measuring_children.html/</a>.</p>Measuring height and weight at home Be prepared for a virtual care visit by learning how to accurately measure your child’s height and weight using supplies you have at home.Main



Brain disorders and mental health: OverviewBrain disorders and mental health: OverviewBrain disorders and mental health: OverviewBEnglishPsychiatryChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)BrainBrainConditions and diseasesCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2017-07-12T04:00:00Z9.2000000000000049.9000000000000867.000000000000Health (A-Z) - ConditionsHealth A-Z<p>Find out how brain disorders can affect a child's mental health and overall functioning.</p><h2>What are brain disorders?</h2><p>Brain disorders include underlying genetic and medical conditions, brain injuries and illnesses that affect the brain and how it develops both before birth and throughout childhood development. The brain can also be affected by certain medical treatments and exposure to certain toxins.</p><p>Common brain disorders include:</p><ul><li>a brain injury from a trauma to the head, stroke, lack of oxygen or an infection</li><li>neurological conditions such as <a href="/Article?contentid=848&language=English">spina bifida</a>, <a href="/Article?contentid=858&language=English">hydrocephalus</a>, <a href="/Article?contentid=847&language=English">cerebral palsy</a>, <a href="/Article?contentid=845&language=English">epilepsy</a>, <a href="/Article?contentid=864&language=English">neurofibromatosis</a>, tuberous sclerosis or a <a href="/Article?contentid=1306&language=English">brain tumour</a></li><li>other medical conditions such as <a href="/prematurebabies">prematurity</a>, <a href="/Article?contentid=2483&language=English">diabetes</a>, chronic (long-term) heart or breathing problems, certain genetic disorders</li><li>negative effects of treatments for <a href="/leukemia">leukemia</a>, a brain tumour or other childhood cancers</li><li>exposure to alcohol, smoking or certain drugs before birth</li><li>exposure to <a href="/Article?contentid=1917&language=English">lead</a>, street drugs or poisonous gases, such as <a href="/Article?contentid=1117&language=English">carbon monoxide</a></li></ul> <br><h2>How are mental health conditions related to brain disorders?</h2> <p>The brain manages the most complex of human functions such as thinking, problem solving, emotions, consciousness and social behaviour.</p> <p>A brain disorder can alter a child's typical development. This can contribute to certain mental health issues related to their learning or behaviour depending on their age and the type and severity of the brain disorder.</p> <p>Generally, mental health issues can arise from one, or both, of the following:</p> <ul> <li>difficulties with thinking, communication, emotional control and social skills</li> <li>difficulties adjusting to the stress associated with living with a brain disorder.</li> </ul> <h3>Difficulties with cognitive abilities — how the brain thinks</h3> <p>Mental health issues can be directly related to the way the brain is affected by a condition or injury. The changes in brain structure and connections as a result of a brain disorder can cause a child to have difficulties thinking, controlling behaviour, and dealing with emotions and stress. This is illustrated by the following examples.</p> <ul> <li><a href="/Article?contentid=1922&language=English">Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)</a> is one of the most common diagnoses following an illness or injury that affects the brain.</li> <li>Learning and intellectual disabilities are also frequent in children who have a brain disorder.</li> <li>Symptoms of <a href="/Article?contentid=284&language=English">depression</a> and <a href="/Article?contentid=271&language=English">anxiety</a> are also common outcomes. Sometimes these relate to the pattern of the brain injury, which may lead a child or teen to get stuck on persistent negative thoughts.</li> <li>Children with different types of brain injury may also struggle socially because of their difficulties communicating and knowing how to act with other kids.</li> </ul> <h3>Difficulties adjusting to and coping with a brain disorder</h3> <p>Adjusting to or coping with the effects of a childhood brain injury or a related condition can be stressful and can increase mental health issues for children and their families. Common experiences may include: </p> <ul> <li>child frustration and sadness about their perceived differences at school or with peers (which may become more apparent in their teen years) </li> <li>child and parent stress about frequent doctor and hospital visits</li> <li>parental worry about a child’s current and future education and independence</li> <li>changes in parent-child relationships related to increased parental monitoring, attention or worry. This can become especially challenging when a teen wants more independence but needs parental monitoring and reminders for their health.</li> </ul><h2>Key points</h2> <ul> <li>Brain disorder is an all-inclusive term for disruption to the brain because of an underlying medical condition, illness or injury.</li> <li>A child with a brain disorder should have a thorough assessment to check for any related mental health conditions.</li> <li>ADHD, learning disability, social challenges, depression and anxiety are commonly linked with brain disorders.</li> <li>If you suspect that a mental health issue is connected to your child’s brain disorder, talk to your family doctor or your child’s neurologist, ask for input from your child’s teachers and consider a neuropsychological assessment.</li> </ul><h2>What to do if you think your child has a mental health issue related to their brain disorder</h2> <p>There are a number of things you can do if you are concerned about a mental health issue in your child. </p> <ul> <li>You can raise your concerns with your child’s neurologist or neurology team.</li> <li>You can talk to your family doctor.</li> <li>You can ask your child’s doctor or neurology team for a <a href="/Article?contentid=2002&language=English">neuropsychological assessment</a>.</li> <li>You can share your concerns with your child’s teachers or school principal. </li> </ul><h2>Further information</h2> <p>For more information on brain disorders and related mental health challenges, please see the following pages:</p> <p><a href="/Article?contentid=2002&language=English">Brain disorders and mental health: Assessing your child for neuropsychological difficulties</a></p> <p><a href="/Article?contentid=2003&language=English">Brain disorders and mental health: How to help your child cope</a></p> <p><a href="/Article?contentid=2004&language=English">Brain disorders and mental health: Common treatments</a></p> <h2>Resources</h2> <p>The following books offer useful information about brain disorders and related mental health issues.</p> <p>Dawson, P. & Guare, R. (2009). <em>Smart but Scattered. </em>New York, NY: The Guildford Press.</p> <p>Dawson, P. & Guare, R. (2010). <em>Executive Skills in Children and Adolescents</em>. New York, NY: The Guildford Press.</p> <p>Greene, R. W. (2014). <em>The Explosive Child.</em> New York, NY: HarperCollins.</p> <p>Guare, R. & Dawson, P. (2013). <em>Smart but Scattered TEENS. </em>New York, NY: The Guildford Press.</p> <p>Huebner, D. (2005). <em>What to Do When You Worry Too Much: A Kid's Guide to Overcoming Anxiety</em>. Magination Press.</p> <p>Siegel, D. J. (2013). <em>Brainstorm. </em>New York, NY: Penguin Group.</p> <p>Siegal, D. J. & Bryson, T. P. (2011). <em>The Whole Brain Child</em>. New York, NY: Random House.</p>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/brain_disorders_and_mental_health.jpgBrain disorders and mental health ​Brain disorders can be caused by medical conditions, illness or injury. Find out how they can affect a child's mental health and overall functioning.Main
Diaper rashDiaper rashDiaper rashDEnglishDermatologyNewborn (0-28 days);Baby (1-12 months);Toddler (13-24 months)SkinSkinConditions and diseasesCaregivers Adult (19+)Rash2019-10-30T04:00:00Z6.8000000000000066.7000000000000536.000000000000Health (A-Z) - ConditionsHealth A-Z<p>Diaper rash is usually caused by the skin coming into contact with urine and stool. Learn how to treat it and the best way to prevent your baby from getting it.</p><h2>What is diaper rash? </h2> <p>Diaper rash is a skin irritation that affects babies or toddlers in the diaper area. Most often, it is due to contact between urine and stool with your baby's sensitive skin. Most babies will have at least one diaper rash before being toilet trained. </p> <h2>Key points</h2> <ul> <li>Diaper rashes are common in infants and toddlers.</li> <li>Irritant diaper dermatitis is most common.</li> <li>Keeping the area clean and dry will help prevent rashes.</li> </ul><h2>Signs and symptoms of diaper rash</h2> <p>A baby with diaper rash may show these signs or symptoms:</p> <ul> <li>pink or red patches on the skin<br></li> <li>irritated or painful skin </li> <li>spots or blisters in the diaper area </li> <li>bright red patches and sometimes open sores (these are often very painful)</li> </ul> <h2>Causes</h2><p>The most common cause of diaper rash is contact with urine and stool. This is called "irritant diaper dermatitis." It often occurs when the baby has <a href="/Article?contentid=7&language=English">diarrhea</a>. It most commonly affects the buttocks and thighs. Snug-fitting, plastic pants or diapers that prevent wetness from drying can make the rash worse.</p><p>Diaper rash can also be caused by yeast infection (Candida). This fungal infection thrives in warm, moist area such as skin creases. Yeast diaper dermatitis looks red, and often has small red spots around the edges. It is usually not painful. It can be caused or becomes worse when the baby is on antibiotics.</p><p>Other rashes can occur in the diaper area. These include <a href="/Article?contentid=773&language=English">eczema</a>, bacterial, viral and allergic rashes. They may also be seen on other parts of the body as well.<br></p><div class="asset-video"> <iframe src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/OSoG_VR2oYw" frameborder="0"></iframe> </div><h2>Treatment</h2><p>Leave the diaper off. Expose your baby's skin to warm, dry air as much as you can.</p><p>When changing the diaper, wash your baby's bottom with mild soap and warm water, rinse and pat dry. It may be less painful for your baby if you wash the area in a warm bath. Avoid wipes with alcohol; this may cause more pain.</p><p>Use an unscented barrier ointment, such as zinc oxide, to protect the area after each diaper change. If the diaper rash is more severe, use an ointment with a higher percentage of zinc oxide (up to 40%). Put a thick layer of the ointment on the affected area after each diaper change. Try not to scrub it off with diaper changes. Do not share creams with other children. Do not contaminate the cream. Wash your hands before putting them into the jar.</p><p>Candida (yeast) diaper dermatitis should be treated with a topical antifungal cream such as mycostatin or clotrimazole. </p><h2>Prevention</h2> <p>The best way to prevent diaper rash is to change your baby's diaper often. If your baby has diarrhea, change the diaper even more often. Applying a thin layer of unscented barrier cream can also protect the skin. It is not known whether cloth or disposable diapers are better in preventing diaper rashes.</p> <h2>When to see a doctor</h2> <p>Make an appointment with your child's doctor if the rash does not get better within a few days or if the baby seems unwell or has a fever. </p> <img alt="" src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/diaper_rash.jpg" style="BORDER:0px solid;" />diaperrashdiaperrashhttps://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/diaper_rash.jpg Learn about what causes your baby’s diaper rash, how to treat it and the best way to prevent your baby from getting it.Main
Kidney disease and diabetesKidney disease and diabetesKidney disease and diabetesKEnglishEndocrinologyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)Pancreas;KidneysEndocrine system;Renal system/Urinary systemConditions and diseasesAdult (19+)NAhttps://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/kidney_location_front_side_EN.png2017-11-20T05:00:00Z9.3000000000000049.7000000000000387.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Kidney disease may occur later in life as a result of diabetes. Learn about diabetic nephropathy, diagnosis and treatment.</p><p>The <a href="https://pie.med.utoronto.ca/htbw/module.html?module=kidney-child">kidneys</a> are the body’s filtering system. Blood flows through the blood vessels of the kidneys, where toxins and waste go from the blood to the urine. People with <a href="/Article?contentid=1717&language=English">diabetes</a> are at a higher risk for kidney disease as high blood glucose (sugar) levels and high blood pressure can damage the kidneys over time. This damage results in the kidneys being unable to properly filter the blood. Kidney damage due to diabetes is called diabetic nephropathy.</p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul><li>High blood pressure and high blood glucose (sugar) can cause damage to the kidneys, which results in them being unable to properly filter the blood.</li> <li>Nephropathy is diagnosed through a urine test.</li> <li>Excellent blood-sugar control, medication and good blood pressure control can help prevent kidney damage or slow progression.</li></ul><figure class="asset-c-80"><span class="asset-image-title">Location of the kidneys</span><img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/kidney_location_front_side_EN.png" alt="Side by side comparison of the location of the kidneys in the body from a front view versus side view" /> </figure> <h2>What is diabetic nephropathy</h2><p>Not every person with diabetes will develop diabetic nephropathy. Diabetic nephropathy rarely occurs before puberty, if it happens at all. Poor <a href="/Article?contentid=1724&language=English">blood (glucose) sugar control</a>, high blood pressure and smoking increase the risk of developing kidney damage.</p><p>Diabetic nephropathy develops slowly and quietly. No signs or symptoms will show until serious kidney damage has happened. Signs and symptoms may include:</p><ul><li>higher blood pressure than usual</li><li>puffy/swollen ankles due to water retention (edema)</li><li>too much protein in the urine (proteinuria).</li></ul><p>Diabetic nephropathy does not increase risk of kidney or bladder infection.</p> <h2>Diagnosis of diabetes-related kidney damage</h2><p>At first, very small amounts of protein are present in the urine. A urine sample can be checked for protein. Your doctor may also want to collect urine over a 24-hour period. The protein that your <a href="/Article?contentid=2511&language=English">diabetes team</a> looks for is called albumin. A very small amount of albumin in the urine is called microalbuminuria. If kidney disease worsens, the amount of albumin in the urine increases.</p><h2>Treatment of diabetes-related kidney damage </h2><p>The following can help prevent kidney damage or slow its progression significantly:</p><ul><li>Excellent <a href="/Article?contentid=1724&language=English">blood sugar control</a> </li><li>Medication (ask your diabetes team for details)</li><li>Good blood pressure control</li></ul><p>It is very important to screen for kidney damage and treat when present. If diabetic nephropathy is left untreated, they may develop <a href="/Article?contentid=936&language=English">kidney failure​</a>. In this condition, the person needs dialysis or a kidney transplant.</p> ​​ Main
Sleep tips: How to help your teen get a good night's sleepSleep tips: How to help your teen get a good night's sleepSleep tips: How to help your teen get a good night's sleepSEnglishAdolescentTeen (13-18 years)NANAHealthy living and preventionCaregivers Adult (19+)NAhttps://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/Sleep_vid.jpg2020-04-13T04:00:00Z7.9000000000000071.30000000000001132.00000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Find out how to encourage your teen to maintain their own healthy sleep routine and help them develop healthy habits.<br></p><p>As your child gets older, they may not want you to be as involved in their bedtime routine. However, it is still important to make sure your teen is <a href="/Article?contentid=645&language=English">getting enough sleep each night</a>. The National Sleep Foundation recommends teenagers aged 14-18 years get between 8-10 hours of sleep every night.</p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>Your teen's body clock will likely make them fall asleep later at night and wake up later during the day. Help your teen keep a regular routine by reminding them that they need between 8-10 hours of sleep every night and what time they should be in bed.</li><li>Remind your teen to eat a balanced diet and get some physical activity instead of turning to sugar, caffeine or energy drinks to cope with tiredness during the day.</li><li>Teens should avoid caffeine and screens before bed as this can interfere with their sleep patterns.</li><li>Before your teen goes to bed, encourage them to prepare their own breakfast, lay out their clothes and make a to-do list so they do not wake up feeling worried or stressed. </li><li> See a doctor if your teen is very sleepy during the day, you suspect a mental health condition that could interfere with their sleep or your child's poor sleep is interfering with their school performance. </li></ul><h2>Support your teen in sticking to a sleep schedule</h2><p>Most young people experience changes in their sleep schedules as they get older. Let your teen take charge of their own bedtime but provide guidance if necessary. For instance, be clear about how many hours of sleep your teen should have each night and when you expect them to be in bed, especially during stressful situations.</p><p>In addition, encourage your teen to keep to regular bedtimes and wake up times on weekdays and weekends, even during stressful times or when there is no structured school. Some teens may see the lack of formal school or routine as a reason to allow later bedtimes and as a result, later wake up times, but try to encourage them to keep to a regular sleep and wake schedule.</p><h2>Help your teen develop healthy habits</h2><p>Advise your teen to avoid eating a large meal or drinking a lot right before bedtime. It is especially important for your teen to avoid coffee, tea, soda or pop, energy drinks and chocolate a few hours before bed. Caffeine and sugar tell your teen’s brain to stay up even later than usual. Smoking cigarettes and drinking alcohol will also interfere with their sleep.</p><p>Your teen's internal body clock can make them fall asleep later at night and wake up later in the day. You cannot change this, but you can encourage your teen to take part in <a href="/Article?contentid=641&language=English">physical activities</a> to help overcome sleepiness during the day.<br></p><p>Discourage them from resorting to supplements or energy drinks to get them through any energy dips during the day. No pills, vitamins or drinks can replace good sleep.</p><p>If your teen hears their friends talking about their "all-nighters", remind them how good they feel after they get enough sleep. Staying up late to study does not usually help much. In fact, it will usually leave your teen too tired to concentrate properly the next day.</p><p>A drowsy driver is as dangerous as a drunk driver, causing many accidents each year. Advise your teen to call someone else for a ride if they ever feel sleepy before or during a journey.</p><h2>Create a relaxing bedtime routine</h2><p>If your teen is having trouble sleeping at night, encourage them to take some deep relaxing breaths, focusing on their breath as it goes in and out. Deep breathing for five to 10 minutes may help your teen become more relaxed and sleepy.</p><p>If your teen feels wide awake at bedtime, make sure their activities are relaxing to help make them sleepier. Encourage your teen to go for a short walk before bed, practise yoga, do some light stretching, read a book or write in a journal.</p><p>You can also have your teen watch this animation, which will remind them how they can get ready for a good night’s sleep.</p><div class="asset-video"> <iframe src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/2fbaoqkY0Qk?rel=0" frameborder="0"></iframe> </div><p> <strong>Caption: </strong>This is a bedtime ritual your teen may follow every night, if they wish. It walks your teen through preparing for sleep. It’s best to view this on a tablet or cellphone that they can put aside easily. They may stop and start the video at any time. In case they fall asleep, keep the volume low and turn autoplay to off.</p><h2>Create a comfortable sleep environment</h2><p>Make sure your teen’s mattress and pillow offer good support to their spine and that their room is cool and dark enough.</p><p>Encourage your teen to have a glass of water nearby so they do not need to get out of bed if they are thirsty during the night.</p><p>Keep the bed for sleeping only. Discourage your teen from doing their homework or using a computer in bed. These activities can cause your child to link bedtime with stress or active thinking when they are trying to sleep.</p><p>Avoid having a television, computer, tablet or cell phone in the bedroom. Watching television or using a <a href="/Article?contentid=643&language=English">computer, tablet or phone</a> before going to sleep can stimulate the brain rather than relax it. In addition, your teen may get into the habit of turning on the television or checking their phone if they cannot stay asleep during the night.</p><p>Similarly, keep noise to a minimum after bedtime so your teen can get a good night’s sleep (although your teen may stay up later than you).</p><h2>Tips for a happier morning</h2><p>Get your teen in the habit of planning their breakfast for the next morning before bed. This could be as simple as cutting up some fruit or making a breakfast wrap that they can quickly grab in the morning.</p><p>Encourage your teen to take a shower before bed if they have trouble waking up early to bathe. Warm water can make your teen sleepy at night. Getting their shower out of the way also lets them hit the snooze button for a bit longer in the morning.</p><p>Remind your teen to pack their backpack and lay out their clothes the night before. At night, there is more time to look for missing homework or that favourite t-shirt that might still be in the washing machine.</p><p>Suggest that your teen keep a diary or a to-do list for the next day. If they jot notes down before they go to sleep, they will be less likely to wake up feeling worried or stressed.</p><p>Let your teen choose an alarm clock that wakes them up in the morning. Ask them when is the absolute latest time they need to wake up in the morning and calmly wake them if they are still asleep then.</p><h2>When to see a doctor about your teen’s sleep</h2><p>Take your teenager to a doctor if:</p><ul><li>they are excessively sleepy during the day</li><li>you suspect they might have <a href="/Article?contentid=271&language=English">anxiety</a>, <a href="/Article?contentid=19&language=English">depression</a> or any other mental health concern</li><li>you or your teen have any other concerns about sleep or daytime performance, especially if you think it is affecting their grades at school.<br></li></ul><h2>Further information</h2><p>For more tips on maintaining your child's mental health, please see the following pages:</p><p><a href="https://meant2prevent.ca/">Meant2Prevent</a></p> <p> <a href="/Article?contentid=639&language=English">Nutrition: How a balanced diet and healthy eating habits can support your child's mental health</a></p><p> <a href="/Article?contentid=642&language=English">Physical activity: Guidelines for children and teens​</a></p><p> <a href="/Article?contentid=641&language=English">Physical activity: Benefits of exercise for health and wellbeing​</a></p><p> <a href="/Article?contentid=645&language=English">Sleep: Benefits and recommended amounts​​</a></p><p> <a href="/Article?contentid=646&language=English">Sleep tips: How to help your child get a good night's sleep</a></p><p> <a href="/Article?contentid=643&language=English">Screen time: Overview</a></p><p> <a href="/Article?contentid=644&language=English">Screen time: How to help your child set healthy limits</a></p><h2>​​Resources</h2><p>National Sleep Foundation (2016). <em> <a target="_blank" href="https://www.sleepfoundation.org/articles/teens-and-sleep">Teens and sleep​</a></em>.</p><img alt="" src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/sleep_tips_how_to_help_your_teen.jpg" style="BORDER:0px solid;" />https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/sleep_tips_how_to_help_your_teen.jpgVideo – Sleep: A bedtime story Use this video to help your child or teen learn about and develop a bedtime ritual so they can fall asleep more easily.Mainhttps://youtu.be/2fbaoqkY0Qk
Suicide and self-harm: Helping your child understand difficult emotionsSuicide and self-harm: Helping your child understand difficult emotionsSuicide and self-harm: Helping your child understand difficult emotionsSEnglishPsychiatrySchool age child (5-8 years);Pre-teen (9-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)BodyNAConditions and diseasesCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2016-02-10T05:00:00Z9.4000000000000062.1000000000000931.000000000000Health (A-Z) - ConditionsHealth A-Z<p>​​​Find out how to reduce the risk of suicide and self-harm by helping your child cope with difficult emotions.</p>​<p>Thoughts of <a href="/Article?contentid=291&language=English">suicide</a> and <a href="/Article?contentid=289&language=English"> self-harm </a> can emerge when a child or teen feels overwhelmed by difficult emotions and can no longer endure them.</p><p>Everyday difficult emotions can include:</p><ul><li>sadness about not being invited to a friend's birthday party</li><li>fear or worry about starting at a new school or camp</li><li>anger and frustration when limits are set, for example screen time</li><li>shame when caught doing something wrong</li></ul><p>These, and similar, issues may not seem overwhelming to an adult but might be incredibly stressful for a child or teen. This is because they have less life experience and their brains are still developing, usually until their early 20s.</p><p>This makes it important for you as a parent or caregiver to acknowledge your child's emotions and encourage them to openly share their thoughts and feelings. Helping your child understand and talk about the emotions they experience in everyday life can help prepare them to better cope with more severe distress.</p><h2>How children express their emotions</h2> <p>You may not always receive a clear message from your child about the emotions they are experiencing. Children often express emotions differently, depending on their developmental level.</p> <p>Very young children may show their emotions through their behaviour or play. Older children may sometimes 'bottle up' or keep negative emotions inside. For instance, they may complain of aches and pains during times of stress but withdraw or respond with "I don't know" when asked how they feel. Other children might be outwardly irritable, aggressive or angry as a way to express their sadness or worry.</p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul> <li>It is important to talk to your child about how they feel about everyday ups and downs, even if they do not seem stressful to you, so that they are better prepared to deal with more severe distress. </li> <li>Be aware of how your child expresses their emotions. Younger children may change their behaviour or play routine. Older children might bottle things up or 'act out' when really they are sad or worried.</li> <li>When talking to your child, stay calm, remind them that all emotions are valid, ask direct questions about any thoughts of suicide or self-harm and offer help.</li> <li>Talk to your child's doctor or another mental health professional if your child has ongoing difficulties with their emotions or you learn that your child's schoolwork or friendships are suffering.</li> </ul><h2>How to talk to your child about their emotions and any suicidal thoughts</h2> <h3>Remember that feelings are not right or wrong</h3> <p>You can help your child come to terms with difficult emotions they experience by reminding them that all emotions are normal. Emotions such as sadness, anger, anxiety, depression and shame are just as valid, and important, as joy, excitement and happiness. All these emotions – both positive and negative – communicate information.</p> <h3>Be calm and supportive</h3> <p>If you want to sit down and talk with your child, make sure it is at a time when neither you nor your child feels rushed or pressured.</p> <p>Talk to your child in a calm and supportive manner. Always let them know that you are there for them, accept them and what they are going through and try to listen to how they are feeling without interrupting, arguing or correcting.</p> <h3>Be specific and direct</h3> <p>If you have noticed some behaviour that concerns you, be specific about it. For instance, you might say, "I notice you are spending more time in your room and aren't going out with your friends as much. I just want to check in on how you're doing."</p> <p>If you have noticed some of the <a href="/Article?contentid=290&language=English">possible warning signs of suicidal thoughts​</a>, ask your child directly about them. This tells them that it is ok to talk with you about their emotions. You might ask, for example, "Do you ever have feelings that you don't want to be here anymore?", "Do you ever wish you were dead?" or "Do you ever think about hurting yourself?"</p> <h3>Offer help</h3> <p>Ask your child what you can do to help them. For instance, do they want to spend more time talking with you or do they want to talk to a healthcare professional or counsellor? You can also ask if you can help them get more involved in the activities that they enjoy.</p> <h3>Remind your child of the positives</h3> <p>While it is important to give your child time to express their negative emotions, don't forget about the positives. Ask your child about what is going well in their life, and remind them of their strengths and of those who love them and are there for support.</p><h2>When to seek medical help for your child's emotional difficulties</h2> <p>If your child experiences strong emotions and they last longer, or are more intense, than what would generally be expected, it may be cause for concern.</p> <p>It may be helpful to talk to a doctor or other mental health professional if:</p> <ul> <li>you are concerned that your child is having trouble with their emotions</li> <li>other people in your child's life (teachers, friends, relatives) notice that stress is interfering with your child's schoolwork, friendships or involvement in activities</li> </ul><h2>Further information</h2><p>For more information on protecting your child or teen from suicide or self-harm, please see the following pages:</p><p><a href="/Article?contentid=291&language=English">Suicide in children and teens: Overview</a></p><p><a href="/Article?contentid=289&language=English">Self-harm in children and teens: Overview</a></p><p><a href="/Article?contentid=290&language=English">Suicide risk: Signs and symptoms</a></p><p><a href="/Article?contentid=292&language=English">Suicide and self-harm: How to protect your child</a></p><h2>Resources</h2><p>In Canada, children and teens in distress can contact KidsHelpPhone on <a href="http://www.kidshelpphone.ca/" target="_blank">KidsHelpPhone.ca</a> or call 1-800-688-6868.</p><img alt="" src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/suicide_self_harm_helping_your_child.jpg" style="BORDER:0px solid;" />https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/suicide_self_harm_helping_your_child.jpgCoping with suicide and self-harm Find out how to reduce the risk of suicide and self-harm by helping your child cope with difficult and overwhelming emotions.Main

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