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Button battery injuriesButton battery injuriesButton battery injuriesBEnglishGastrointestinal;OtolaryngologyChild (0-12 years)Ears;Nose;Esophagus;Stomach;Small Intestine;Large Intestine/ColonDigestive system;NoseConditions and diseasesAdult (19+) CaregiversNA2022-07-25T04:00:00ZHealth (A-Z) - ConditionsHealth A-Z<p>Button batteries (sometimes called disc battery, watch batteries, or coin batteries) are found in many household items, including children’s toys, and can cause life-threatening injury if accidentally swallowed. Learn what to do if your child swallows a button battery. </p><h2>What are button batteries? </h2><p>Button batteries (sometimes called disc batteries, watch batteries, or coin batteries) are small, round, flat batteries that are found in a variety of toys and other household items. </p><p>Household objects that contain button batteries include: </p><ul><li>Key fobs (car keys) </li><li>Flashing shoes or clothing </li><li>Hearing aids </li><li>Remote controls </li><li>Musical greeting cards </li><li>Thermometers </li><li>Toys, games or talking books </li><li>Flameless candles </li><li>Kitchen and bathroom scales </li><li>Watches </li><li>Decorations and ornaments </li><li>Calculators </li><li>Flashing jewelry </li><li>Cameras </li></ul><p>If someone has swallowed ANY battery, you cannot treat them at home. They must be assessed in an emergency department. A swallowed button battery can burn through a child’s esophagus in just 2 hours. </p><p>Small batteries inserted in the nose and ears can cause permanent damage. They can cause chemical burns and injuries may be life threatening and altering. </p><p>Most battery ingestions are unwitnessed and occur when button batteries are removed from household items. The best treatment is prevention; keep button batteries away from children. Even dead batteries have enough power to cause injury if swallowed. </p><h2>How do button batteries cause injuries? </h2><p>Button batteries cause injuries in a number of ways. The most common way is when a battery is swallowed and gets stuck in the esophagus, the tube that leads from the back of the throat into the stomach. The positive and negative sides of the battery cause an electrical circuit that can cause a deep burn or a hole. Chemicals can also leak out of the battery causing burns or holes. </p><p>Button batteries can also cause similar damage in the ear, nose and sometimes, but less often, the stomach or intestine. </p><h2>Why are button battery injuries so severe? </h2><p>Button battery injuries are so severe because the esophagus is in such an important location in the body. Holes caused by button batteries can damage the aorta, the windpipe (trachea), and even the spine. Burns cause scars in the esophagus that can make it hard to swallow in the future. </p><p>If a battery passes through the esophagus without causing damage, it will usually pass through the remaining gastrointestinal (GI) tract successfully, however a small number of patients can have serious complications of the stomach and the small intestine. This risk is increased when a child also ingests a magnet at the same time. This may lead to pinching of the stomach or intestinal wall between the battery and the magnet, causing burns and holes in the stomach and/or small intestine. Batteries that do not pass through the GI tract will need to be removed in a hospital. You should not wait to see if a button battery will pass through the GI tract before going to a hospital. </p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>Button batteries are small, round, flat batteries that are found in children’s toys and household items. </li><li>Most button battery ingestions are unwitnessed. Inspect devices at home to know which have button batteries and if they are held in with screws. Make sure to monitor children while they use devices with button batteries that are not screwed in. </li><li>Button batteries start to cause internal burns in as little as 15 minutes and long-term injury in just 2 hours. Children who have swallowed button batteries need to go the hospital right away. </li><li>Children who have swallowed a button battery and are able to swallow can be given 2 teaspoons of honey at home and every 10 minutes (for a maximum of 6 doses) while enroute to the hospital. Do not delay going to the hospital to get honey. </li><li>Safely discard dead batteries immediately. They can still cause life-threatening burns. </li></ul><h2>What are the signs and symptoms of button battery ingestion? </h2><p>The symptoms of a button battery ingestion are not always obvious. Some children may have no symptoms at all. Sometimes children will have difficulty swallowing, drooling, chest pain, coughing, vomiting or <a href="/article?contentid=30&language=english">fever</a>. </p><p>Symptoms can range from mild irritation in the mouth if the battery was chewed on, to corrosive injury and burns. </p><p>Batteries stuck in the nose can be really hard to see and children often have no symptoms. They can cause pain, bleeding, fevers or facial swelling. </p><p>Batteries stuck in the ear are also easy to miss. They can cause pain, bleeding, hearing loss and ear swelling. </p><p>Batteries in the stomach and intestine do not usually cause symptoms. However, when complications in the stomach or intestine occur, patients can have nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, fever and/or gastrointestinal bleeding. </p><h2>What are the risk factors for button battery ingestion? </h2><p>All button batteries are dangerous, but button batteries that are bigger than 12 mm in diameter are the most likely to get stuck in the esophagus. You can tell how big a battery is by looking at the identification number. For example, a C2032 battery is 20 mm in diameter and 3.2 mm in width. Smaller batteries can also get stuck in the esophagus but are more likely to get stuck in the nose or ear. </p><p>The more powerful the button battery (e.g., 3V), the more likely it is to cause injury, but even dead batteries can cause injuries. </p><p>Swallowed button batteries can get stuck in the esophagus at any age but are more likely to get stuck in children who are younger than 12 years old. The most severe injuries occur in younger children. </p><p>Risk factors for complications in the stomach and intestine wall include ingesting a magnet at the same time, being younger than 5 years of age, battery size 20 mm or larger and how long the battery stays in the body. </p><h2>How common are button battery injuries? </h2><p>There has been a 10-fold increase in moderate and severe injuries caused by button battery ingestions in the last 15 years even though the rate of button battery ingestions has been stable. This is because of a change in battery production leading to larger size and higher voltage batteries. </p><p>However, there has been a worldwide increase in the number of button battery ingestions along with other ingestions during the COVID-19 pandemic as families spent more time at home. </p><h2>How are button battery injuries diagnosed? </h2><p>Button battery ingestion is diagnosed by X-ray. Make sure to tell your doctor, nurse, or the paramedic if you think your child has swallowed a button battery so that they can get an X-ray done right away to minimize delays in treatment. </p><p>X-ray findings for a button battery can sometimes look similar to X-rays findings for a swallowed coin. The health care team can use a 2-view X-ray to help distinguish these differences. </p><p>Diagnosis of complications of button battery ingestion can be done with endoscopy (cameras) and other imaging tests. </p><h2>How are burns from button batteries treated? </h2><ul><li>If your child has swallowed a button battery, <strong>go to the nearest emergency department immediately</strong>. Make sure to tell the doctor, nurse or paramedic if you think your child has swallowed a button battery. </li><li>Children who are able to swallow can be given honey at home and while enroute to the hospital. Give 2 teaspoons every 10 minutes for up to 6 doses. Do not give anything else by mouth. Call the Poison Centre for further advice but do not delay going to the hospital. </li><li>Button batteries need to be removed as quickly as possible if in the ear, nose or esophagus. </li><li>Button batteries in the ears or nose can be removed safely by trained health care providers. </li><li>Swallowed button batteries need to be removed in the operating room by a surgeon. </li><li>Stomach and intestinal button batteries may be removed in the operating room in case of risk factors (e.g., co-ingestion with magnets) or if complications develop.</li></ul><p><strong>Button battery ingestions cannot be treated at home.</strong> </p><h2>What are the complications of button battery ingestion? </h2><p>The complications of a button battery ingestion will depend on where the button battery is, how long the battery has been there, how large the battery is and how high the battery voltage is. </p><h3>Nose </h3><ul><li>Bleeding </li><li>Pain </li><li>Infections that can spread to the face, eye, and brain </li><li>Septal perforations (holes) </li><li>Scarring in the nostril and nose </li></ul><h3>Ear </h3><ul><li>Pain </li><li>Hearing loss </li><li>Ear canal scarring </li><li>Infections that can spread to the ear and brain </li></ul><h3>Esophagus </h3><ul><li>Scarring that can lead to difficulty swallowing </li><li>Esophageal perforations (holes) causing severe chest infections </li><li>Damage to the windpipe (e.g., connections between the windpipe and the esophagus, scarring) and vocal cord paralysis </li><li>Injury and infections in the spine and spinal cord </li><li>Holes in the aorta or nearby blood vessels that can cause life-threatening bleeding </li></ul><h3>Stomach and intestines </h3><ul><li>Abdominal pain </li><li>Gastrointestinal bleeding </li><li>Perforation (holes) in the wall of the stomach </li><li>Perforation (holes) in the wall of the intestine </li><li>Serious abdominal infection as a result of perforation (holes) of the stomach and/or the intestine wall </li></ul><h2>How can button battery injuries be prevented? </h2><ul><li>Extra batteries should be locked up and out of sight with all of your other household hazards. </li><li>Keep objects with button batteries that do not have screwed-secured compartments away from children. </li><li>Ensure battery-operated toys and appliances are intact (not damaged). </li><li>Dispose of dead batteries right away. Cover dead batteries with duct tape or packing tape if they cannot be immediately discarded. </li></ul><h2>When should you go to the emergency department? </h2><p>Go to the emergency department immediately if your child has swallowed or potentially swallowed a button battery or placed a battery in their nose or ear. Tell the doctor or nurse that your child has swallowed a button battery. </p><h2>Follow up care after a button battery ingestion </h2><p>If your child has swallowed a button battery, it is important to follow up with the doctor after discharge from the hospital and attend any follow up appointments so your child can be evaluated for complications. Some complications can take time to develop. Scarring in the esophagus that can cause problems with swallowing can take about 4 weeks to develop. If the button battery passed through the esophagus into the GI tract, but you did not find the battery in your child’s stool (poo), then it is extra important that you attend your follow-up appointment as the battery could be stuck somewhere along the GI tract. </p><h3>Things to look for – Go to the emergency department right away if you notice: </h3><ul><li>Difficulty swallowing </li><li>Bleeding from the mouth or bum </li><li>Difficult breathing or speaking </li><li>Chest pain or fevers </li><li>Recurrent vomiting </li><li>Abdominal pain </li></ul><h2>Resources</h2><p><a href="https://www.poison.org/battery/tips-">National Capital Poison Center: Safety Tips for Button Batteries</a></p><p>Check your local rules about battery disposal to learn how to discard batteries safely: </p><ul><li><a href="https://locations.call2recycle.ca/on/">Call2Recyle</a></li><li><a href="https://www.toronto.ca/services-payments/recycling-organics-garbage/drop-off-depots/">City of Toronto Drop-Off Depots</a></li><li><a href="https://www.rawmaterials.com/page/locations/?gclid=Cj0KCQjw3IqSBhCoARIsAMBkTb04CP9VukX0egE-c2BGzvaWavlZGnSXkFnYp5YFVvYG77oxcKOW6IwaAidEEALw_wcB">Recycling Points for Household Batteries in Ontario</a><p></p></li></ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/button%20batteries.jpg ​Accidentally swallowing button batteries can cause life-threatening injury. Learn what to do if your child swallows a button battery. Main
BurnsBurnsBurnsBEnglishPlasticsChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)SkinSkinConditions and diseasesCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2018-01-19T05:00:00Z000Landing PageLearning Hub<p>Find resources that provide information about burns in children from how to give first aid to how you can help your child in the hospital. Also find information the prevention of burn injuries and pain management.</p><p>Resources providing information about burns in children from how to give first aid to how you can help your child in the hospital. Also find information on safety and the prevention of burn injuries. Finally learn about pain management in children and what you can do to help.<br></p><br> <div class="asset-video"> <iframe src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/videoseries?list=PLjJtOP3StIuUDo480KRagQSx96odMGO-T" frameborder="0"></iframe><br></div><p>Above is our burn care video playlist. To view other AboutKidsHealth videos, please visit the <a href="https://www.youtube.com/user/Aboutkidshealth">AboutKidsHealth YouTube channel</a>.</p><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"><i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h2 class="panel-title">Preventing burn injuries</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>The best way to treat a burn injury is to prevent it from happening. Learn a​bout common causes of bur​n injuries in children and how to prevent them.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1959&language=English">Burn prevention: Campfires, fire pits and fireworks</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1116&language=English">Burns: Household safety and prevention</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1939&language=English">Preventing burns: Winter safety</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1962&language=English">Scald prevention</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=308&language=English">Sun: Protecting your child's skin</a></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"><i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h2 class="panel-title">Treating burn injuries</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>Small, minor burns can be treated at home. Larger, deeper burns or burns in a sensitive area may need to be treated in hospital or at an outpatient clinic.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1131&language=English">Burn injuries: Helping families cope</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1187&language=English">Burn injuries: Information for parents with a child staying in hospital</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1176&language=English">Burns: Caring for your child at home after discharge from hospital</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1175&language=English">Burns: Caring for your child at home between outpatient visits</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1045&language=English">Burns: First aid</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1177&language=English">Burns: Scar management techniques</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=768&language=English">Sunburn</a></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"><i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h2 class="panel-title">Burn injuries and pain management</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>Burns are painful. Options for pain management include medications, physical treatments and psychological treatments.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=3010&language=English">Common types of pain problems</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1253&language=English">Pain at home: Taking care of your child</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1259&language=English">Pain: How to talk to kids about their pain</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=3012&language=English">Pain management for common childhood pain and injuries</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2997&language=English">Pain medicines</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1258&language=English">Pain relief: Comfort kit</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=3003&language=English">Physical treatments for pain management</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=3007&language=English">Psychological treatments for pain management</a></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"><i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h2 class="panel-title">Video</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>View videos about different topics such as prevention, first aid, caring for your child after a burn and knowing when to take your child to the hospital.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ogxz00d67cs">Scald and burn prevention</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=obfjLP8e_dY">Scald and burn prevention (Portuguese)</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dvjd6TkbtNo">Scald and burn prevention (Punjabi)</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CQtW0o3obqY">Scald and burn prevention (Mandarin)</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kwsiqf-1DzM">Burn first aid</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HOv-97JaygI">When to take my child to the hospital?</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CbWO5ToCccc">Simple burn care at home</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Gkq3RsVemtM">Crazy creams: Facts about burn healing</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IZP_9VIgcnw">How to care for your child's healing skin after a burn</a></li></ol></div>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/burns_learning_hub.jpgburnsburns ​Burns can lead to permanent scars. Find out how to prevent your child from getting a burn injury and what to do if a burn does occur. Main
COVID-19 vaccines general informationCOVID-19 vaccines general informationCOVID-19 vaccines general informationCEnglishInfectious DiseasesChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)NANADrug treatmentCaregivers Adult (19+)NAhttps://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/COVID-19_Vaccine.jpg2023-10-27T04:00:00Z11.400000000000044.10000000000002250.00000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Learn which COVID-19 vaccines are available in Canada, and find information about vaccine development, and vaccine safety and effectiveness.</p><h2>How do mRNA vaccines work?</h2><p>The vaccines work by teaching your immune cells to recognize a small piece of the SARS-CoV-2 virus called a spike protein. The SARS-CoV-2 virus is the virus that causes COVID-19.</p><p>Pfizer and Moderna use messenger RNA (mRNA)in their vaccines. The mRNA is a small piece of genetic code from the SARS-CoV-2 virus that tells the body to make the spike protein of the coronavirus. The production of the spike protein is recognized by immunity helpers, which will assemble an army of B cells. The B cells produce the antibodies that create immunity against the virus. After the vaccine causes this immune response, the body rapidly gets rid of the spike protein and the mRNA, the antibodies and immune memory remain.</p> <figure class="asset-c-80"><img alt="The mRNA vaccines contain a small piece of genetic code from the SARS-CoV-2 virus that will tell the body make the spike protein of the coronavirus. The production of the spike protein causes the immune system to produce antibodies that create immunity against the virus." src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/Covid_vaccine_mRNA.jpg" /> <figcaption class="asset-image-caption">Vaccines teach your immune system to recognize the coronavirus by presenting the spike protein to immunity helpers. The mRNA vaccines contain a small piece of genetic code from the SARS-CoV-2 virus that will tell the body to make the spike protein of the coronavirus. The immunity helpers will then assemble an army of B cells, which will produce antibodies against this spike protein. B cells also remember how to create these antibodies and they will mature to become memory B cells. They are now prepared to repeat the immune response in the future.<br>After vaccination, if your body encounters the coronavirus, the memory B cells recognize the spike protein on the virus and they will increase the antibody production. The antibodies will bind to the spike protein on the virus, blocking the virus from spreading.</figcaption> </figure> <h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>Staying up-to-date with routine childhood vaccines and the annual influenza vaccine, in addition to the COVID-19 vaccine, is strongly recommended for the prevention of illnesses. Speak with your primary care provider for more information.</li><li>Vaccines against COVID-19 have been shown to be safe and effective against the disease.</li><li>Vaccines are approved for age groups six months and older.</li><li>The Pfizer and Moderna XBB.1.5 vaccines have been approved for use in children six months to 17 years of age.<br></li></ul><h2>Are mRNA COVID-19 vaccines safe and are there any side effects?</h2><p>Two mRNA vaccines have been approved by Health Canada: The Pfizer vaccine and the Moderna vaccine. They have met the requirements for approval by Health Canada as they have been studied in clinical trials on a large number of people and were shown to be safe. In the studies, the number of people who got the vaccine and had unexpected severe side effects was similar to the number of people who received a placebo (substance or treatment that contains no active ingredients).</p><p>People who receive a COVID-19 vaccine may experience side effects, such as fatigue, headache, muscle pain, joint pain, chills and fever. These are side effects that are commonly seen after any vaccination. Allergic reactions have only rarely occurred after COVID-19 vaccination.</p><h2>What about the risk of myocarditis and pericarditis?</h2><p>Myocarditis (inflammation of the heart muscle) and/or pericarditis (inflammation of the sac that envelopes the heart) following a COVID-19 vaccine have been reported in Canada and internationally. These cases are <u>very</u> rare and are most frequently reported after the second dose of an mRNA vaccine. Most cases were mild and resolved with symptomatic treatment within a few days. As part of safety surveillance systems, Public Health Ontario is closely monitoring cases of myocarditis/pericarditis following COVID-19 vaccination.</p><h2>Is there any chance that the COVID-19 vaccine can give me the virus?</h2><p>No. There is no way you can get COVID-19 from any of the vaccines. None of the vaccines contain the SARS-CoV-2 virus, which causes COVID-19.</p><h2>After vaccination, how long does it take to be protected from COVID-19?</h2><p>After you get the vaccine, immunity usually starts to develop after 14 days. For vaccines that need additional doses, a maximum immune response occurs seven to 14 days after additional doses of the vaccine.</p><h2>What is the difference between natural immunity and immunity from the COVID-19 vaccine?</h2><p>Natural immunity refers to the immune responses that are developed following exposure to an infection. When contracting an infection, most individuals will develop antibodies that are key to recognizing and fighting the same infection, if encountered again. Natural immunity can decrease with time, and the antibodies may not last in your immune system for a very long time. Developing natural immunity also implies that you need to contract the infection, meaning that you could experience serious health complications as a result.</p><p>Immunity against COVID-19 can also be achieved by getting vaccinated. The difference, in this case, is that the vaccine instructs your immune system on how to develop the antibodies that protect against COVID-19 without having to contract the infection and get sick. Because additional vaccine doses are given to help build the immune responses, the antibodies continue to circulate in the body for a longer period than when only contracting the infection a single time.</p><h2>Why should anyone get vaccinated if Omicron variants are widespread and everyone will be infected with the virus eventually?</h2><p>Although severe illness due to acute COVID-19 infection is less frequent in children compared to adults, children can still be hospitalized and even require ICU-level care due to COVID-19.</p><p>Vaccination helps prevent severe disease and hospitalization due to COVID-19. Children and youth who previously had COVID-19 have some protection, but this protection will be much stronger if they're also vaccinated.</p><p>Another reason for vaccination is to get the virus under control during periods of high viral activity. Omicron variants may be less severe, but their high transmissibility means many more people will be affected. This puts our health and our health-care system at risk. The more resources we have to direct toward caring for patients with COVID-19, the more challenging it is to provide life-changing surgeries and procedures for patients who don't have COVID-19 and are also in need of care.</p><h2>Is COVID over?</h2><p>No, COVID-19 is not over. The virus causing COVID-19 is still circulating and vaccination remains important. Even if you have been infected, immunity against re-infection and other health complications is much stronger if you have been vaccinated and keep up to date with updated vaccines as well. Vaccinated people who contract COVID-19 spend less time sick and away from activities and are less likely to expose those around them because they shed less virus.</p><h2>Can “long COVID” affect both children and youth?</h2><p>Yes, it can. Cases of long COVID have been detected in both children and youth, although it appears less common than in adults. Early studies are showing a decreased risk of long COVID in adults who have been vaccinated, and this is promising for children and youth as well, however, more research is needed.</p><h2>Which children should receive updated XBB.1.5 vaccines and when?</h2><p>The timing and number of vaccine doses depends on your child’s age and vaccination status. Children who are known to have compromised immune systems will follow a different schedule and this should be discussed with your child’s health-care team.</p><table class="akh-table"><thead><tr><th colspan="5">COVID-19 mRNA XBB.1.5 vaccine dosing information for children who are not moderately or severely immunocompromised by age and vaccination status.</th></tr><tr><th rowspan="2">Vaccine</th><th rowspan="2">Covid-19 vaccination status</th><th colspan="3">Age</th></tr><tr><th>6 months to 4 years of age</th><th>5 to 11 years of age</th><th>12 years of age and older</th></tr></thead><tbody><tr><td rowspan="2"> <strong>Moderna Spikevax XBB.1.5</strong></td><td> <strong>Unvaccinated</strong></td><td>2 doses 25 mcg<br>(8 week interval)</td><td rowspan="2">1 dose 25 mcg</td><td rowspan="2">1 dose 50 mcg</td></tr><tr><td> <strong>1 or more previous doses</strong></td><td>1 dose 25 mcg</td></tr><tr><td rowspan="3"> <strong>Pfizer Comirnaty XBB.1.5</strong></td><td> <strong>Unvaccinated</strong></td><td>3 doses 3 mcg<br>(8 week interval)</td><td rowspan="3">1 dose 10 mcg</td><td rowspan="3">1 dose 30 mcg</td></tr><tr><td> <strong>1 dose</strong></td><td>2 doses 3 mcg<br>(8 week interval)</td></tr><tr><td> <strong>2 or more doses</strong></td><td>1 dose 3 mcg<br>(8 week interval)</td></tr></tbody></table><p>If your child is eligible to receive an updated vaccine dose and has recently had COVID-19, they can receive the dose at least 3 months and ideally 6 months after the infection.</p><h2>Can I get other immunizations, such as the influenza (flu) vaccine, at the same time as the COVID-19 vaccine?</h2><p>According to the National Advisory Committee on Immunizations, COVID-19 vaccines may be given at the same time as, or any time before or after, other vaccines, including the influenza (flu) vaccine.</p><h2>How are the Omicron variants different from other strains we have seen before and how widespread is it?</h2><p>Omicron variants of SARS-CoV-2 are much more transmissible than previous strains, which is causing ongoing significant case numbers and a corresponding number of hospitalizations. However, there is evidence that vaccines remain effective at preventing hospitalization and severe disease from Omicron, especially in people who are fully vaccinated and remain up-to-date on updated vaccines. Omicron variants, because of their high transmissibility, have become the dominant form of COVID-19 in Ontario and much of the world.</p><h2>If my child or I already had COVID-19, should we still get the vaccine? If so, when?</h2><p>Yes. It is recommended that anyone who has had COVID-19 still get the vaccine. It is recommended to wait 6 months following infection for a vaccine dose, with a minimum interval of 3 months being acceptable. The clinical trials included people who previously had COVID-19, and the vaccine was found to be safe for them. Because antibodies against COVID-19 decrease after infection and it is possible to get the infection again (sometimes more severely), the vaccine is recommended as it can be helpful in boosting a person's existing immunity to COVID-19.</p><h2>Will getting the COVID-19 vaccine help my child stay in school and in their extra-curricular activities?</h2><p>All children and youth benefit from routine educational, physical and other extracurricular activities. School and other activities are likely to be able to stay open if hospitalization rates are manageable. Vaccination is the most important step to ensure this in adults and children six months of age and up.</p><h2>My child is afraid of needles. What can I do to help?</h2><p>Some children have a very strong reaction to needles. If your child is worried about getting a needle, you can ask for special ways to support their vaccination, such as a longer appointment time or a private space for the injection. The CARD system (Comfort, Ask, Relax, Distract) may also help. It provides groups of strategies to reduce the pain, stress and worries associated with vaccinations to make the experience a more positive one. More information can be found at <a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/card">AboutKidsHealth.ca/card</a>. For children worried about pain, there are numbing creams and patches available at many pharmacies to help minimize needle discomfort.</p><h2>What can I do for my child who is sensory-sensitive?</h2><p>Ask your health-care provider to use the CARD strategies listed above to offer a calmer environment for your child, giving them as much time as they need and their own room to get the vaccine. Some clinics also offer sensory-sensitive appointments, offering dimmed lights, less noise and a slower pace, as well as privacy.</p><h2>Can the COVID-19 vaccine affect puberty or fertility in children?</h2><p>There is no evidence and no scientific reason to believe that the COVID-19 vaccine can affect puberty and fertility in children.</p><h2>Is vaccination safe for children with food allergies?</h2><p>Yes. There is no reason a child with a food allergy of any kind should not be vaccinated. Children with a history of allergy to foods, oral drugs, insect venom or environmental allergies can receive COVID-19 vaccines without any special precautions. If you are concerned about the possibility of an allergic reaction to any of the <a href="https://www.canada.ca/en/health-canada/services/drugs-health-products/covid19-industry/drugs-vaccines-treatments/vaccines/pfizer-biontech.html#a4">vaccine ingredients</a>, please consult your child’s primary health-care provider.</p><h2>Is there advice you would give to families with children who are immunocompromised or have disabilities and medical complexity?</h2><p>Vaccination remains the best layer of protection against COVID-19 for everyone. It is important your child receives the vaccinations for which they are eligible. Children who are known to have compromised immune systems will follow a different schedule and this should be discussed with your child’s health-care team.</p><h2>What is the current evidence for vaccination for COVID-19 in children with disabilities and medical complexity?</h2><p>Current evidence suggests that children with disabilities and medical complexity may be at an increased risk for severe illness or complications from COVID-19 based on their underlying condition making vaccination and prevention of COVID-19 especially important.</p><h2>What special considerations are there when vaccinating children with disabilities and medical complexity? Where can family caregivers find additional resources?</h2><p>Families should consider different strategies that have worked well with previous immunizations and create a plan to set their child up for success. Some questions to consider when scheduling your child’s vaccination appointment include:</p><p></p><ul><li>Does my child require a calmer environment? (i.e., privacy, quiet)</li><li>If applicable, is the vaccination clinic wheelchair accessible?</li><li>Which distraction techniques are typically most effective for my child (i.e., deep breathing, counting, watching a favourite video, stress balls)</li><li>What position will be most comfortable for my child during their vaccination (i.e., comfort holding, sitting with a caregiver, lying down)</li></ul><p>If family caregivers have questions related to vaccinating children with disabilities and medical complexity, you should first reach out to your child’s primary health-care provider.</p><h2>References</h2><p>Canadian Paediatric Society. (2023, September 25). COVID-19 vaccine for children and adolescents. Retrieved from <a href="https://cps.ca/en/documents/position/covid-19-vaccine-for-children-and-adolescents">https://cps.ca/en/documents/position/covid-19-vaccine-for-children-and-adolescents</a></p><p>Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2023, September 22). Interim 2023-24 COVID-19 immunization schedule for persons 6 months of age and older. Retrieved from <a href="https://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/covid-19/downloads/COVID-19-immunization-schedule-ages-6months-older.pdf">https://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/covid-19/downloads/COVID-19-immunization-schedule-ages-6months-older.pdf</a></p><p>Government of Ontario Ministry of Health. (2023, September 22). COVID-19 Vaccine Guidance. Retrieved from <a href="https://www.health.gov.on.ca/en/pro/programs/publichealth/coronavirus/docs/vaccine/COVID-19_vaccine_administration.pdf">https://www.health.gov.on.ca/en/pro/programs/publichealth/coronavirus/docs/vaccine/COVID-19_vaccine_administration.pdf</a></p><p>National Advisory Committee on Immunization. (2023, September 12). Addendum to the guidance on the use of COVID-19 vaccines in the fall of 2023. Retrieved from  <a href="https://www.canada.ca/en/public-health/services/publications/vaccines-immunization/national-advisory-committee-immunization-addendum-guidance-use-covid-19-vaccines-fall-2023.html">https://www.canada.ca/en/public-health/services/publications/vaccines-immunization/national-advisory-committee-immunization-addendum-guidance-use-covid-19-vaccines-fall-2023.html</a><br></p><p>World Health Organization. (2023, October 6). COVID-19 vaccines. Retrieved from <a href="https://www.who.int/emergencies/diseases/novel-coronavirus-2019/covid-19-vaccines">https://www.who.int/emergencies/diseases/novel-coronavirus-2019/covid-19-vaccines</a></p><br>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/COVID-19_Vaccine.jpgCOVID-19 vaccines general information Learn which COVID-19 vaccines are available in Canada, and find information on vaccine development, and safety and effectiveness in children.Main
Holiday safetyHoliday safetyHoliday safetyHEnglishPreventionChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)NANAHealthy living and preventionCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2018-11-12T05:00:00Z7.7000000000000062.50000000000001273.00000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>The holiday season is a great time for children, but it can also lead to injuries. Read these simple tips to keep kids safe during the holidays.</p><p>The holiday season is a great time for children. But unfamiliar items, distractions and changes in routine can lead to injuries. Here are some simple steps to keep children safe during the holidays.</p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul> <li>At holiday parties and events make sure there is someone designated to supervise the children. Consider hiring a babysitter for the evening.</li> <li>Show guests where to dispose of items that may be dangerous to small children such as toothpicks, cigarette butts and beverage cans.</li> <li>Keep holly and mistletoe out of reach of children because they are poisonous. In addition, poinsettia plants can cause skin irritation and stomach upset.</li> <li>Buy toys that are labelled for the correct age range. Age recommendations on toys are about safety, not the ability of the child.</li> </ul><h2>Safe celebrations</h2><h3>Keep an eye on the kids</h3><p>If you are planning on having, or attending, a party with your children this holiday season, make sure that a designated adult is supervising the children during the festivities. Different adults that you trust might want to take turns supervising the children over the course of the evening.</p><p>If you are hosting a party at your home, consider hiring a trained babysitter or designating a family member to look after the children. This will allow everyone time to enjoy the party. Remember, if you assume that everyone at the party is watching your children, you might end up with no one watching them.</p><h3>Clean as you go</h3><p>Some holiday party items might pose a risk or choking hazard to small children. Show guests where to safely dispose of items such as beer cans, cigarette butts and toothpicks used for hors d’oeuvres. This will reduce the risk of children putting these items in their mouths.</p><p>Keep visitors' purses and coats in a designated area, out of reach of young children. Visitors' coats may contain items such as medicines and lighters that could harm a child.</p><h2>Fireside safety</h2><p>To avoid chimney fires, it is important to have your fireplace and chimney cleaned and inspected every year by a certified professional.</p><h2>Safe decorating</h2><p>When decorating the house and the Christmas tree, use these tips to prevent fire and injury.</p><h3>Tree safety</h3><p>When purchasing an artificial tree, look for one that is fire resistant. When purchasing a cut tree, look for one that is freshly cut. To tell if a tree is freshly cut, follow this simple checklist.</p><ul><li>Needles do not break when you bend them between your fingers.</li><li>Needles do not fall off the tree easily.</li><li>The tree stump is sticky with resin.</li></ul><p>If you buy a cut Christmas tree, make sure to maintain it properly over the holidays.</p><ul><li>Keep the tree away from heat sources such as radiators, televisions, fireplaces, heating ducts and sunny windows. This will reduce the risk of the tree catching fire.</li><li>Dry Christmas trees pose a fire hazard – make sure to keep the tree stump in water at all times to reduce the risk.</li><li>Even with frequent watering, trees dry out over time. When the holidays are over, remove the Christmas tree as soon as possible.</li></ul><p>Always choose a sturdy base for your Christmas tree. A weighted, wide-spread base will provide better support and prevent the tree from being tipped over by a small child.</p><h3>Light and electrical safety</h3><ul><li>Use Canadian Standards Association (CSA) approved light sets only. It may be tempting to buy cheaper lights, but these may pose a greater fire risk.</li><li>Use the right lights in the right place. Indoor lights are not weatherproofed for the outdoors. Outdoor lights may burn too hot for the indoors. LED lights generate almost no heat, and are the safest option.</li><li>Check all lights, bulbs, sockets and extension cords every year. Make sure nothing is frayed, cracked or broken.</li><li>Never hang electric lights on metallic trees. Build-up of electricity could shock people who touch them, or short out the lights and cause an electrical fire.</li><li>Be careful not to overload electrical cords and outlets; never have more than 1,400 watts on one circuit.</li><li>Do not coil or bunch electrical cords; this can cause them to heat up and pose a fire hazard. Running cords under carpets or rugs may also pose a fire hazard.</li><li>Turn off tree lights when you go to bed or leave the house.</li></ul><h3>Decoration safety</h3><p>Young children are naturally curious, and the draw of a decorated Christmas tree might be too much for them to resist. This is why it is important to choose your holiday decorations wisely.</p><p>If you choose to use decorations that are small, breakable or sharp, make sure to hang these near the top of the tree, out of reach of children. Use only soft, unbreakable ornaments near the base of the tree.</p><h3>Plant safety</h3><p>Holly and mistletoe are poisonous; it is important to keep these items out of reach of children. If your child has eaten berries from these plants, call your local poison information centre.</p><p>Poinsettia plants are not poisonous, but they can still cause skin irritation and stomach upset if eaten.</p><h3>Candle safety</h3><p>If you have small children, use battery-operated candles where possible. This will help to avoid the potential for burns.</p><p>If you decide to use flame-burning candles, make sure that they are out of reach of children, and that candle holders have a sturdy base. Never leave burning candles unattended, and be sure to keep them away from curtains and other flammable objects. Do not use lit candles on Christmas trees.</p><h2>Toy safety</h2><p>Keep these tips in mind when buying toys for your children. Make sure that gifts from friends and family are also safe.</p><ul><li>Always buy toys that are labelled for the correct age range, even if your child is advanced for their age. Age recommendations on toys are about safety, not the ability of a child to master the toy or game. Toys for children under three should be bigger than the child's fist to avoid the risk of choking.</li><li>Inspect toys before giving them to your child. Make sure they are in good condition and that they do not have parts that could break off and be swallowed.</li><li>Avoid toys with long strings or cords for babies and toddlers, as they may pose a risk of strangulation.</li><li>Old batteries can leak and cause corrosive burns, and if swallowed, batteries can cause internal chemical burns or poisoning. If you give your child battery-operated toys, make sure that the batteries are in good condition, and secure inside the toy.</li><li>Magnets can cause serious injury or death if children swallow them. Do not give toys with magnets to small children.</li></ul><h2>Travel safety</h2><p>Over the holidays, many drivers spend more time than usual on the road, running errands, and going to holiday events. This can lead to extra frustration and exhaustion while driving. It is important to drive with caution during the holiday season. Give yourself extra time when heading to holiday events to avoid the desire to rush while on the roads.</p><p>If your holiday plans include a flight out of town, remember to pack appropriate <a href="/Article?contentid=495&language=English">car seats or booster seats</a> for younger children.</p><h2>Sources</h2><p>Tips for holiday safety. <em>Government of Canada</em>. Retrieved from <a href="https://www.canada.ca/en/health-canada/services/home-safety/tips-holiday-safety.html?_ga=1.68067601.1644699692">https://www.canada.ca/en/health-canada/services/home-safety/tips-holiday-safety.html?_ga=1.68067601.1644699692</a>. </p><p>Holiday Fire Safety. <em>Ontario Association of Fire Chiefs</em>. Retrieved from <a href="http://www.oafc.on.ca/holiday-fire-safety">http://www.oafc.on.ca/holiday-fire-safety</a>. </p><p>Winter holidays: Tips for parents on holiday safety. <em>Parachute Canada</em>. Retrieved from <a href="http://www.parachutecanada.org/injury-topics/item/winter-holidays">http://www.parachutecanada.org/injury-topics/item/winter-holidays</a>. </p><p>Home Fire Safety Checklist. <em>United States Fire Administration</em>. Retrieved from <a href="https://www.usfa.fema.gov/downloads/pdf/home_safety_checklist.pdf">https://www.usfa.fema.gov/downloads/pdf/home_safety_checklist.pdf</a>.</p><p>Holiday, candle and Christmas tree fire safety outreach materials. <em>United States Fire Administration</em>. Retrieved from <a href="http://www.usfa.fema.gov/prevention/outreach/holiday.html">http://www.usfa.fema.gov/prevention/outreach/holiday.html</a>.</p>holidaysafetyholidaysafetyhttps://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/holiday_safety.jpg The holiday season is officially here! Check out these simple holiday safety tips to keep the entire family safe while you celebrate. Main
How to give acetaminophen and ibuprofen for feverHow to give acetaminophen and ibuprofen for feverHow to give acetaminophen and ibuprofen for feverHEnglishNAChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)NANADrug treatmentAdult (19+) CaregiversFever2019-03-22T04:00:00Z8.9000000000000055.30000000000001068.00000000000Health (A-Z) - ProcedureHealth A-Z<p>Learn how acetaminophen and ibuprofen can be used to help make your child more comfortable and bring down their fever. Also learn how to use acetaminophen and ibuprofen together if using only one medication is not working.</p><h2>Does my child have a fever?</h2><h3>A temperature of 38°C (100.4°F) or higher is a fever</h3><p>Children often feel warm to the touch when they have a fever. To confirm that your child has a <a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/article?contentid=30&language=english">fever</a>, use a thermometer to measure your child's body temperature. A temperature of 38°C (100.4°F) or higher means that your child has a fever.</p><p>Fever itself is not a disease or illness. Fever is a signal that something is going on in the body. How your child looks and acts are more important than how high their fever is.</p><h2>What medications treat fever?</h2><h3>When should I treat a fever with medication?</h3><p>You should use medication to keep your child comfortable. You should not base your judgment on how high the fever is but rather on how your child is feeling. If your child has a fever but is still playing, drinking well and is happy, it may not be necessary to use medication to treat their fever.</p><h3>Medications used to treat a fever</h3><p> <a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/article?contentid=62&language=english"> <strong>Acetaminophen</strong></a> (e.g., Tylenol, Tempra) and <a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/article?contentid=153&language=english"> <strong>ibuprofen</strong></a> (e.g., Advil, Motrin) are two medications that are commonly used to treat fever in children. It is best to use only one of these medications to treat a fever. You can choose which one you prefer to use, both work equally well.</p><p>The correct dose of acetaminophen or ibuprofen for a child is based on their body weight. An estimated dose is usually provided on the medication package. Note that acetaminophen and ibuprofen have different doses and different lengths of time between doses. Also it may take up to an hour for the medication to start helping.</p><p>If using only one of these medications is not helping to make your child feel more comfortable or bring down their fever, you can try giving the two medications together. This may help make your child feel more comfortable because acetaminophen and ibuprofen help to treat fever in different ways. These medications are safe to take at the same time, or within a short amount of time of one another.</p><p>For information on how to safely use acetaminophen or ibuprofen tablets by mouth for children please see this <a href="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/How_to_use_acetaminophen_or_Ibuprofen_tablets.pdf">information sheet</a>.</p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>When deciding whether or not to give your child medication to treat their fever you should take into consideration not just how high their temperature is but also how they look and are acting.</li><li>Two common medications that are used to treat fever are acetaminophen and ibuprofen.</li><li>If using only one medication is not making your child more comfortable then you can try giving acetaminophen and ibuprofen together.</li><li>When giving acetaminophen and ibuprofen together make sure you do not give acetaminophen more often than once every four hours, and ibuprofen more often than once every six hours.</li></ul><h2>How do you give acetaminophen and ibuprofen together?</h2><p>Doses of acetaminophen (e.g., Tylenol, Tempra) should be given at least four hours apart. Doses of ibuprofen (e.g., Advil, Motrin) should be given at least six hours apart. There are limits on how much of each medication can be given in a 24-hour period. Please look at your medication bottle for daily dosage limits or ask your pharmacist.</p><p>When you are giving acetaminophen and ibuprofen to your child it is important to keep track of which medication you have given, how much you have given and when you gave it.</p><h3>Here is an example of how to give acetaminophen and ibuprofen together</h3><table class="akh-table"><tbody><tr><td><ul><li>It is 12:00 p.m. and your child has a temperature of 39.0°C (102.2°F) and is feeling unwell. Give <strong>ibuprofen</strong> (e.g., Advil, Motrin).<br></li><li>Check your child’s temperature one hour later <strong>(1:00 p.m.)</strong>. If they still have a fever and are still feeling unwell, give <strong>acetaminophen</strong> (e.g., Tylenol, Tempra).</li><li>Check your child’s temperature each hour for the next three hours <strong>(2:00 p.m., 3:00 p.m. and 4:00 p.m.)</strong>. Even if they still have a fever and are still feeling unwell, you cannot give any medication at this time.</li><ul><em> <li>You cannot give ibuprofen because it has not been six hours since the last dose.</li> <li>You cannot give acetaminophen because it has not been four hours since the last dose.</li> <li>Try other methods to help cool your child such as a cold cloth on the forehead or take off extra layers of clothing.</li></em> </ul><li>Check your child’s temperature another hour later <strong>(5:00 p.m.)</strong>. If they still have a fever and are still feeling unwell, give <strong>acetaminophen</strong>.</li><ul><li> <em>It is safe to give acetaminophen again at this time because it has been four hours since the last dose of acetaminophen.</em></li></ul><li>Check your child’s temperature one hour later <strong>(6:00 p.m.)</strong>. If they still have a fever, give ibuprofen.</li><ul><li> <em>It is safe to give ibuprofen again because it has been six hours since the last dose of ibuprofen.</em></li></ul></ul></td></tr></tbody></table><p> <strong>Here is a chart to explain the above example:</strong></p><table class="akh-table"><thead><tr><th width="19%">Time</th><th width="25%">Temperature (example)</th><th width="28%">Give ibuprofen (e.g., Advil, Motrin)</th><th width="28%">Give acetaminophen (e.g., Tylenol, Tempra)</th></tr></thead><tbody><tr><td>12:00 p.m.</td><td> <strong>39.0°C (102.2°F)</strong></td><td style="text-align:center;"> <strong>X</strong></td><td></td></tr><tr><td>1:00 p.m.</td><td> <strong>38.5°C (101.3°F)</strong></td><td></td><td style="text-align:center;"> <strong>X</strong></td></tr><tr><td>2:00 p.m.</td><td> <strong>38.0°C (100.4°F)</strong></td><td colspan="2" style="text-align:center;">Cannot give any medication at this time</td></tr><tr><td>3:00 p.m.</td><td> <strong>38.4°C (101.1°F)</strong></td><td colspan="2" style="text-align:center;">Cannot give any medication at this time</td></tr><tr><td>4:00 p.m.</td><td> <strong>38.5°C (101.3°F)</strong></td><td colspan="2" style="text-align:center;">Cannot give any medication at this time</td></tr><tr><td>5:00 p.m.</td><td> <strong>38.2°C (100.8°F)</strong></td><td></td><td style="text-align:center;"> <strong>X</strong></td></tr><tr><td>6:00 p.m.</td><td> <strong>38.5°C (101.3°F)</strong></td><td style="text-align:center;"> <strong>X</strong></td><td></td></tr></tbody></table><h2>Important reminders when giving medication for fever</h2><p>Always check your child’s temperature before giving medication for fever. If your child does not have a fever, they do not need the medication. Remember that if a child has a fever but is still playing, drinking well and is happy, they may not need medication to treat the fever at that time.</p><p>It is important to keep track of when you have given medication to your child, especially if you are giving doses of acetaminophen and ibuprofen together.</p><p>Many children’s cough and cold medications contain acetaminophen or ibuprofen. Check the ingredients of any other medications you are giving your child to see if they contain acetaminophen or ibuprofen. If they do, you will need to reduce the dose of acetaminophen and ibuprofen you are giving your child to make sure they are not receiving too high of a dose.</p><p><strong>Whether or not you are treating your child’s fever, if you are concerned that your child is not well please seek medical care.</strong></p>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/ICO_DrugA-Z.pngAcetaminophen and ibuprofen for fever Learn how acetaminophen and ibuprofen can be used to help make your child more comfortable and bring down their fever. Main
Nasal congestion: How to clear your baby's dry, stuffy noseNasal congestion: How to clear your baby's dry, stuffy noseNasal congestion: How to clear your baby's dry, stuffy noseNEnglishNANewborn (0-28 days);Baby (1-12 months)NoseNoseConditions and diseasesCaregivers Adult (19+)Nasal congestion2019-02-04T05:00:00Z6.3000000000000074.70000000000001005.00000000000Health (A-Z) - ConditionsHealth A-Z<p>Some newborns are born with a stuffy nose. Learn why and check out some simple tips for parents on how to clear your baby's stuffy nose.</p><p>In the first few days of life, a newborn may sound like they have a stuffy nose because in the womb they were surrounded by fluid. Sometimes they sneeze for the first couple of days as they try to get rid of this leftover fluid in their nasal passages. A newborn with a stuffy nose may snort when breathing and sound "snuffly."</p><p>Stuffy nose or nasal congestion in babies happens when the tissues inside the nose swell or produce mucus. If your baby has a stuffy nose they may breathe through their mouth, which can make it harder for them to feed. In rare cases, a stuffy nose can cause breathing problems. Usually, nasal congestion goes away on its own within a week.</p><p>Extremely dry air can cause the sensitive lining of a baby's nose to dry up. The blood vessels inside a dry nose may break and bleed. If your baby's nose has not been injured but it bleeds, it may be because of a dry nose. This dryness may also make it easier for a baby to get a cold.</p><p>Nasal dryness often worsens during cold winter months, when heating makes the air inside the home dry.</p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>Newborns may sound like they have a stuffy nose because of leftover fluid in their nose from the womb.</li><li>Usually, newborn stuffy nose goes away on its own within a few days.</li><li>In babies, nasal congestion or stuffy nose happens when the tissues inside the nose swell.</li><li>Use salt water nasal drops or an infant nasal aspirator or suction bulb to help clear mucus from your baby's nose.</li><li>If your baby has trouble breathing, see your doctor right away. </li></ul><h2>What causes stuffy nose in babies?</h2><ul><li>dry air</li><li>irritants such as dust, cigarette smoke, or perfumes</li><li>viral illnesses (such as a cold)</li></ul> <p>Try the measures below to help your baby's dry or stuffy nose. If your baby keeps having difficulty breathing or feeding, check with your baby's doctor to rule out any infection or condition that may be causing the stuffy nose.</p><h2>How to soothe your baby's dry nose</h2><p>If a dry or irritated nose seems to be bothering your baby, try these tips:</p><h3>Moisten your baby's nose</h3><p>You can buy salt water (saline) drops at the drug store.</p><ol><li>Lay your child on their back. Place a rolled towel or a small blanket beneath their shoulders or gently press on the tip of the nose to make it easier for the drops to go in.</li><li>Put two or three saline drops into each nostril. Wait 30 to 60 seconds before draining your baby's nose.</li></ol><h3>Run a humidifier or cool-mist vaporizer near your baby's crib</h3><p>If your baby has a dry nose they may also have a stuffy nose. Water vapor can help moisten and loosen the mucus inside your baby's nose. Clean out and re-fill the vaporizer every day.</p><h2>How to clear your baby's stuffy nose</h2><p>In addition to running a humidifier or vaporizer near your baby's crib, you can also clear the mucus using saline nose drops.</p><h3>Clearing mucus using saline nose drops</h3><ol><li>Lay your child on their back. Place a rolled towel or a small blanket beneath their shoulders or gently press on the tip of the nose to make it easier for the drops to go in.</li><li>Put two or three saline nose drops into each nostril. Wait 30 to 60 seconds.</li><li>Turn your child onto their stomach to help their nose drain. Catch the mucus outside the nostril with a tissue or swab. Your baby might cough or sneeze the mucus and saline out.</li><li>Roll the swab or tissue around the outside of the nostril to draw the fluid out of the nose. Do not insert a cotton swab into your child's nostrils.</li></ol><h3>Clearing mucus using an infant nasal aspirator or nasal suction bulb</h3><p>If you have trouble removing the mucus, try using an infant nasal aspirator or nasal suction bulb. A nasal aspirator is a tube that is placed in your baby’s nostril, while you inhale through the mouthpiece of the tube to draw out any mucus. The mucus is then caught in a filter. A suction bulb is inserted into your baby’s nostril and acts as a vacuum to remove mucus. Suction bulbs are generally less effective in clearing mucous and secretions.</p><p>How to use a nasal aspirator:</p><ol><li>Before the first use, rinse the aspirator with hot water and dry thoroughly.</li><li>Place a clean filter in the filter chamber and reconnect the aspirator.</li><li>Lay the child on their back with their head tilted to the right. Carefully place one to two saline drops into the nostril. Follow the same procedure in the opposite nostril after turning the child’s head to the left.</li><li>Place the nasal aspirator soft tip at the entrance of the baby’s nostril. Inhale through the mouthpiece to gently draw out the mucus. Mucus will be collected in the hygienic filter and cannot pass through the inhalation tube. Repeat in the other nostril. Gently lift the baby to allow any remaining mucus to drain out or their nose.</li><li>Soak a tissue or cotton ball in saline solution and use it to gently wipe the child’s nostrils.</li><li>After each use, unclip the aspirator at its base, remove and discard the used filter, rinse the nasal aspirator with hot water and dry. Do not sterilize or boil the nasal aspirator. </li></ol><p>How to use a nasal suction bulb: </p><ol><li>Pinch the air out of the bulb.</li><li>Gently place the tip into the nostril, just inside the opening. Do not go too deep or you can cause damage to the inner part of the nose. Let the air come back into the bulb, pulling the mucus out of the nose with it.</li><li>Release the mucus onto a tissue.</li><li>Rinse the bulb well with fresh water before and after each use.</li></ol><div class="asset-video"> <iframe src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/0gQqI2gz0Z4?rel=0" frameborder="0"></iframe> </div><h2>When to see a doctor</h2><p>Call your doctor if your child develops any of the following symptoms.</p><ul><li><a href="/Article?contentid=30&language=English">Fever</a></li><li>Rash</li><li>A stuffy nose together with swelling of the forehead, eyes, side of the nose or cheek</li><li>A stuffy nose that lasts longer than two weeks</li><li>Difficulty breathing or breathing quickly</li><li>Significant trouble feeding or not interested in feeding</li><li>Your baby is extremely fussy or seems to be in pain</li></ul><img alt="" src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/nasal_congestion.jpg" style="BORDER:0px solid;" />congestedbabycongestedbabyhttps://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/nasal_congestion.jpgNasal congestion in babiesMain
Sleep tips: How to help your child get a good night's sleepSleep tips: How to help your child get a good night's sleepSleep tips: How to help your child get a good night's sleepSEnglishPreventionChild (0-12 years)NANAHealthy living and preventionCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2020-04-13T04:00:00Z7.4000000000000069.90000000000001305.00000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>​Learn some tips to help your child get enough sleep.</p><p>Sleep brings your child a wide range of <a href="/Article?contentid=645&language=English">physical and mental benefits</a>. From birth onwards, your child’s wellbeing depends on their getting enough sleep for their age and activity levels. Following the tips below will help your child fall asleep and stay asleep through the night.<br></p><div class="asset-video"> <iframe src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/videoseries?list=PLjJtOP3StIuUzDEHQ26azPp3X36nXGstg" frameborder="0"></iframe> <br> <p>For more videos from SickKids experts in collaboration with Youngster, visit <a href="https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCoKMd2cYwegtZX19uHdNLQA">Youngster on YouTube</a>.</p></div><h2>Key points</h2> <ul> <li>​Help your child get enough sleep by following a regular schedule, encouraging your child to exercise and follow a balanced diet and limiting caffeine from the afternoon onwards.</li> <li>A relaxing routine and a comfortable sleep environment - free of electronics - can also help a child fall asleep more easily and sleep through the night.</li> <li>Make the morning routine easier by preparing breakfast and laying out clothes the night before.</li> <li>See a doctor if your child seems inattentive or sleepy during the day or experiences loud snoring or pauses in their breathing at night.</li> </ul><h2>Keep to a schedule</h2><p>Your child's body likes a regular schedule. Keep a regular sleep routine that allows your child to wake up and go to bed at about the same time every day. During times of stress or uncertainty, it is especially important to keep to a regular schedule of sleep and wake times. Older children may see the lack of formal school or routine as a reason to allow later bedtimes and as a result, later wake up times, but try to encourage them to keep to a regular sleep and wake schedule. </p><p>Try to make sure your child falls asleep and wakes up at the same time at least six days a week. Bedtimes and wake times should not vary by more than one hour from one day to the next, including on weekends.</p><p>Try to avoid letting your child sleep in late on weekends. Sleeping in can make it harder for your child to keep a regular schedule during the week. If your child is well rested, you can change the schedule once in a while for special events and they can recover from the occasional late night much faster.</p><h2>Help your child develop healthy habits</h2><p>Help your child develop and maintain good daily lifestyle habits. These will help make your child comfortable and ready for sleep.</p><ul><li>Encourage your child to get regular exercise.</li><li>Avoid or limit caffeine (from pop, energy drinks, coffee, tea or chocolate) from the afternoon onwards.</li><li>Offer regular, balanced meals based on the four food groups in <a href="/Article?contentid=1436&language=English">Canada's Food Guide</a>.</li></ul><h2>Avoid naps for children aged six and older</h2><p>A healthy child over six years of age should not need a nap during the day. Daytime naps for older children can affect the time the child will fall asleep at night. This results in a later bedtime and may lead to poorer quality nighttime sleep.</p><p>If your child is under six years of age, allow them to have a nap if they need one. If your child is six years old or older, try to limit daytime napping. Napping during the day, or early evening, will make it harder for your child to fall asleep at bedtime.</p><h2>Create a relaxing routine</h2><p>Create a relaxing bedtime routine that your child can follow each night. To start, be clear about when it is bedtime each night. For example, tell your child that 8:00pm is ‘pyjama time’ and 8:30pm is lights out, and stick with those times. If your child has difficulty falling asleep, you could allow extra time by starting their bedtime a little earlier.</p><p>Encourage your child to take a bath or shower before bed to help them feel sleepier and more relaxed. Going to bed with a calm state of mind can reduce the risk and frequency of common <a href="/Article?contentid=306&language=English">sleeping problems</a> such as nightmares, sleep walking and <a href="/Article?contentid=305&language=English">night terrors</a>.</p><p>Include 20 to 30 minutes of quiet time in your child’s bedtime routine. Good wind-down activities include reading, looking through a magazine, listening to music or writing in a journal. Dimming the lights half an hour before your child’s bedtime will help your child feel sleepy.</p><p>Avoid and discourage stimulating activities such as playing videogames, using the computer, using a cell phone. <a href="/Article?contentid=644&language=English">Turn off all electronics</a> at least one hour before bedtime.</p><h2>Create a comfortable sleep environment</h2><p>Make sure your child’s pyjamas are comfortable and appropriate for the season and that their bedroom is cool and quiet. It is also important for them to sleep on a mattress and pillow that offer good support to their spine.</p><p>Keep the bed for sleeping only. In other words, discourage your child from doing their homework or using a computer in bed. These activities can cause your child to link bedtime with stress or active thinking when they are trying to sleep.</p><p>Avoid having a television, computer, tablet or cell phone in the bedroom. Watching television or using a computer, tablet or a phone at night can stimulate the brain rather than relax it. In addition, your child may get into the habit of turning on the television or checking their phone if they cannot stay asleep during the night. If you are watching television after your child falls asleep, make sure the volume is low enough that they cannot hear it.</p><p>Put a glass of water by the bed so your child does not need to get out of bed if they are thirsty during the night. Make sure the water is in easy reach for your child.</p><p>Consider engaging your child’s different senses to help them fall asleep. For instance, children who have trouble falling asleep may enjoy the relaxing smell of lavender. You could use lavender scented laundry detergent or place a few drops of lavender oil on your child’s pillow.</p><h2>Tips for a happier morning</h2><p>Offer your child some options for breakfast and prepare it with your child the night before, if possible. For example, you could cut up fresh fruit and cook oatmeal the night before so you or your child can quickly combine them the next morning.</p><p>Help your child choose an outfit the night before. If your child is old enough to get dressed alone, place the outfit somewhere they can easily reach it in the morning.</p><p>If your child is in school, help them pack their backpack before bed. Making sure everything is packed and ready to go the night before makes for a much less stressful morning. At night, you have more time to look for something that may be missing or to sign an important school note.</p><p>Let your child know what time you will wake them up in the morning. Calmly wake your child in the morning by giving them a hug, gently rubbing their arm or quietly saying their name.</p><h2>When to see a doctor about your child’s sleep</h2><h3>Toddler/preschooler</h3><p>See your child’s doctor if your child:</p><ul><li>has persistent and loud snoring or pauses or <a href="/Article?contentid=1918&language=English">problems breathing</a> while sleeping</li><li>seems irritable, hyperactive, inattentive or sleepy during the day</li><li>has excessive <a href="/Article?contentid=271&language=English">anxiety</a> about being separated from you during the day and night</li><li>has just developed a problem with sleep</li><li>finds it hard to change from two naps to one nap a day</li><li>sleepwalks</li><li>has <a href="/Article?contentid=305&language=English">night terrors</a> or frequent nightmares.</li></ul><h3>School-aged child</h3><p>See your child’s doctor if:</p><ul><li>your child's teacher tells you they seem tired even though you think they get enough sleep</li><li>your child develops new night terrors or sleepwalking habits that they did not have before the age six or seven</li><li>your child needs regular naps</li><li>your child experiences loud snoring, pauses in their breathing or extreme restlessness at night.</li></ul><h2>Further information</h2><p>For more tips on maintaining your child's mental health, please see the following pages:</p><p><a href="https://meant2prevent.ca/">Meant2Prevent</a></p> <p> <a href="/Article?contentid=639&language=English">Nutrition: How a balanced diet and healthy eating habits can support your child's mental health</a></p><p> <a href="/Article?contentid=642&language=English">Physical activity: Guidelines for children and teens​</a><br></p><p> <a href="/Article?contentid=641&language=English">Physical activity: Benefits of exercise for health and wellbeing​</a></p><p> <a href="/Article?contentid=645&language=English">Sleep: Benefits and recommended amounts​</a></p><p> <a href="/Article?contentid=647&language=English">Sleep tips: How to help your teen get a good night's sleep</a></p><p> <a href="/Article?contentid=643&language=English">Screen time: Overview</a></p><p> <a href="/Article?contentid=644&language=English">Screen time: How to help your child set healthy limits</a></p><h2>Resources</h2><p>Canadian Paediatric Society (2012). <em> <a target="_blank" href="http://www.caringforkids.cps.ca/handouts/healthy_sleep_for_your_baby_and_child">Healthy sleep for your baby and child​</a></em>.​</p><p>National Sleep Foundation (2016). <em> <a target="_blank" href="https://sleepfoundation.org/sleep-topics/children-and-sleep">Children and sleep</a></em>.</p><img alt="" src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/sleep_benefits_recommended_amounts.jpg" style="BORDER:0px solid;" />https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/sleep_benefits_recommended_amounts.jpgTips for a good night's sleep Sleep brings many physical and mental benefits. Follow these tips to help your child fall asleep and stay asleep through the night. Main
Viral gastroenteritis (stomach flu)Viral gastroenteritis (stomach flu)Viral gastroenteritis (stomach flu)VEnglishInfectious Diseases;GastrointestinalChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)Stomach;Small Intestine;Large Intestine/ColonImmune systemConditions and diseasesCaregivers Adult (19+)Abdominal pain;Diarrhea;Fever;Headache;Vomiting2023-08-27T04:00:00Z9.9000000000000049.0000000000000866.000000000000Health (A-Z) - ConditionsHealth A-Z<p>Viral gastroenteritis, often called "stomach flu," is an infection that causes inflammation of the stomach and intestines. Learn the symptoms and treatment of viral gastroenteritis.</p><h2>What is viral gastroenteritis?</h2><p>Gastroenteritis is the inflammation of the stomach and small and large intestines. Viral gastroenteritis means the inflammation is caused by infection from a virus. It often causes <a href="/Article?contentid=746&language=English">vomiting</a> (throwing up), <a href="/Article?contentid=7&language=English">diarrhea</a> or both.</p><p>Viral gastroenteritis is often called "stomach flu," but it is not caused by the influenza virus. Viruses that cause viral gastroenteritis include rotaviruses, adenoviruses, caliciviruses, astroviruses, and a group of Norwalk-like viruses.</p><h3>Viral gastroenteritis is NOT caused by any of the following, although the symptoms may be similar:</h3><ul><li>bacteria such as salmonella or E. coli </li><li>parasites such as Giardia </li><li>medications </li><li>other medical conditions </li></ul><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>Viral gastroenteritis is an infection of the stomach and intestines, caused by a virus.</li><li>The main symptoms include diarrhea and vomiting.</li><li>Diarrhea and vomiting can cause a loss of fluids, also called dehydration.</li><li>If dehydration is severe, patients may have to be given fluid intravenously (IV) at the hospital.</li><li>Viral gastroenteritis can spread by sharing food, water and utensils. Frequent hand washing can help prevent the spread of infection to others.</li><li>Viral gastroenteritis is usually not a serious illness. However, people who have weak immune systems are at risk for more serious infection.</li></ul><h2>What are the symptoms of viral gastroenteritis?</h2><p>Diarrhea and vomiting are the main symptoms of viral gastroenteritis.</p><p>In addition to diarrhea and vomiting, a child with viral gastroenteritis may have the following symptoms. </p><ul><li> <a href="/Article?contentid=30&language=English">Fever</a></li><li>Stomach cramps or a sore stomach</li><li> <a href="/Article?contentid=29&language=English">Headache</a></li><li>Sore throat</li><li>Decreased activity level</li><li>Increased sleepiness</li><li>Decreased appetite </li></ul><p>In general, the symptoms begin one to two days after catching the virus. They can last for one to 10 days.</p><h2>Viral gastroenteritis can be spread</h2><h3>Viral gastroenteritis can spread through the following methods:</h3><ul><li>sharing food, water or eating utensils such as forks and knives with someone who has the virus</li><li>not washing hands after touching items that may have the virus on their surface</li><li>not washing hands after diaper changes or toileting</li></ul><p>It is important to clean and disinfect surfaces and items that your child touches, including toys, and wash laundry thoroughly to remove the virus from your home. Washing with soap and water is the most effective way of cleaning surfaces and objects.</p><h2>Anyone can catch viral gastroenteritis</h2><p>People of all ages and backgrounds can get viral gastroenteritis. Toddlers, especially those in daycare, may get viral gastroenteritis more frequently since they are exposed to all viruses, share toys and often wash their hands less often.</p><h2>Treating viral gastroenteritis</h2><p>The best treatment for viral gastroenteritis in children and adults is to prevent <a href="/Article?contentid=776&language=English">dehydration</a>. Dehydration happens when more fluid leaves the body than enters it.</p><h3>Symptoms of dehydration include:</h3><ul><li>Dry, cracked lips and a dry or sticky mouth </li><li>Thirst </li><li>Low or no urine output; concentrated urine appears dark yellow </li><li>Not producing tears </li><li>Being fussy or cranky </li><li>Seeming bored or uninterested </li><li>Headache </li><li>Dizziness </li><li>Cramps </li><li>Chills </li><li>Fatigue </li></ul><h3>In severe cases, dehydration can cause:</h3><ul><li>Sunken eyes </li><li>Sunken fontanelle (soft spot) on the top of a baby's head </li><li>Nausea or vomiting </li><li>Irritability</li><li>Lethargy (little to no energy)</li></ul><p>If your child becomes severely dehydrated, they may need to be treated at the hospital. In the hospital, fluids can be replaced through an intravenous line (IV) if necessary. </p><h2>Viral gastroenteritis is rarely a serious illness</h2><p>For most people, viral gastroenteritis is not a serious illness. People who get viral gastroenteritis almost always recover completely without any long-term problems. How fast a child recovers from viral gastroenteritis partly depends on which virus is causing the illness.</p><p>Viral gastroenteritis can be a serious illness in people who are unable to drink enough fluids to replace what they lose through vomiting or diarrhea. Babies, young children, and people who are unable to care for themselves, such as the disabled or elderly, are at risk for dehydration from losing too much of the body's water.</p><p>People with immune system problems are at risk for dehydration because they may get more severe symptoms, including more vomiting and diarrhea. People with severe symptoms may need to stay in the hospital to treat or prevent dehydration.</p><h2>You can prevent viral gastroenteritis with good hand washing</h2> <h3>To avoid catching or spreading viral gastroenteritis, you should do the following things:</h3> <ul> <li>Wash hands well and often with soap and water. This is especially important at hospitals and other medical facilities. </li> <li>Do not visit anyone in hospital when you are ill with symptoms of viral gastroenteritis. Ask other family members and friends to do the same. </li> </ul><h2>If your child is in hospital, help stop viral gastroenteritis from spreading</h2><ul><li>Your child may be placed in a single room and will not be able to visit the playroom until they are feeling better. </li><li>Wash your hands often before and after touching your child and before leaving your child's room. Expect hand washing by hospital staff as well. </li><li>If you or anyone else who has visited becomes ill with symptoms of viral gastroenteritis, let your child's doctor or nurse know.</li><li>If your child has symptoms of viral gastroenteritis and they are in the hospital, all staff caring for your child should wear gloves and a gown. </li></ul><img alt="" src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/viral_gastroenteritis_flu.jpg" style="BORDER:0px solid;" />stomachflustomachfluhttps://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/viral_gastroenteritis_flu.jpg Stomach flu is an infection that causes inflammation of the stomach and intestines. Learn the symptoms and treatment of stomach flu.Main



BronchiolitisBronchiolitisBronchiolitisBEnglishRespiratoryChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)LungsLungsConditions and diseasesCaregivers Adult (19+)Cough;Fever;Runny nosehttps://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/Respiratory_system_MED_ILL_EN.jpg2023-10-07T04:00:00Z6.7000000000000070.30000000000001382.00000000000Health (A-Z) - ConditionsHealth A-Z<p>Bronchiolitis is an infection of the lungs caused by a virus that most children will get by the time they are two. Usually, it is not a serious illness and goes away within seven to 10 days. Cough associated with bronchiolitis can last for a few weeks.</p><h2>What is bronchiolitis?</h2><p>Bronchiolitis is a common infection of the lungs caused by a virus. The infection makes the tiny airways in the lungs swell. These small airways are called <a href="https://pie.med.utoronto.ca/htbw/module.html?module=lung-child">bronchioles</a>. The swelling makes the airways narrower, which makes it harder for your child to breathe.</p> <figure class="asset-c-100"> <span class="asset-image-title">Respiratory system</span><img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/Respiratory_system_MED_ILL_EN.jpg" alt="Location of the lungs, trachea, bronchus, bronchioles and diaphragm in a boy, with close-up on bronchioles and alveoli" /> </figure> <p>Most cases of bronchiolitis are caused by a virus called <a href="/Article?contentid=764&language=English">respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)</a>, although many other viruses can cause it too. Most children will get RSV by the time they are two years old. The infection is most common from November to April, during the RSV season.</p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>Bronchiolitis is a common viral infection of the lungs.</li><li>Children with bronchiolitis may have trouble breathing.</li><li>If your child has trouble breathing, has become dehydrated or seems very sick, take your child to the nearest hospital.</li><li>Good hand washing will reduce the spread of infection.</li></ul><h2>Signs and symptoms of bronchiolitis</h2><p>At first, your child may have a fever, runny nose or <a href="/Article?contentid=774&language=English">cough</a>. Your child will probably cough a lot.</p><h3>Other signs can include:</h3><ul><li>fast, shallow breathing</li><li>high-pitched breathing sounds (wheezing)</li><li>the skin sucking in (indrawing) in the chest below the rib cage, above the collarbone, between the ribs or in the neck; these are called retractions</li><li>flaring of the nostrils</li><li>increased irritability, crankiness or tiredness</li><li>eating or drinking less</li><li>trouble sleeping</li></ul><p>At first, your child's cough will probably be dry, short, shallow and weak. After several days, your child may start to bring up a lot of mucus when coughing.<br></p><p>Most children with bronchiolitis are only mildly ill with coughing or wheezing. They do not need any special medical treatment. Bronchiolitis usually lasts about seven to 10 days. In some cases, children can have a cough or mild wheeze that lasts for weeks, even after the virus is gone.</p><h2>Bronchiolitis can be more severe in some children</h2><h3>Bronchiolitis can be more severe if:</h3><ul><li>your baby is younger than three months old</li><li>your child lives in a household with smokers</li><li>your child has <a href="/Article?contentid=1470&language=English">asthma</a> or other chronic lung problems</li><li>your child was born prematurely (35 weeks gestation or less)</li><li>your child has certain types of <a href="/Article?contentid=1576&language=English">congenital heart disease</a></li><li>your child has immune system problems</li></ul><p>In severe cases, a child with bronchiolitis may need to go to the hospital.</p><h2>The viruses that cause bronchiolitis spread by coughing, sneezing and touching</h2><p>The viruses that cause bronchiolitis are spread through tiny droplets that come from an infected person’s nose and mouth when they cough or sneeze. They can also be passed when an infected person touches an object, such as a toy, and another person touches the same object. When children touch their own noses, eyes and mouths, they can infect themselves with the virus. Sharing toys and playing close together increases the spread of infection.</p><h2>Treating bronchiolitis at home</h2><p>Most cases of bronchiolitis can be managed at home. Treatment for bronchiolitis usually involves managing the symptoms of the condition.</p><ul><li>Place your child in a partly sitting or upright position. This makes breathing easier. </li><li>Babies should keep breastfeeding or drinking formula as usual.</li><li>If your baby's nose is congested, saline nose drops may help to clear it. This can help your baby feed more easily. </li><li>If your baby is not feeding well, try giving smaller feedings more often. This will help your baby get enough food and liquids.</li><li>Encourage your older child to drink, especially clear fluids such as water or apple juice mixed with water. If your child does not want to drink, try to offer fluids in small amounts more often than usual. </li><li>Do not expose your child to tobacco smoke. </li><li>If your child is allergic to pets or substances in the air, keep them away. These substances irritate the lungs and may make the bronchiolitis worse. </li><li>Do not give cough medicines to children younger than six years old.</li><li>Watch your child for signs of <a href="/Article?contentid=776&language=English">dehydration</a>, such as dry or sunken eyes, dry sticky mouth or less urine than usual.</li></ul><div class="asset-video"> <iframe src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/ESvlOfNkjaA?si=qkOVLD-Wef0TvmGA"></iframe>  </div><h2>Treatment in hospital for bronchiolitis</h2><p>In more severe cases of bronchiolitis, your child may need to be treated in hospital. At the hospital, your child is in a new place that may be a little scary. You can help comfort and calm your child with loving care.</p><p>Here is what you can expect while at the hospital.</p><ul><li>Doctors, nurses and other health-care professionals will listen often to your child's chest with a stethoscope. The sounds they hear tell them if your child is breathing well enough.</li><li>Your child will be placed in a partly sitting or upright position to make breathing easier.</li><li>A member of the health-care team may gently suction your child's nostrils.</li><li>Your child may need to breathe extra oxygen. This helps make sure enough oxygen gets into your child's blood.</li><li>If your child is very unwell, their doctor may ask for blood tests or a <a href="/article?contentid=1647&language=English">chest X-ray</a> to be done, or for a tube to be inserted in a vein (intravenous line) or from the nose to the stomach (<a href="/Article?contentid=984&language=English">NG tube</a>). Most children do not need these.</li></ul><p>Your child does not need medicines such as antibiotics or antivirals. These medicines will not help. Medicines to treat wheezing usually do not help either. Steroids usually do not help except for in certain situations.</p><h2>Preventing bronchiolitis</h2><p>Bronchiolitis is very common and spreads easily, but there are several ways you can reduce your child's risk of catching it.</p><ul><li>Some viruses that cause bronchiolitis, such as <a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=764&language=English">RSV</a>, <a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=763&language=English">influenza</a> and <a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3872&language=English">COVID-19</a> can be prevented with vaccination. Speak to your health-care provider to see if your child is eligible for any of these specific vaccinations.</li><li>Good <a href="/Article?contentid=1981&language=English">hand washing</a> with soap and warm water is the most effective way to reduce the spread of infection. Wash hands after coming in from outside, after playing with other children's toys and before eating.</li><li>Do not expose your baby to cigarette smoke. Smoking has been associated with increased infection rates. Even second-hand smoke is harmful to your child.</li><li>Try to stay away from infected people or large crowds, especially if your baby is younger than three months old.</li><li>Young children often place toys in their mouths. Clean toys often if they are being shared.</li><li>Teach children to prevent spreading germs by learning to sneeze or cough in their sleeve or elbow. If a tissue is available, children can use it, put the used tissue in the garbage, and then wash their hands.</li><li>If your child goes to daycare or school, tell the caregiver which signs of illness your child has.</li><li>If you can, keep your child at home until breathing is easier.</li></ul><h2>Children who have trouble breathing must go to the hospital</h2><h3>Take your child to the nearest emergency department if you notice any of the following signs:</h3><ul><li>Your child is breathing very fast.</li><li>Your child is having trouble breathing. Look for retractions of the chest or neck, and flaring of the nostrils. These signs are more serious if your child is also wheezing.</li><li>Your child's skin looks blue or paler than usual.</li><li>Your child is not feeding or drinking enough and has become dehydrated. This means your child's body does not have enough fluid to work properly. This can happen when your child is not drinking enough. Your child may be dehydrated if their eyes appear to be dry or sunken or if they are urinating (peeing) less than usual.</li><li>Your child is much more lethargic, or sleepy than usual, and does not want to play.</li><li>Your child is very cranky or fussy and cannot be comforted.</li><li>Your young baby is not able to feed or drink.</li></ul><p>Watch this video for more information on spotting signs of breathing trouble in your child.</p><div class="asset-video"> <iframe src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/NPQJRr7R1SU?si=9g5BB5L7TqT6r7fg"></iframe> <br></div><p>Your child may show physical changes when their condition is serious or when their condition gets worse. Parents and caregivers can learn how to <a href="https://www.healthcareexcellence.ca/media/s3bbk5nv/20221216_signsmaterialsqr_en.pdf">spot these signs</a> in order to seek help from a health-care provider.</p>bronchiolitisbronchiolitisMain
Influenza (flu): An overviewInfluenza (flu): An overviewInfluenza (flu): An overviewIEnglishInfectious DiseasesChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)BodyImmune systemConditions and diseasesCaregivers Adult (19+)Cough;Fever;Headache;Sore throat2020-09-30T04:00:00Z7.1000000000000070.10000000000001335.00000000000Health (A-Z) - ConditionsHealth A-Z<p>Although the flu is very common, it can be dangerous for some people including young children, the elderly, and those with compromised immune systems or other underlying diseases. Learn more about the flu and how to protect against it.</p><h2>What is influenza?</h2><p>Influenza (flu) is a lung infection caused by specific influenza viruses. People can get the flu at any time of year, but it is more common in the fall and winter. <br></p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>Influenza (flu) is not the same as the common cold. </li><li>Flu is caused by the influenza virus. </li><li>Most people who get the flu do not get seriously ill and will have symptoms for two to seven days. </li><li>You can reduce your risk of getting the flu by getting a flu shot each year and washing your hands frequently. </li><li>If your child has the flu they should stay home and rest. If they do not start to feel better after a few days or if symptoms get worse, call your child’s primary care provider. </li></ul><h2>Common symptoms of the flu</h2><p>People who get the flu usually have some or all of the following symptoms:</p><ul><li> <a href="/article?contentid=30&language=english">fever</a></li><li>muscle aches</li><li> <a href="/article?contentid=29&language=english">headache</a></li><li> <a href="/article?contentid=748&language=english">sore throat</a></li><li> <a href="/article?contentid=774&language=english">cough</a></li><li>fatigue and weakness</li></ul><p>Most of these symptoms usually last for two to seven days. Rare but serious complications of the flu include bacterial pneumonia and influenza infection of the brain. </p><h2>The flu can be serious for some people</h2><p>Most people who have the flu will not become seriously ill. But the flu can be more serious for some people. Typically, those most at risk are in one of the following groups:</p><ul><li>Children under two years of age</li><li>People 65 years of age or older</li><li>People living in long-term care facilities such as a nursing home, a home for the aged or a chronic care hospital </li><li>People with chronic heart, lung or kidney disease</li><li>People with diabetes, cancer, immune system problems or sickle cell anaemia</li><li>Children and teenagers aged six months to 18 years who have been treated with <a href="/article?contentid=77&language=english">acetylsalicylic acid (ASA)</a> for long periods </li><li>People who have trouble clearing mucus from their nose and throat because of weakness or underlying illness</li></ul><p>These groups, and anyone who lives or works with people from these groups, should generally be immunized each year with the flu vaccine (flu shot). That way, people from these high-risk groups are less likely to be infected with the flu. </p><h2>How the flu spreads</h2><p>The flu spreads very easily from an infected person to others through coughing and sneezing. It is also spread by touching objects after someone with the flu has touched them. </p><h2>Treating the flu</h2><p>If you or your child have the flu, stay home and rest. Usually, treatment is focused on the symptoms the person is feeling. For example, if your child has a fever, you can give them acetaminophen or ibuprofen to reduce fever. </p><p>For information on how to safely use acetaminophen or ibuprofen tablets by mouth for children please see this <a href="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/How_to_use_acetaminophen_or_Ibuprofen_tablets.pdf">information sheet</a>.</p> <p>Do not give <a href="/article?contentid=77&language=english">acetylsalicylic acid (ASA)</a> to a child under 16 years of age. Do not give cough medicines to children under six years of age. Always read the label before giving any medicine.</p><p>In addition to fluids and pain medicine, other ways to treat flu symptoms include:</p><ul><li>applying heat on painful areas for short periods of time using a hot water bottle or heating pad to reduce muscle pain</li><li>taking a warm bath</li><li>gargling with a glass of warm water</li><li>using saline drops or spray and suction to clear a stuffy nose</li><li>keeping your home smoke free</li></ul><p>Call your child’s primary care provider if the above measures do not relieve your child's flu symptoms and your child feels worse or if you are worried.</p><h2>If your child has the flu in the hospital </h2><p>Your child will be placed in a single room and will not be able to visit the playroom until they are feeling better. Ask the child life specialist to bring toys and supplies to your child’s room.</p><p>Hospital staff will be wearing a mask, eye protection, gloves and gowns when they visit.</p><p>Wash your hands often, either with alcohol-based hand rubs or soap and water, before and after touching your child and before leaving your child's room. Hospital staff should wash their hands as well.</p><p>If you or anyone else who has visited becomes ill with symptoms of the flu, let your child's doctor or nurse know. </p><h2>Preventing the flu</h2><p>To help prevent the flu, it is important that you and your child get a flu shot every year.</p><p>You should also <a href="/article?contentid=1981&language=english">wash your hands</a> well. This can help prevent you from catching or spreading the flu. This is very important in hospitals, but it is true in other places as well. </p><p>Clean surfaces in your house regularly, especially ones you touch often. These include doorknobs, fridge doors, light switches, phones and computers.</p><p>If you have the flu, you should do the following things to avoid spreading it.</p><ul><li>Always cover your mouth and nose with a tissue when you cough or sneeze. Throw away the tissue, then wash your hands. These steps will help prevent spreading the flu and other respiratory viruses. </li><li>Do not visit the hospital when you are sick with symptoms of the flu. No one who is sick should visit a patient in the hospital, even if they are a relative. </li></ul><h3>The flu shot </h3><p> <strong>Does the flu shot really work?</strong></p><div class="asset-video">https://www.youtube.com/embed/MOUbk315E40</div><p>For more videos from SickKids experts in collaboration with Youngster, visit <a href="https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCoKMd2cYwegtZX19uHdNLQA">Youngster on YouTube</a>.</p><p>The influenza vaccine (flu shot) is made from pieces of killed or live but weakened flu viruses. It contains three or four different types of flu viruses. A person who receives the flu shot develops immunity for the types of flu in the vaccine. Immunity means the body builds up protection against the virus. </p><p>The body needs about two weeks after the shot to build up protection against the virus. This protection lasts for about six months.</p><p>The flu shot will not protect against other viruses, such as viruses that cause the common cold. </p><p>For tips on how to make vaccinations as easy and pain-free as possible, please read the articles, <a href="/article?contentid=989&language=english">Needle pokes: Reducing pain in infants aged up to 18 months</a> and <a href="/article?contentid=990&language=english">Needle pokes: Reducing pain in children aged 18 months or over</a>.<br></p><h3>A flu shot every year </h3><p>People need a new flu shot every year. The flu virus changes each year, so a different vaccine has to be used each year too. Doctors and scientists find out the types of flu virus that are circulating around the world. The vaccine is then made to protect against the types that are most likely to occur each year.</p><h3>Most people can get a flu shot </h3><p>The flu shot is free to people living in Ontario. Anyone older than six months of age should have the flu shot unless there is a reason not to. The best time to get the flu shot is in the fall, before the flu becomes more common. Ask your child's primary care provider if your child can get the flu shot. </p><h3>The flu shot and COVID-19</h3><p>It is more important than ever to get a flu shot during <a href="/article?contentid=3872&language=english&hub=COVID-19">COVID-19</a>. Getting the flu shot can help to reduce unnecessary testing for COVID-19, since symptoms of both illnesses are similar. It is also important to reduce your and your child’s chances of getting the flu in order to avoid trips to the doctor’s office or hospital. This will help to make sure that doctor’s offices and hospitals are not overwhelmed with flu cases while also treating COVID-19 cases. </p><p>The flu shot will not protect against COVID-19, therefore it is still important to wear a mask, perform hand hygiene and maintain a physical distance of 2 metres from those who are not in your social circle.</p><h2>When to seek medical attention</h2><p>Go see a doctor or to hospital if your baby is less than three months old and:</p><ul><li>has a fever</li><li>has fast or difficult breathing</li><li>is vomiting or not feeding</li></ul><p>Go see a doctor if your child:</p><ul><li>is more sleepy than usual</li><li>is more fussy than usual</li><li>is not drinking enough fluids or has not peed at least every six hours when awake</li><li>is vomiting</li><li>is having chest or stomach pain</li><li>is not feeling better after five days or gets better but then suddenly gets worse</li></ul><p>Call 911 or go to the nearest emergency department immediately if your child:</p><ul><li>is breathing quickly, or seems to be working hard to breathe</li><li>is very weak, dizzy, hard to wake up or does not respond well</li><li>is very fussy or cannot be comforted</li><li>is limping or refusing to walk</li><li>has bluish or dark-coloured lips or skin</li><li>has a stiff neck, severe headache or a seizure</li><li>has a very fast heart rate, even when the fever is down</li></ul><p>If you have any concerns, call your doctor or your local public health agency. In Ontario, you can also call TeleHealth Ontario at 1-866-797-0000.</p><p>If you or your child is in a high-risk group, call your doctor right away when you get flu symptoms. There are specific anti-viral medicines available to help treat flu. These medicines must be started early in the illness to be effective. Contact your child's doctor for more information. </p><img alt="" src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/influenza_overview.jpg" style="BORDER:0px solid;" />fluhttps://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/influenza_overview.jpg This year, it is more important than ever to get a flu shot. Learn about the flu shot and COVID-19, symptoms of flu and flu prevention. Main
PneumoniaPneumoniaPneumoniaPEnglishRespiratoryChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)LungsLungsConditions and diseasesCaregivers Adult (19+)Abdominal pain;Cough;Fever;Vomiting2023-08-31T04:00:00Z8.0000000000000061.3000000000000733.000000000000Health (A-Z) - ConditionsHealth A-Z<p>Pneumonia is an infection of the lungs and lower respiratory tract. Learn about the signs and symptoms and how to take care of your child. </p><h2>What is pneumonia?</h2><p>Pneumonia is an infection in the lungs. It may also be called a lower respiratory tract infection. Most cases of pneumonia are caused by viruses or by bacteria. A child could start out by having a viral infection which then becomes complicated by a bacterial pneumonia.</p> <figure class="asset-c-100"> <span class="asset-image-title">Pneumonia</span><img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/Pneumonia_XRAY_MEDIMG_PHO_EN.png" alt="An X-ray of normal left and right lungs and an X-ray of lungs with pneumonia in the right side" /> <figcaption class="asset-image-caption">In the lung with pneumonia, the affected part of the lung will appear white in a chest X-ray. The white shadow is caused by infected fluid in parts of the lung that are usually filled with air. This X-ray shows a bacterial pneumonia.</figcaption> </figure> <h2>Key points</h2> <ul> <li>Pneumonia is an infection deep in the lungs. It can be caused by viruses or bacteria.</li> <li>If your child is given antibiotics, be sure to finish all of them, even if your child is feeling better.</li> <li>Keep your child comfortable and give them lots of fluids.</li> </ul><h2>Signs and symptoms of pneumonia</h2><p>Pneumonia symptoms can vary greatly in children and may be different in pneumonia caused by viruses and pneumonia caused by bacteria. Common signs and symptoms of pneumonia include:</p><ul><li>high and/or persistent <a href="/Article?contentid=30&language=English">fever</a></li><li> <a href="/Article?contentid=774&language=English">cough</a></li><li>fast breathing</li><li><a href="https://youtu.be/NPQJRr7R1SU?si=x9HZiCKrYSpxD3AF">trouble breathing</a></li><li>crackly noises in the lung</li><li>loss of appetite</li><li> <a href="/Article?contentid=746&language=English">vomiting</a> due to the cough or from swallowing mucus</li><li>feeling unwell</li><li>abdominal (belly) pain or chest pain</li></ul>​<h2>What your doctor can do for pneumonia</h2><p>Your child’s health-care provider will listen to your child's lungs with a stethoscope and observe their breathing. If your child’s health-care provider suspects pneumonia or is concerned about their breathing, your child may have their oxygen level checked with an oxygen saturation monitor and a <a href="/article?contentid=1647&language=English">chest X-ray</a> to see what their lungs look like. Not every child needs a chest X-ray, but the pattern is often different in viral and bacterial pneumonia and can help your child’s health-care provider decide if they need antibiotics. Viral pneumonia does not need antibiotic treatment. If your child’s health-care provider suspects a bacterial infection as a cause of the pneumonia, then they will prescribe antibiotics. Your child’s health-care provider will look at many factors before deciding the best treatment.<br></p><h2>Taking care of your child at home</h2><h3>Finish all antibiotics</h3><p>If your child was given antibiotics, they must finish all the pills or liquid, even if they are feeling better.</p><h3>Monitor and treat the fever</h3><p>To treat the fever or achy muscles, use <a href="/Article?contentid=62&language=English">acetaminophen</a> or <a href="/Article?contentid=153&language=English">ibuprofen</a>. You can give these medicines even if your child is also on antibiotics. They do not interact.</p><h3>Keep your child fed and hydrated.</h3><p>Make sure your child drinks plenty of fluids to stay <a href="/Article?contentid=776&language=English">hydrated</a>. Your child may not want to eat much at first. Once the infection begins to clear and your child starts to feel better, they will want to eat more.</p><h3>Avoid smoky places</h3><p>Keep your child away from smoke, vaping products and other lung irritants.</p><h3>Cough symptoms</h3><p>Your child's cough may get worse before it gets better. As the pneumonia goes away, your child will cough to get rid of the mucus. The cough may continue for two to three weeks.</p><h2>When to see a doctor</h2><h3>See your child's health-care provider if:</h3><ul><li>your child has a fever and cough for more than three days</li><li>you are concerned about your child's fast breathing or frequent vomiting due to cough</li><li>your child has been diagnosed with pneumonia and their fever lasts more than three days after starting antibiotics</li></ul><h3>Take your child to the nearest Emergency Department, or call 911 if your child:</h3><ul><li>has difficulty breathing</li><li>becomes very pale or blue in the lips</li><li>vomits antibiotic doses or will not take fluid</li><li>appears more sick</li></ul><h2>Hospital admission if needed</h2><p>Most children can be cared for at home. Very sick children may need to go to the hospital. They may need oxygen, fluids given intravenously (into a vein) or other medications. They may need antibiotics given intravenously at first, and then by mouth as they get better.</p><p>Your child may show physical changes when their condition is serious or when their condition gets worse. Parents and caregivers can learn how to <a href="https://www.healthcareexcellence.ca/media/s3bbk5nv/20221216_signsmaterialsqr_en.pdf">spot these signs</a> in order to seek help from a health-care provider.</p><img alt="" src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/pneumonia.jpg" style="BORDER:0px solid;" />pneumoniapneumoniahttps://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/pneumonia.jpgMain
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)REnglishRespiratoryChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)Trachea;LungsTrachea;LungsConditions and diseasesCaregivers Adult (19+)Cough;Fever;Runny nose2023-10-07T04:00:00Z9.5000000000000056.00000000000001208.00000000000Health (A-Z) - ConditionsHealth A-Z<p>RSV is a virus that infects the lungs and airways and causes respiratory illness, especially in children. Learn how you can help your child if they have RSV.</p><h2>What is respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)?</h2><p>Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infects the lungs and airways and causes respiratory illness. It is a very common cause of cold in both children and adults. Most children will have an RSV infection by the age of two. Children are more likely to catch it during the RSV season, typically from November to April, when the virus is most active. Although most children will have a mild infection and not require any medical attention, RSV can also cause <a href="/article?contentid=765&language=english">bronchiolitis</a>, an inflammation of the lower airways, in young infants and toddlers. </p> <figure class="asset-c-80"><span class="asset-image-title">Respiratory system</span><img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/Respiratory_system_MED_ILL_EN.jpg" alt="Location of the lungs, trachea, bronchus, bronchioles and diaphragm in a boy, with close-up on bronchioles and alveoli" /> </figure><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a very common virus that causes cold symptoms in most infants and toddlers. However, it can sometimes cause serious breathing problems in some babies and infants, such as bronchiolitis.</li><li>RSV is spread when droplets from someone who is infected with the virus come into contact with the eyes, nose or mouth of someone nearby. It can also spread when droplets land on surfaces and someone touches that surface and then touches their eyes, nose or mouth.</li><li>You can help prevent spreading the virus by regularly washing your hands and keeping your child away from people who are unwell.</li></ul><h2>Signs and symptoms caused by respiratory syncytial virus</h2><p>A baby or child with this infection may:</p><ul><li><a href="/article?contentid=774&language=english">cough</a></li><li>have a runny nose</li><li>have a <a href="/article?contentid=30&language=english">fever</a></li><li>sometimes wheeze (breathe with a high-pitched whistling sound)</li></ul><p>Because these are common symptoms, it is easy to mistake RSV for other respiratory viruses. </p><p>In most cases, you can take care of your child with RSV or other respiratory viruses at home as long as they are breathing comfortably, and they are drinking and peeing as usual. The infection usually lasts a few days and resolves without the need for specific treatment.</p><p>In healthy adults, RSV is usually not serious. But adults can pass the virus to children, and older adults are at risk for more severe disease with RSV.</p><h2>Respiratory syncytial virus can be serious</h2><p>Some babies and children can develop a severe form of RSV. This may be in the form of <a href="/article?contentid=765&language=english">bronchiolitis</a> or <a href="/article?contentid=784&language=english">pneumonia</a> (lung infection) For more information about bronchiolitis, please see <a href="/article?contentid=765&language=english">www.aboutkidshealth.ca/bronchiolitis</a>. </p><h2>How does respiratory syncytial virus spread?</h2><p>RSV is spread through droplets from a person infected with the virus that are expelled when the person talks, coughs or sneezes. These droplets can make contact with the eyes, nose and mouth of people nearby or they may land on surfaces around the infected person. RSV can live on countertops and other hard objects for more than six hours. It can live on clothes and hands for up to one hour. Contact spread can then occur when someone touches a surface that is contaminated by droplets that contain germs and then touches their eyes, nose or mouth.</p><p>RSV can also be spread by touching:</p><ul><li>mucus from the nose or mouth of a person who has the virus</li><li>soiled tissues, surfaces, clothes and toys a person with the virus has touched</li><li>the unwashed hands of a person with the virus</li></ul><h2>Treatment of respiratory syncytial virus</h2><p>When a child is fighting RSV, treatment is mainly supportive to relieve the symptoms and maintain oxygen and hydration. </p><h3>Treatment for fever</h3><p>If your child has fever and is uncomfortable, you can give them <a href="/article?contentid=62&language=english">acetaminophen</a> or <a href="/article?contentid=153&language=english">ibuprofen</a>. For information on how to safely use acetaminophen or ibuprofen tablets by mouth for children please see this <a href="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/How_to_use_acetaminophen_or_Ibuprofen_tablets.pdf">information sheet</a>.</p><p>DO NOT give your child <a href="/article?contentid=77&language=english">acetylsalicylic acid (ASA)</a>. For more information about how to care for a baby, toddler or child with a fever, visit <a href="/article?contentid=30&language=english">www.aboutkidshealth.ca/fever</a>. </p><h3>Treatment for cough</h3><p>For most children, the cough is just a symptom of the virus. The cough will get better as the virus runs its course. Over-the-counter and prescription cold medicines do not make the illness go away faster. Cough and cold medicines should not be given to children under six years of age. Most cold and flu medicines can cause unwanted side effects, such as drowsiness, dizziness, trouble falling asleep or rapid heart rate.</p><p>Sometimes a severe cough can be a sign of a complication, such as a chest infection or asthma. A doctor can listen to your child's chest to assess if your child is having a complication and give treatment for these conditions, if needed.</p><h3>Antibiotics</h3><p>Antibiotics have no effect on viruses, such as RSV, and would not routinely be used as they will not help your child get better faster.</p><h2>Preventing respiratory syncytial virus</h2><p>You can help stop the spread of RSV by:</p><ul><li>washing your hands with soap and water or using alcohol-based hand sanitizer before and after touching your child. Ask others to do the same.</li><li>coughing or sneezing into your sleeve instead of your hands and putting used tissue into the garbage right away.</li><li>avoiding kissing or similar close contact with your child's face and hands when you are unwell.</li><li>wearing a mask in indoor public settings.</li><li>staying away from your hospitalized premature baby if you are sneezing, coughing or have a runny nose or a fever.</li><li>keeping your baby away from crowds and anyone with sneezing, coughing, a runny nose or a fever, especially during respiratory virus season. Infections spread more easily when there are more people around.</li><li>cleaning surfaces in your home that are touched often on a regular basis, more often during respiratory virus season.</li></ul><p>Do not expose your child to cigarette smoke. Smoking has been associated with increased infection rates.</p><p>Getting RSV once does not prevent a future infection. The average person may have an RSV infection multiple times during their lifetime.</p><p>There is no vaccine available for RSV. In certain young children who are at very high risk of RSV, a medication to prevent acquiring RSV called <a href="/article?contentid=208&language=english">palivizumab</a> may be recommended by health-care providers. This medication may be given to babies born very prematurely, or who have a severe lung or heart condition. </p><p>Several new RSV vaccines were approved in Canada in April 2023. One is recommended for infants and one is recommended for adults over the age of 60. For many years, RSV vaccination had been limited to certain young children at very high risk of RSV, including premature infants and infants with cardiac or respiratory conditions. While the new RSV vaccines may not yet be covered free of charge by your provincial health plan, you can talk to your health-care provider about the benefits of the available RSV vaccines for your child or other family members.<br></p><p>You should seek medical attention if your child has trouble taking in enough fluids to avoid dehydration. The first sign of this is reduced urine output (peeing less than usual; diapers are less wet).</p><p> <strong>Go to the nearest Emergency Department or call 911 if:</strong></p><ul><li>your child is working very hard to breathe</li></ul><p>Watch this video for more information on spotting signs of breathing trouble in your child.</p><div class="asset-video"> <iframe src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/NPQJRr7R1SU?si=qtlaRPF5Nxkkue9y"></iframe>  </div><p> <strong> <a href="/article?contentid=1041&language=english">Perform CPR</a> and call 911 if:</strong></p><ul><li>your child stops breathing</li><li>your child becomes unresponsive</li><li>your child’s skin turns blue (in people with lighter skin), pale or grey (in people with darker skin)</li></ul><p>Your child may show physical changes when their condition is serious or when their condition gets worse. Parents and caregivers can learn how to <a href="https://www.healthcareexcellence.ca/media/s3bbk5nv/20221216_signsmaterialsqr_en.pdf">spot these signs</a> in order to seek help from a health-care provider.</p><img alt="" src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/respiratory_syncytial_virus.jpg" style="BORDER:0px solid;" />rsvrsvhttps://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/respiratory_syncytial_virus.jpgMain
Viral respiratory infectionViral respiratory infectionViral respiratory infectionVEnglishRespiratoryChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)Trachea;LungsTrachea;LungsConditions and diseasesCaregivers Adult (19+)Cough;Fever;Runny nose;Sneezing;Sore throat2023-08-30T04:00:00Z9.6000000000000051.60000000000001037.00000000000Health (A-Z) - ConditionsHealth A-Z<p>Viral respiratory infection is a general term for lung and airway infections. Read about different viruses that can cause viral respiratory infections and treatment options.</p><h2>What is a viral respiratory infection?</h2><p>Viral respiratory infections include colds, the flu, <a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/article?contentid=765&language=english">bronchiolitis</a> and some types of lung infections (e.g., <a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=784&language=English">pneumonia</a>).</p><p>Respiratory means something that affects the lungs and airways (breathing passages). Viral respiratory infections may cause coughing, sneezing, runny noses, sore throats or fever. </p><p>Viral means something that is caused by a virus. Viruses that cause viral respiratory infections include respiratory syncytial viruses (RSV), influenza viruses, enteroviruses, parainfluenza viruses, adenoviruses, coronaviruses and rhinoviruses.</p><p>Viral respiratory infections are not caused by any of the following things, although the symptoms may be similar:</p><ul><li>bacteria, such as group A <em>Streptococcus</em> (strep) or pertussis </li><li>medicines</li><li>other medical conditions such as allergies or asthma</li></ul> <figure class="asset-c-80"> <span class="asset-image-title">Respiratory system</span> <img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/Respiratory_system_MED_ILL_EN.jpg" alt="Location of the lungs, trachea, bronchus, bronchioles and diaphragm in a child, with close-up of the bronchioles and alveoli" /> </figure><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>Viral respiratory infection is a name for several types of infections of the lungs and airways.</li><li>Viral respiratory infections are caused by many different viruses.</li><li>Viral respiratory infections spread through contact with mucus from the mouth or nose.</li><li>Viral respiratory infections can be a serious illness for infants and older adults and for anyone with chronic illnesses.</li><li>Good hygiene practices, including handwashing, covering the mouth and nose when coughing and masking, can help prevent the spread of viral respiratory infections.</li></ul><h2>Symptoms of a viral respiratory infection</h2><p>A person with a viral respiratory infection may have the following symptoms:</p><ul><li> <a href="https://akhpub.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=774&language=English">coughing</a></li><li>sneezing </li><li>runny nose </li><li> <a href="https://akhpub.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=748&language=English">sore throat</a></li><li> <a href="https://akhpub.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=30&language=English">fever</a></li><li><a href="https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NPQJRr7R1SU">trouble breathing</a><br></li></ul><p>The person may also have a <a href="/Article?contentid=29&language=English">headache</a> or sore muscles, or they may feel very tired.</p><p>In general, the symptoms start one to two days after the person catches the virus. They may last for one to 10 days, depending on which virus is causing the illness. </p><h2>Anyone can get a viral respiratory infection</h2><p>People of all ages and backgrounds can get a viral respiratory infection.</p><h2>A viral respiratory infection can be a serious illness for some people</h2><p>For most people, a viral respiratory infection is not a serious illness. People who get a viral respiratory infection almost always get completely well. They do not have any long-term problems.</p><p>For some people, though, a viral respiratory infection can be a serious illness. People who are more at risk from a viral respiratory infection include the following:</p><ul><li>babies</li><li>young children</li><li>people with an immune system problem or a chronic illness</li><li>people who cannot care for themselves well, such as the disabled or elderly</li></ul><p>These people may develop more serious complications, such as <a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=784&language=English">pneumonia</a> or <a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=776&language=English">dehydration</a>. They may get more severe symptoms than healthy people. People with severe symptoms may need to stay in the hospital for treatment to help with their breathing.<br></p><h2>How a viral respiratory infection is spread</h2><p>Most viral respiratory infections are spread by touching:</p><ul><li>mucus from the nose or mouth of a person who has the virus</li><li>soiled tissues or surfaces a person with the virus has touched </li><li>the unwashed hands of a person with the virus<br></li></ul><h2>Treating a viral respiratory infection</h2><p>To treat a viral respiratory infection in children and adults:</p><ul><li> Make sure the person gets plenty of rest.</li><li> If a baby has congestion in the nose, consider using a saline nasal wash and an <a href="https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0gQqI2gz0Z4">aspirator to suck the mucus out of their nose</a>. These products are available over-the-counter and may help your baby breathe more easily while they sleep. </li><li> Give the person lots of clear fluids to drink, such as water and apple juice. This will help make sure they do not get <a href="https://akhpub.aboutkidshealth.ca/article?contentid=776&language=English">dehydrated</a>.</li></ul><p>A health-care provider may prescribe medicine to help the infected person breathe more easily. The health-care provider will probably not prescribe antibiotics. Because viral respiratory infections are caused by viruses, antibiotics will not help treat the virus.</p><h2>If your child has a viral respiratory infection in the hospital</h2><p>Your child may be placed in a single room and will not be able to leave the room until they are feeling better.</p><p>Hospital staff will be wearing a mask, eye protection, gloves and a gown when they visit. Always wash your hands before and after touching your child and before leaving your child's room. Hospital staff should wash their hands as well.</p><p>If you or anyone else who has visited becomes ill with symptoms of a viral respiratory infection, let your child's health-care team know.</p><h2>Viral respiratory infections can be prevented with good hygiene and sometimes shots</h2><p>Good handwashing can help people from catching or spreading a viral respiratory infection. This is very important in hospitals, but it is true in other places as well.</p><p>To avoid spreading a viral respiratory infection, you should also do the following things:</p><ul><li>Always cover your mouth and nose with a tissue when you cough or sneeze. Throw away the tissue. Then wash your hands.</li><li>Do not visit the hospital when you are ill with symptoms of a viral respiratory infection. Ask other family members and friends to do the same.</li><li>Wearing a mask when you are ill or when you are in contact with someone who is ill can help prevent spreading the virus.</li></ul><h3>RSV shots</h3><p>Some premature or sick babies are at high risk from <a href="https://akhpub.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=764&language=English">RSV</a>. They can receive a series of shots that can help make the symptoms of RSV infection shorter and less severe.</p><h3>Flu shots and COVID-19 shots</h3> <p>While there are many viruses your child may be exposed to that cannot be prevented with a vaccination, there are two shots available that can protect your child. Flu shots and COVID shots are an effective way of preventing severe infections caused by <a href="https://akhpub.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=763&language=English">influenza (flu)</a> and <a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3937&language=English">COVID-19</a>. These shots change every season to provide the most updated and best protection for you and your child.</p>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/viral_respiratory_infection.jpgMain

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