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Mental healthMental healthMental healthMEnglishPsychiatryChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)NANANACaregivers Adult (19+)NALanding PageLearning Hub<p>Learn how to support your child’s wellbeing with activity, sleep and nutrition and how to recognize and manage various mental health conditions.<br></p><p>This hub includes resources for parents on how to support your child's mental health and general wellbeing through physical activity, sleep and nutrition. It also provides information on the signs, symptoms and treatments of different mental health conditions, including anxiety, bipolar disorder, depression, behavioural disorders, anorexia nervosa and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.<br></p><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"><i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h2 class="panel-title">Wellbeing<br></h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>The everyday pressures of growing up can put a strain on any child's mental wellbeing. Find out how physical activity, a healthy sleep routine, screen time limits and balanced nutrition can boost your child's mental health and support them through difficult times.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"><i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h3>Physical activity</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=642&language=English">Physical activity: Guidelines for children and teens</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=641&language=English">Physical activity: Benefits of exercise for health and wellbeing</a></li></ol></li><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"><i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h3>Sleep</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=645&language=English">Sleep: Benefits and recommended amounts</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=646&language=English">How to help your child get a good night's sleep</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=647&language=English">How to help your teen get a good night's sleep</a></li></ol></li><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"><i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h3>Screen time</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=643&language=English">Screen time: Overview</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=644&language=English">How to help your child set healthy screen time limits</a></li></ol></li><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"><i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h3>Nutrition</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=639&language=English">Nutrition: How a balanced diet and healthy eating habits can help your child's mental health</a></li></ol></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"><i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h2 class="panel-title">Anxiety disorders<br></h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>Every child feels anxiety at some point as a natural part of growing up. An anxiety disorder, however, is when anxious feelings interfere with a child's everyday routine. Learn more about the signs, symptoms and range of anxiety disorders and how they ​are treated.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=18&language=English">Anxiety: Overview</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=271&language=English">Signs and symptoms</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=270&language=English">Types of anxiety disorders</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=701&language=English">Treatment with medications</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=702&language=English">Psychotherapy and lifestyle changes</a></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"><i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h2 class="panel-title">Obsessive compulsive disorder<br></h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) occurs when a person suffers from troubling and intrusive thoughts and/or follows repetitive or strict routines to feel less worried. Learn about the causes, signs and impact of this disorder and how you can help your child.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=285&language=English">Obsessive compulsive disorder: Overview</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=288&language=English">Signs and symptoms</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=286&language=English">How OCD affects your child's life</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=709&language=English">Psychotherapy and medications</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=287&language=English">How to help your child at home</a></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"><i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h2 class="panel-title">Depression<br></h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>Depression is an illness that causes someone to feel deep sadness or a lack of interest in activities that they once enjoyed. Discover how this condition affects a child's mood, sleep, concentration and energy levels, and how it can be treated.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=19&language=English">Depression: Overview</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=284&language=English">Signs and symptoms</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=707&language=English">Treatment with medications</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=708&language=English">Psychotherapy and lifestyle changes</a></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"><i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h2 class="panel-title">Bipolar disorder</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>When a person has bipolar disorder, they alternate between low and elevated moods for days, weeks or months at a time. Learn about the bipolar disorder spectrum, the symptoms of manic and depressive episodes and how medications, therapy and lifestyle changes can help.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=279&language=English">Bipolar disorder: Overview</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=280&language=English">Signs and symptoms</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=704&language=English">Treatment with medications</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=705&language=English">Psychotherapy and lifestyle changes</a></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"><i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h2 class="panel-title">Suicide and self-harm</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>A child who experiences thoughts of suicide or self-harm is often suffering from overwhelming emotional pain. Find out how to help your child cope with difficult emotions, how to support and protect your child and where to find professional help.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=291&language=English">Suicide in children and teens: Overview</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=289&language=English">Self-harm in children and teens: Overview</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=290&language=English">Signs and symptoms of suicide risk</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=293&language=English">How to help your child with difficult emotions</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=292&language=English">How to protect your child from harm</a></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"><i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h2 class="panel-title">Eating disorders<br></h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>An eating disorder not only risks your child's health but can also disrupt family life. Find out about the symptoms and treatment of anorexia, bulimia, avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder and binge eating disorder and how you can help your child recover.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"><i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h3>Anorexia nervosa</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=268&language=English">Anorexia nervosa: Overview</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=269&language=English">Signs and symptoms</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=267&language=English">Medical complications</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=700&language=English">Treatment options</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=266&language=English">How to help your child at home</a></li></ol></li><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"><i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h3>Bulimia nervosa</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=282&language=English">Bulimia nervosa: Overview</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=283&language=English">Signs and symptoms</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=281&language=English">Medical complications</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=706&language=English">Treatment options</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=294&language=English">How to help your child at home</a></li></ol></li><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"><i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h3>Avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder (ARFID)</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=274&language=English">Avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder: Overview</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=275&language=English">Signs and symptoms</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=273&language=English">Medical complications</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=703&language=English">Treatment options</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=272&language=English">How to help your child at home</a></li></ol></li><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"><i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h3>Binge eating disorder (BED)</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=277&language=English">Binge eating disorder: Overview</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=278&language=English">Signs and symptoms</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=640&language=English">Obesity: Medical complications</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=276&language=English">How to help your child at home</a></li></ol></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"><i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h2 class="panel-title">Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) involves difficulties with controlling attention and regulating behaviour. Discover the main symptoms of ADHD in children and teens, how the disorder is diagnosed and how to help your child at home and at school.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1922&language=English">Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: Overview</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1923&language=English">Signs and symptoms</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1997&language=English">How to help your child at home</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1999&language=English">Communicating with your child's school</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1998&language=English">Treatment with medications</a></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"><i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h2 class="panel-title">Behavioural disorders</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>Behavioural disorders include oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder. Learn how these disorders differ from typical misbehaviour, how therapy and medications can help and how you can manage problematic behaviour at home.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1924&language=English">Behavioural disorders: Overview</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1925&language=English">Signs and symptoms</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2000&language=English">Treatment with psychotherapy and medications</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2001&language=English">How to help your child at home</a></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"><i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h2 class="panel-title">Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is triggered by experiencing or witnessing a terrifying event. Learn about the main symptoms of PTSD, how the condition is diagnosed and how psychotherapy and medications can help your child.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1927&language=English">Post-traumatic stress disorder: Overview</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1928&language=English">Signs and symptoms</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2005&language=English">Treatment with psychotherapy and medications</a></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"><i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h2 class="panel-title">Brain disorders and mental health</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>A brain disorder includes a condition, illness or injury that affects the brain and how it develops before or after birth. Find out how a brain disorder can affect your child's learning, mood and social skills, how its impact on mental health is assessed and how to help your child cope.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1926&language=English">Brain disorders and mental health: Overview</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2002&language=English">Assessing your child for neuropsychological difficulties</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2003&language=English">How to help your child cope</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2004&language=English">Common treatments</a></li></ol></div>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/Mental_health_landing-page.jpgmentalhealthhealthyliving
CPR in a child (from age 1 to puberty)CPR in a child (from age 1 to puberty)CPR in a child (from age 1 to puberty): First aidCEnglishNAToddler (13-24 months);Preschooler (2-4 years);School age child (5-8 years);Pre-teen (9-12 years)Heart;LungsHeartNon-drug treatmentCaregivers Adult (19+)NAhttps://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/IMD_CPR_child_chest_compressions_EN.jpg2016-10-17T04:00:00ZEmily Louca, BSc, RRT​​8.0000000000000066.0000000000000711.000000000000Health (A-Z) - ProcedureHealth A-Z<p>CPR is a life-saving technique that combines chest compressions and rescue breaths (mouth-to-mouth resuscitation).<br></p><h2>What is CPR?</h2> <p>CPR stands for cardiopulmonary resuscitation. CPR is an emergency procedure that involves chest compressions (pushing hard down on the chest) and rescue breaths (mouth-to-mouth resuscitation). When given properly, CPR can help deliver oxygen to the brain and other organs until help arrives or until your child recovers.</p> <p>The method described on this page applies to children between one year of age and puberty. Once puberty has begun, children should receive CPR as adults.</p><p>Causes of cardiac arrest in children and teens are usually a result of a major injury or illness and rarely from underlying heart disease.</p> <h3>Other causes may include: </h3> <ul><li><a href="/Article?contentid=1968&language=English">drowning</a></li> <li>suffocation</li> <li>electrocution</li> <li>poisoning or intoxication</li> <li>life-threatening (<a href="/Article?contentid=781&language=English">anaphylactic</a>) allergic reactions</li> </ul> <p>This information can refresh your memory if you have already undergone a CPR course. It does not replace real, hands-on CPR training. CPR courses are often available through local recreation programs, advanced swim programs and first aid programs. In Canada, such programs are offered by the <a href="http://www.redcross.ca/training-and-certification" target="_blank">Canadian Red Cross</a>, <a href="https://resuscitation.heartandstroke.ca/courses/firstaid/sfa?_ga=1.85792092.479256543.1450713783" target="_blank">Heart and Stroke Foundation</a> and <a href="https://www.sja.ca/English/Courses-and-Training/Pages/Course%20Descriptions/CPR-AED-Courses.aspx">St. John Ambulance</a> for example. The basic skills are simple and usually only take a few hours to learn.</p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul> <li>Take an official course to learn real, hands-on CPR. </li> <li>CPR involves both chest compressions and rescue breathing (mouth-to-mouth resuscitation). Give 30 compressions and two rescue breaths; repeat this cycle until help arrives or your child recovers.</li> <li>If your child is unresponsive and not breathing or only gasping despite stimulation, start CPR right away and have someone else call 911.</li> <li>Once your child starts breathing, put them in the recovery position. This will keep their airway open.</li> </ul><h2>Giving CPR to your child</h2><p>Check to see if your child is responsive by tapping them on the shoulder and asking loudly, “Are you OK?”. If your child does not answer, follow these instructions depending on your situation:<br></p><ul><li>If you are not alone, have someone else call 911 and get an AED (automated external defibrillator) right away, if available, while you are doing CPR. </li><li>If you are alone and have a cell phone, start CPR while calling 911 from your cell phone on speaker. After two minutes of CPR (five cycles), go get an AED if available.</li><li>If you are alone and have no cell phone, start CPR for two minutes (five cycles) and then call 911 from a landline and get an AED if available.</li></ul><ol class="akh-steps"><li> <figure> <img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/IMD_CPR_child_chest_compressions_EN.jpg" alt="Positioning child for CPR chest compressions" /> </figure> <h2>Chest compressions: Push hard, push fast</h2><p>Begin CPR by laying your child down on a firm, flat surface. Do not spend time trying to find a pulse. Place the heel of one or two hands over the lower third of your child's breastbone and give them 30 quick chest compressions (push fast). Be sure to push hard enough so their chest moves approximately 5 cm (2 inches) down (push hard). </p><p>Count out loud. You should deliver about 100-120 compressions a minute. Wait for the chest to come all the way back to its initial position between compressions. This will get the blood flowing to your child's brain and other vital organs.</p></li><li> <figure><img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/IMD_CPR_child_open_airway_EN.jpg" alt="Opening child's airway for rescue breaths" /> </figure> <h2>Rescue breaths: Open the airway</h2><p>After the first 30 chest compressions, place the palm of your hand on your child’s forehead. Place two fingers on the hard, bony tip of their chin and gently tilt their neck back. This will open your child's airway. </p></li><li> <figure><img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/IMD_CPR_child_breathe_airway_EN.jpg" alt="Giving child CPR rescue breaths" /> </figure> <h2>Two rescue breaths </h2><p>Pinch your child's nose and place your mouth over their mouth and give two breaths. Each breath should be just enough to make your child’s chest rise and should be no more than one second in length. Make sure you see your child's chest rise with each breath. </p></li><li> <figure> <img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/IMD_CPR_child_chest_compressions_EN.jpg" alt="Repeating CPR chest compressions" /> </figure> <h2>Repeat </h2><p>Give cycles of 30 chest compressions and two breaths during two minutes and repeat until the ambulance arrives or your child starts breathing again. Two minutes usually allow for five cycles of 30 chest compressions and two breaths.</p><p>A two-minute CPR cycle is usually tiring. If you are not alone, switch who is giving CPR every two minutes.</p></li><li> <figure class="”asset-c-100”"> <img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/IMD_CPR_child_recovery_position_EN.jpg" alt="Putting child in recovery position" /> </figure> <h2>Recovery position</h2><p>Once your child has recovered and started breathing again on their own, put them in the <a href="/Article?contentid=1037&language=English">recovery position</a> until help arrives. The recovery position will help keep your child’s airway open and prevent them from choking on their own vomit. If your child vomits, wipe it away. Make sure nothing is blocking or covering their mouth and nose. </p></li></ol><br>​​​​<p>The <a href="http://www.sickkids.ca/" target="_blank">Hospital for Sick Children​</a> offers the Heart and S​troke Foundation’s <a href="http://www.cvent.com/events/hospital-for-sick-children-standard-first-aid-heart-stroke-foundation-/event-summary-d989cebc9ab14e1281c6db68ab161d7c.aspx" target="_blank">First Aid program​</a>. It provides CPR and resuscitation training for patients, families and the general public.​</p> ​
DiabetesDiabetesDiabetesDEnglishEndocrinologyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)PancreasPancreasConditions and diseasesCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2018-01-19T05:00:00Z000Landing PageLearning Hub<p>This resource contains information, illustrations and animations to help you understand diabetes, from symptom recognition, to diagnosis, treatment and long-term outcomes. Learn about managing and living with diabetes on a daily basis.</p><p>This resource contains information about diabetes, from symptom recognition, to diagnosis, treatment and long-term outcomes. Learn about managing and living with diabetes on a daily basis. Throughout the resource you will find many illustrations and animations to help you understand the condition, its management and long-term consequences.</p><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h2 class="panel-title">What is diabetes?</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>Diabetes is a chronic condition that occurs when the body is not able to use sugar as energy. Find out more about the different types of diabetes and their causes such as genetic factors, environmental events, diseases or medications.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1717&language=English">What is diabetes?</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1718&language=English">Types of diabetes</a></li><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h3>Type 1 diabetes</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1719&language=English">Type 1 diabetes</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1720&language=English">Management of type 1 diabetes</a></li></ol></li><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h3>Type 2 diabetes</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1721&language=English">Type 2 diabetes</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1722&language=English">Management of type 2 diabetes</a></li></ol></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h2 class="panel-title">Balancing blood sugar levels</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>Diabetes management requires balancing the amount of sugar that enters the body through food with physical activity and potential diabetes medication. Learn about monitoring and controlling of blood sugar levels in this section.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1723&language=English">Balancing blood sugar levels</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1724&language=English">Measuring blood sugar levels</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1725&language=English">Monitoring blood sugar levels</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1726&language=English">Handling high and low blood sugar levels</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1727&language=English">Diabetic ketoacidosis</a></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h2 class="panel-title">Insulin in diabetes management</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>Some children with diabetes need insulin to help manage their condition. Insulin is a chemical messenger (hormone) that helps the body use sugar as energy. Learn more about the different types of insulins and injection devices to deliver it.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h3>Overview</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1728&language=English">Insulin in diabetes management</a></li></ol></li><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h3>Understanding insulin</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1729&language=English">Understanding insulin</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1730&language=English">Buying and storing insulin</a></li></ol></li><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h3>Insulin injections</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1731&language=English">Insulin injections</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1732&language=English">Pens and cartridges</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1733&language=English">Insulin pumps</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1734&language=English">Other devices for insulin injections</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1735&language=English">Selecting the injection site</a></li></ol></li><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h3>Insulin regimen</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1736&language=English">The insulin regimen</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1737&language=English">Changing insulin requirements</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1738&language=English">Insulin dose adjustment on a multiple daily routine</a></li> <li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=3021&language=English">Insulin dose adjustment on a TID or BID insulin routine</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=3022&language=English">Insulin dose adjustment when using an insulin pump</a></li></ol></li><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h3>Questions</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1739&language=English">Tips and questions about insulin</a></li></ol></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h2 class="panel-title">Maintaining a healthy diet</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>Keeping a healthy diet benefits everyone, not only children with diabetes. This section will help you understand what foods hide sugar, plan meals and snacks, and integrate this new diet in your family’s daily life.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h3>Overview</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1740&language=English">Maintaining a healthy diet</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1741&language=English">Meal planning for children with diabetes</a></li></ol></li><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h3>The meal plan</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1742&language=English">Setting up the meal plan</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1743&language=English">Meal planning with consistent carbohydrate intakes</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1744&language=English">Meal planning with changing carbohydrate intakes</a></li></ol></li><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h3>Management</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1745&language=English">Avoiding high and low blood sugar episodes</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1746&language=English">The glycemic index</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1747&language=English">Eating out and special occasions</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1748&language=English">Food issues at different ages</a></li></ol></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h2 class="panel-title">Adjusting to illness and activity<br></h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>Changes in your child’s routine can disturb their blood sugar levels and contribute to health issues. Illness, which increases stress, and exercise, which speeds up insulin activity, can contribute to rocketing or dropping blood sugar levels.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h3>Overview</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1749&language=English">Adjusting to illness and activity</a></li></ol></li><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h3>Sick day</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1750&language=English">Diabetes and sick day management</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1751&language=English">Insulin injection management during illness</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1752&language=English">Sick days and insulin pumps</a></li></ol></li><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h3>Exercise</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1753&language=English">Diabetes and exercise</a></li></ol></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h2 class="panel-title">Hemoglobin A1c</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>The hemoglobin A1c test (also called A1c test) measures the average blood sugar level over a three-month period. It can tell you how well your child’s blood sugar levels are overall controlled.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h3>Overview</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1754&language=English">Hemoglobin A1c</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1755&language=English">What is a good A1c reading?</a></li></ol></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h2 class="panel-title">Living with diabetes</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>Diabetes can affect your child's life at home, at school and on vacation. With effective management and support your child should be able to participate in many of the same activities as other children or teenagers their age.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h3>Overview</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2509&language=English">Living with diabetes</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2510&language=English">Effective management of diabetes care at home</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2511&language=English">The diabetes team</a></li></ol></li><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h3>Growth and development</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2512&language=English">Growth and development</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2513&language=English">Infants, toddlers and preschoolers with diabetes</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2514&language=English">School-aged children with diabetes</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2515&language=English">Teenagers with diabetes</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2516&language=English">Thrill-seeking and risky behaviour in teenagers</a></li></ol></li><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h3>Management</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2517&language=English">Diabetes in the classroom</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2518&language=English">Diabetes and vacations</a></li></ol></li><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h3>Looking ahead</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2519&language=English">Transitioning to adult health care</a></li></ol></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h2 class="panel-title">Complications of diabetes</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>Diabetes can lead to health complications such as eye disease, kidney problems or thyroid problems. Controlling blood sugar levels and eating well can help prevent complications.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h3>Overview</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2520&language=English">Complications of diabetes</a></li></ol></li><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h3>Complications</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2521&language=English">Screening for complications</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2522&language=English">Eye damage and diabetes</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2523&language=English">Kidney disease and diabetes</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2524&language=English">Other late effects of diabetes</a></li></ol></li><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h3>Related conditions</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2525&language=English">Screening for related conditions to diabetes</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2526&language=English">Thyroid diseases and diabetes</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2527&language=English">Celiac disease and diabetes</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2528&language=English">Addison's disease and diabetes</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2529&language=English">Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and diabetes</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2530&language=English">Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and diabetes</a></li></ol></li><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h3>Looking ahead</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2531&language=English">Setting the stage for a healthy future</a></li></ol></li></ol></div>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/diabetes_learning_hub.jpgdiabetesdiabetesDiabetes Awareness Month November is Diabetes Awareness Month. Learn about managing and living with diabetes on a daily basis.
Eczema: Seasonal changesEczema: Seasonal changesEczema: Seasonal changesEEnglishDermatologyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)SkinSkinNon-drug treatmentCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2014-01-10T05:00:00ZMiriam Weinstein, MD, FRCPC;Jackie Su, RN6.0000000000000072.0000000000000548.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Atopic dermatitis (eczema) can be worse in cold, dry weather or when your child is hot and sweaty. Find out how you can help your child.</p><p> <a href="/Article?contentid=773&language=English">Atopic dermatitis</a> is a chronic (long-lasting) skin condition that comes in many forms. It is also called eczema.</p><p>With eczema, the skin becomes dry, very itchy and rash may appear. There are usually times when the condition is worse, and times when the condition is better. When the condition worsens, this a called a flare-up. Flare-ups often occur in the winter months when the air is drier, but it can happen any time throughout the year.<br></p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>You may find that your child's eczema is worse in the colder, dryer months. Use a humidifier and keep moisturizing your child's skin.</li><li>In the warmer months, help your child stay cool to avoid sweating.</li><li>Protect your child's skin from the sun.<br></li></ul><h2>Colder months</h2><p>You may find that your child's eczema is worse in the colder, dryer months. During this time, the air becomes very dry and holds less moisture. This can cause dryer skin. Also, the heating in some houses can cause skin to dry out and flare-ups to occur. It is important that you keep your child covered in the winter and maintain your regular bathing and moisturizing schedule.</p><ul><li>In the colder months, your child should avoid wearing wool or other rough fabrics. These fabrics can be very irritating to the skin and may lead to flare-ups.</li><li>Dress your child warmly when they go outside. Layers are preferred because too much clothing may make your child sweat and increase itch. Protect the sensitive areas of the face and hands by having your child wear a scarf and gloves when going outside.</li><li>Use a humidifier. It helps keep the air moist and helps to prevent the skin from becoming dry. Using a humidifier in your child's room as well as in other often used rooms may be helpful. Keep the humidifier's filter clean of mould and dust because they could <a href="/Article?contentid=1484&language=English">trigger asthma attacks</a>.</li><li>Moisturize, moisturize, moisturize!</li></ul><h2>Warmer months</h2><p>In the warmer months, humidity can increase sweating and can cause flare-ups in some people. It is important for your child to stay cool. Sweating causes itchiness and can make the symptoms of eczema worse.</p><ul><li>Have your child wear loose-fitting cotton clothing. Cotton allows the air to circulate better and helps to absorb body moisture. This helps to keep the body cool and dry.</li><li>During flare-ups, it may be a good idea to lessen activities in which the child may sweat a lot, or try to participate in these activities earlier or later in the day when it is not as hot.</li></ul><h2>Sun exposure</h2><p>Many people with eczema find their symptoms get better when they go out in the sun. Other people may find their symptoms get worse. No matter what the case is for your child, you still need to <a href="/Article?contentid=308&language=English">protect their skin from the sun's harmful rays</a>. Some sunscreens can make eczema worse:</p><ul><li>Sunscreens may contain ingredients that can irritate some people's skin.</li><li>Test any new product on a small area before using it on the rest of the body.</li><li>Apply a small amount to the inside of your child's arm and wait 24 hours to see if any reaction happens.</li><li>If your child's skin becomes red or itchy after you have tested the sunscreen, do not use it.</li><li>Sunscreen with SPF 30 and above should be used.<br></li><li>If you are having trouble, ask your pharmacist, nurse or doctor for advice.</li></ul><h2>Resources</h2><ul><li>The <a target="_blank" href="http://www.eczemahelp.ca/">Eczema Society of Canada</a></li><li> <a target="_blank" href="http://www.eczemacanada.ca/">EASE Program</a></li><li> <a target="_blank" href="http://nationaleczema.org/">National Eczema Association</a></li><li> <a target="_blank" href="http://www.eczema.org/">National Eczema Society</a></li></ul><p>DermNet NZ. [http://www.dermnetnz.org]. Hamilton, New Zealand: DermNet NZ; 2008</p><img alt="" src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/eczema_seasonal_changes.jpg" style="BORDER:0px solid;" />https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/eczema_seasonal_changes.jpg
Opioids for painOpioids for painOpioids for painOEnglishPain/AnaesthesiaChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)BodyCentral nervous system;Peripheral nervous system;Autonomic nervous systemSymptomsCaregivers Adult (19+)Pain2014-05-16T04:00:00ZAnna Taddio, PhD;Laura Wang, RPh11.000000000000046.0000000000000606.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Learn why opioids such as morphine, fentanyl and codeine are prescribed and how they help manage pain in children.</p><p>Although there are many types, formulations and strengths of opioids, they are all chemically related to the same poppy plant that produces opium. Opioids are either synthetically produced or natural products and are among the oldest and best-known pain medicines.</p><ul><li>Opioids are among the oldest and best-known pain medications.</li><li>When taken exactly as instructed, opioids are very effective in treating moderate to severe pain with no risk of overdose or addiction.</li><li>The most commonly used opioids are morphine, oxycodone, hydromorphone, fentanyl and codeine.</li><li>Opioid side effects include constipation, drowsiness, itching, nausea, vomiting, mood changes and, most seriously, shallow and slow breathing.</li></ul><p>Some parents have serious concerns about their children being given these opioids. Mostly, they worry about addiction and the possibility of an overdose. However, these drugs are very effective for dealing with moderate to severe pain. And, if they are used properly, they should not pose these risks to the child. </p><p>The most commonly used opioids are morphine, oxycodone, hydromorphone, fentanyl and codeine. These pain medicines act on the tissues of the central nervous system and the brain to provide pain relief. </p> <h2>Morphine and other opioids</h2><p>Morphine​ and other opioid medicines such as fentanyl​, oxycodone and hydromorphone are among the strongest pain relievers. They are usually prescribed for moderate to severe pain and are frequently used following surgery, for cancer pain, and when ongoing pain relief is needed. </p><h2>Codeine</h2><p>Codeine only works because it is converted into morphine by an enzyme in the liver. However, up to 30% of children genetically do not have this enzyme. For them, codeine will have no effect on their pain. The opposite genetic condition also exists for some people. Called “codeine ultrametabolizers” these children convert codeine into excessive amounts of morphine which can be dangerous. It is possible that a child with this very rare condition could suffer a morphine overdose. The good news is now that this condition has been identified, health-care providers can monitor a child for dangerous side effects when first given codeine. Knowledge of this condition also means that some health-care providers may choose to use a different type of opioid to avoid this small risk. </p><p>Although it continues to be prescribed elsewhere, codeine and all codeine-containing medicines have been removed from The Hospital for Sick Children since 2010 to eliminate this risk. </p><h2>Side-effects</h2><p>There are side effects associated with opioids. All opioids slow down the bowels, and cause constipation and hard stools in about 50% of people. Although laxatives are often prescribed to relieve constipation, this is the only side effect that tends not to improve over time. Your child may require the occasional or regular use of laxatives while taking opioids to help maintain regular bowel movements. Opioids may also cause drowsiness, itchiness, nausea and vomiting. Some children may require additional medications to help control these side effects if they become intolerable. Some children develop an urgency to pee, while others have difficulty peeing. Opioids can also alter a child’s mood. For example, they might feel euphoric or very giddy, or they might feel a little down or teary. Some children may have vivid dreams or mild hallucinations, and feel disoriented. Health-care professionals can provide guidance that will help to minimize the impact of these worrying side effects. </p><p>Uncommonly, and if given in too high a dose, opioids can cause low blood pressure or respiratory depression, which is characterized by shallow breathing and a slow breathing rate. Children need to be carefully monitored for these effects as these are the most serious side effects of opioids. There are ways of medically managing serious side effects of opioids.</p><p>Should serious opioid-related side effects such as respiratory depression occur, the child may be given an antidote called naloxone that works quickly to reverse the effects of opioids.</p>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/Medications_for_JIA.jpg

 

 

Pain-free injections in children over one year of agePain-free injections in children over one year of agePain-free injections in children over one year of agePEnglishPain/AnaesthesiaToddler (13-24 months);Preschooler (2-4 years);School age child (5-8 years);Pre-teen (9-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)BodyNervous systemNon-drug treatmentCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2013-11-11T05:00:00ZAnna Taddio, BScPhm, MSc, PhD9.0000000000000061.0000000000000486.000000000000Health (A-Z) - ProcedureHealth A-Z<p>Advice for parents on how to make injections as easy and pain-free as possible for their children older than one year of age.</p><em>For the page on pain-free injections in babies, click <a href="/Article?contentid=989&language=English">here</a>.</em> <p>Vaccinations will protect your child from harmful infectious diseases. Vaccines must be given with a needle, which causes pain; this experience can be stressful for both children and parents.</p><p>Below are some methods you can use to help reduce the pain and anxiety associated with having your child vaccinated. </p> <div class="asset-video"> <iframe src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/TGGDLhmqH8I?rel=0" frameborder="0"></iframe> </div><h2>Key points</h2> <ul> <li>Vaccines are given with a needle, which causes pain, this can be stressful for both children and parents.</li> <li>There are methods you can use to help reduce the pain and anxiety your child feels when they have injections.</li> <li>Before the injection or vaccination you can use a topical anaesthetics and distract your child. </li> <li>During the injection or vaccination you can: hold your child; rub your child's skin; and stay calm. </li> </ul><h2>Planning ahead</h2><br> <h3>Talk to your doctor</h3><p>Before your child's vaccination appointment, discuss your plan for pain reduction with your doctor so they can support you in this plan. All of the information below is based on scientifically proven research done by experts at SickKids and across Canada.</p><h3>Talk to your child</h3><p>If your child is four years or older, help them to prepare for their vaccinations by discussing the procedure with them beforehand. </p><p> <em>Topics you might want to cover: </em></p><ul><li>What is going to happen - "the doctor is going to use a needle to give you a vaccine in your arm"</li><li>Why they need to get a vaccine - "the vaccine will protect you from getting sick"</li><li>How it will feel - "it might feel like a little pinch"</li><li>What will be done to manage their pain - "we are going to play a game, so that you do not notice it very much"</li></ul><h2>During the vaccination</h2><h3>Hold your child</h3><p>Holding your child comfortably in your lap will help to calm them during their immunizations, and will also encourage them to stay still </p><h3>Rub your child's skin</h3><p>Rub your child's arm before, during, and after the vaccination. The sensation of touch from your hand, rubbing an area of the arm away from the injection site, will compete with the pain experienced from the needle. This will help to lessen your child's perception of pain. </p><h3>Stay calm</h3><p>If you are feeling anxious before and during your child's vaccination, your child is likely to pick up on these emotions. Even though you may feel stress related to vaccination, try your best to remain calm. Use your normal speaking voice, and take slow, deep breaths.</p><p>For more detailed information on the suggestions given above, please download the handout: <a href="/En/HealthAZ/TestsAndTreatments/GivingMedication/Documents/Painfree%20Injections%20in%20Children%20over%201%20year%20EN.pdf">Pain-free injections in children over one year</a>.</p><h2>Before the vaccination</h2> <h3>Use of topical anaesthetics</h3> <p>Topical anaesthetic creams or gels may be applied to the area where your child will receive their vaccine, in order to reduce pain. In Canada, these products are available over the counter; they must be applied between 30 to 60 minutes prior to injection. It is important to discuss this option with your doctor, and to ensure that the anaesthetic gel or cream does not contain any ingredients that your child is allergic to.</p> <h3>Distract your child</h3> <p>Take with you any items that you can use to distract your child during their vaccination. These items might include favourite toys, mobile devices or bubbles. You can also sing, talk or tell jokes to distract them from any pain they might be experiencing. </p><img alt="" src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/pain_free_injections_children.jpg" style="BORDER:0px solid;" />https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/pain_free_injections_children.jpgReducing vaccination pain
Antibiotic resistanceAntibiotic resistanceAntibiotic resistanceAEnglishInfectious DiseasesChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)BodyImmune systemDrug treatmentCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2015-06-29T04:00:00ZSarah Lord, MD;Shaun Morris, MD, MPH, FRCPC, FAAP, DTM&H​​12.000000000000037.0000000000000651.000000000000Health (A-Z) - ConditionsHealth A-Z<p>Antibiotic resistance is a growing public health concern. Learn what it is, what causes it and how you can prevent it.</p><h2>What are antibiotics?</h2> <p>Infections can be caused by bacteria (germs), viruses, parasites or <a href="/Article?contentid=794&language=English">fungi</a>. Antibiotics are used to treat bacterial infections, such as <a href="/Article?contentid=784&language=English">pneumonia</a> or a <a href="/Article?contentid=935&language=English">urinary tract infection</a>. Antibiotics do not help to treat viral infections such as the <a href="/Article?contentid=12&language=English">common cold</a>, a viral cough or <a href="/Article?contentid=763&language=English">influenza (the flu)</a>.</p> <h2>What is antibiotic resistance?</h2> <p>Antibiotic resistance occurs when bacteria change in a way that causes antibiotics to become less effective or to not work at all. <br></p><h2>How does antibiotic resistance happen?</h2> <p>When bacteria come in contact with an antibiotic or antibacterial, the weaker bacteria die, but stronger ones survive. When the strong bacteria multiply, more and more strong bacteria are produced that are resistant to the antibiotic. </p> <p>Bacteria become stronger when they change, which reduces the effectiveness of antibiotics. For example, some bacteria can break down antibiotics or prevent the antibiotic from attaching to the site it needs to work. </p> <p>Bacteria can change more than once so that they are resistant to several antibiotics. This makes some bacteria very hard to kill.</p> <h2>Why is antibiotic resistance a problem?</h2> <p>Antibiotic resistance is a problem because we need antibiotics to treat bacterial infections that our bodies need help to get rid of. </p> <p>When bacteria are resistant to antibiotics, doctors have a hard time finding other antibiotics that will work to kill the bacteria. This means that if your child gets an infection from antibiotic-resistant bacteria, they can become very sick and more difficult to treat. </p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul> <li>Most infections like the common cold or flu are caused by viruses and should not be treated with antibiotics.</li> <li>Antibiotic resistance is a serious problem that causes people to have infections that are difficult to treat.</li> <li>Using antibiotics properly, including the right antibiotic at the right dose for the right person can help prevent antibiotic resistance.</li> <li>Plain soaps and household cleaners are safer and just as effective as antibacterial ones for use at home.</li> <li>Disposing of antibiotics properly (not in the water supply) is important to help stop the problem of antibiotic resistance.</li> </ul><h2>Causes of antibiotic resistance</h2> <p>Antibiotic resistance happens for many reasons. One reason is because antibiotics are used when they should not be, such as:</p> <ul> <li>Taking an antibiotic when it is not needed (such as to treat a viral illness).</li> <li>Taking the wrong antibiotic or the wrong dose.</li> <li>Stopping an antibiotic too soon.</li> <li>Using an antibiotic that was prescribed for somebody else.</li> </ul> <p>Antibacterial cleaning products that are used in the home, such as household cleaners or bath products, can also lead to antibiotic resistance. Studies have shown that plain soap is just as good at killing bacteria in the home as products labeled antibacterial. In addition, giving animals antibiotics to promote growth or prevent illness can generate resistance in animal bacteria that can later be transmitted to humans. </p><h2>Prevention of antibiotic resistance</h2> <p>The following are ways that you can help prevent antibiotic resistance:</p> <ul> <li>Ask your doctor if antibiotics are the right treatment for your child.</li> <li>If your child needs antibiotics, always give them the full dose that is prescribed.</li> <li>Give your child the full course of antibiotics even if they feel better before the antibiotics are finished.</li> <li>Give antibiotics only to the child for whom they were prescribed.</li> <li>If you have old antibiotics leftover in your house, take them to a medicine disposal program if there is one available in your area.</li> <li>Use plain soaps and household cleaners instead of ones that are labeled as antibacterial.</li> </ul><h2>Safe disposal of antibiotics</h2><p>Antibiotics that end up in our water supply make the problem of antibiotic resistance worse. This usually happens if antibiotics are flushed down the toilet or poured down the sink. </p><p>Many pharmacies have drug take-back programs. If possible, return your unused over-the-counter and prescription drugs to your pharmacy. If your pharmacy does not have a drug take-back program check with your municipality about how to dispose of hazardous household waste, including over-the-counter and prescription drugs.</p>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/Oral_Med_pills_liquid_EQUIP_ILL_EN.jpg
Osteoporosis: Managing bone painOsteoporosis: Managing bone painOsteoporosis: Managing bone painOEnglishMetabolicChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)BodyBonesNon-drug treatmentCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2013-12-17T05:00:00ZAnne Murphy, RN8.0000000000000066.0000000000000452.000000000000Health (A-Z) - ProcedureHealth A-Z<p>Bone pain is one of the most challenging aspects of osteoporosis. Learn about the different ways that bone pain can be treated.</p><p>Bone pain is one of the most challenging aspects of <a href="/Article?contentid=948&language=English">osteoporosis</a> for children, families and even health-care providers. Some children with osteoporosis will have bone pain often, but others might only have pain when they fracture a bone.</p><p>Sometimes it can be very difficult to decide if your child's pain is related to their bones or has another cause. Always discuss your child's pain with their bone health doctor or nurse.​<br></p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul> <li>A child with osteoporosis can have pain for many different reasons. Always discuss your child's bone pain with a health-care provider.</li> <li>Bone pain can be treated with over-the-counter medications, hot and cold compresses, movement and proper footwear.</li> <li>You can also help your child take their mind off their pain by using their imagination or relaxing their muscles.</li> </ul><h2>Over-the-counter medications</h2> <ul> <li>Your child's doctor or nurse may recommend that your child try over-the-counter pain medications such as <a href="/Article?contentid=62&language=English">acetaminophen</a> or <a href="/Article?contentid=153&language=English">ibuprofen</a>.</li> <li>Follow the instructions on the box or ask your pharmacist for help when giving pain medications to your child.</li> </ul> <h2>Heat and cold</h2> <ul> <li>Switch between hot and cold compresses on the area of bone pain. You can buy products to make hot and cold compresses in a pharmacy or grocery store. Or, if you prefer, you can make compresses yourself by soaking a cloth in hot or cold water and sealing it inside a plastic bag.</li> <li>Always wrap the compress in a towel before applying it to your child's skin. Leave it on for a maximum of 15 minutes at a time.</li> </ul> <h2>Movement</h2> <ul> <li>Encourage your child to be <a href="/Article?contentid=1969&language=English">active</a> and move around as much as they can. This helps their blood flow and encourages their muscles to support their bones.</li> </ul> <h2>Proper footwear</h2> <ul> <li>Active children can have bone pain after a lot of exercise. Make sure your child wears <a href="/Article?contentid=1947&language=English">proper running shoes</a> with good support to reduce the risk of pain in their heels, shins or knees.</li> <li>If your child still has heel, shin or knee pain when they are active, try using a gel insert inside their shoes to provide extra cushioning and support. You can buy these at your local pharmacy or sports store.</li> </ul> <h2>Distraction and relaxation</h2> <ul> <li>Encourage your child to do something they enjoy - this can help distract them from the pain.</li> <li>Let your child <a href="/article?contentid=1259&language=English">use their imagination</a> to take their mind off their pain, for example by picturing a favourite situation or memory. Having your child describe the scene using all their senses focuses their attention on something other than their pain.</li> <li>Your child can also use muscle <a href="/article?contentid=1259&language=English">relaxation</a> to ease pain. This involves tensing and relaxing specific groups of muscles before moving on to the next group. It can be done with audio guidance.</li> </ul><h2>Sources</h2> <p>National Institute of Health (2013). <a href="http://www.bones.nih.gov/">Publications on bone health, osteoporosis and osteogenesis imperfecta</a>.</p> <p>College of Family Physicians of Canada (2011). <a href="http://www.cfpc.ca/ProjectAssets/Templates/Resource.aspx?id=3523">Osteoporosis information for patients</a>.</p> <p>International Osteoporosis Foundation (2013). <a href="http://www.iofbonehealth.org/content-type-semantic-meta-tags/bone-health-brochures">Bone health brochures</a></p> <p>Osteogenesis Imperfecta Foundation (2013). <a href="http://www.oif.org/site/DocServer/med_guide.pdf?docID=4501">Osteogenesis Imperfecta: A Guide for Medical Professionals, Individuals and Families affected by OI</a>.</p><img alt="" src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/osteoporosis_managing_bone_pain.jpg" style="BORDER:0px solid;" />https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/osteoporosis_managing_bone_pain.jpg
Sleep tips: How to help your teen get a good night's sleepSleep tips: How to help your teen get a good night's sleepSleep tips: How to help your teen get a good night's sleepSEnglishAdolescentTeen (13-18 years)NANAHealthy living and preventionCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2016-07-18T04:00:00ZSamantha Metler, MA;Suneeta Monga, MD, FRCPC;Indra Narang MBBCH, MD, FRCPCH000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Find out how to encourage your teen to maintain their own healthy sleep routine and help them develop healthy habits.<br></p><p>As your child gets older, they may not want you to be as involved in their bedtime routine. However, it is still important to make sure your teen is <a href="/Article?contentid=645&language=English">getting enough sleep each night</a>.</p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul> <li>Your teen's body clock will likely make them fall asleep later at night and wake up later during the day. Help your teen keep a regular routine by reminding them how much sleep they need every night and when they should be in bed.</li> <li>Remind your teen to eat a balanced diet and get some physical activity instead of turning to sugar, caffeine or energy drinks to cope with tiredness during the day.</li> <li>Before your teen goes to bed, encourage them to prepare their own breakfast, lay out their clothes and make a to-do list so they do not wake up feeling worried or stressed. </li> <li> See a doctor if your teen is very sleepy during the day, you suspect a mental health condition that could interfere with their sleep or your child's poor sleep is interfering with their school performance. </li> </ul><h2>Support your teen in sticking to a sleep schedule</h2><p>Most young people experience changes in their sleep schedules as they get older. Let your teen take charge of their own bedtime, but provide guidance if necessary. For instance, be clear about how many hours of sleep your teen should have each night and when you expect them to be in bed.</p><p>In addition, encourage your teen to keep to regular bedtimes and wake up times on weekdays and weekends.</p><h2>Help your teen develop healthy habits</h2><p>Advise your teen to avoid eating a large meal or drinking a lot right before bedtime. It is especially important for your teen to avoid coffee, tea, soda or pop, energy drinks and chocolate a few hours before bed. Caffeine and sugar tell your teen’s brain to stay up even later than usual. Smoking cigarettes and drinking alcohol will also interfere with their sleep.</p><p>Your teen's internal body clock can make them fall asleep later at night and wake up later in the day. You cannot change this, but you can encourage your teen to take part in <a href="/Article?contentid=641&language=English">physical activities</a> to help overcome sleepiness during the day.</p><p>Discourage them from resorting to supplements or energy drinks to get them through any energy dips during the day. No pills, vitamins or drinks can replace good sleep.</p><p>If your teen hears their friends talking about their "all nighters", remind them how good they feel after they get enough sleep. Staying up late to study does not usually help much. In fact, it will usually leave your teen too tired to concentrate properly the next day.</p><p>A drowsy driver is as dangerous as a drunk driver, causing many accidents each year. Advise your teen to call someone else for a ride if they ever feel sleepy before or during a journey.</p><h2>Create a relaxing bedtime routine</h2><p>If your teen is having trouble sleeping at night, encourage them to take some deep relaxing breaths, focusing on their breath as it goes in and out. Deep breathing for five to 10 minutes may help your teen become more relaxed and sleepy.</p><p>If your teen feels wide awake at bedtime, make sure their activities are relaxing to help make them more sleepy. Encourage your teen to go for a short walk before bed, practise yoga, do some light stretching, read a book or write in a journal.</p><h2>Create a comfortable sleep environment</h2><p>Make sure your teen’s mattress and pillow offer good support to their spine and that their room is cool and dark enough.</p><p>Encourage your teen to have a glass of water nearby so they do not need to get out of bed if they are thirsty during the night.</p><p>Keep the bed for sleeping only. Discourage your teen from doing their homework or using a computer in bed. These activities can cause your child to link bedtime with stress or active thinking when they are trying to sleep.</p><p>Avoid having a television, computer, tablet or cell phone in the bedroom. Watching television or using a <a href="/Article?contentid=643&language=English">computer, tablet</a> or phone at night can stimulate the brain rather than relax it. In addition, your teen may get into the habit of turning on the television or checking their phone if they cannot stay asleep during the night.</p><p>Similarly, keep noise to a minimum after bedtime so your teen can get a good night’s sleep (although your teen may stay up later than you).</p><h2>Tips for a happier morning</h2><p>Get your teen in the habit of planning their breakfast for the next morning before bed. This could be as simple as cutting up some fruit or making a breakfast wrap that they can quickly grab in the morning.</p><p>Encourage your teen to take a shower before bed if they have trouble waking up early to bathe. Warm water can make your teen sleepy at night. Getting their shower out of the way also lets them hit the snooze button for a bit longer in the morning.</p><p>Remind your teen to pack their backpack and lay out their clothes the night before. At night there is more time to look for missing homework or that favourite t-shirt that might still be in the washing machine.</p><p>Suggest that your teen keep a diary or a to-do list for the next day. If they jot notes down before they go to sleep, they will be less likely to wake up feeling worried or stressed.</p><p>Let your teen choose an alarm clock that wakes them up in the morning. Ask them when is the absolute latest time they need to wake up in the morning and calmly wake them if they are still asleep then.</p><h2>When to see a doctor about your teen’s sleep</h2><p>Take your teenager to a doctor if:</p><ul><li>they are excessively sleepy during the day</li><li>you suspect they might have <a href="/Article?contentid=271&language=English">anxiety</a>, <a href="/Article?contentid=19&language=English">depression</a> or any other mental health concern</li><li>you or your teen have any other concerns about sleep or daytime performance, especially if you think it is affecting their grades at school.<br></li></ul><h2>Further information</h2><p>For more tips on maintaining your child's mental health, please see the following pages:</p><p> <a href="/Article?contentid=642&language=English">Phy​sical activity: Guidelines for children and teens​</a></p><p> <a href="/Article?contentid=641&language=English">Physical activity: Benefits of exercise for health and wellbeing​</a></p><p> <a href="/Article?contentid=645&language=English">Sleep: Benefits and recommended amounts​​</a></p><p> <a href="/Article?contentid=646&language=English">Sleep tips: How to help your child get a good night's sleep</a></p><p> <a href="/Article?contentid=643&language=English">Screen time: Overview</a></p><p> <a href="/Article?contentid=644&language=English">Screen time: How to help your child set healthy limits</a></p><p> <a href="/Article?contentid=639&language=English">Nutrition: How a balanced diet and healthy eating habits can support your child's mental health</a><br></p><h2>​​Resources</h2><p>National Sleep Foundation (2016). <em> <a target="_blank" href="https://sleepfoundation.org/sleep-topics/teens-and-sleep">Teens and sleep​</a></em>.</p><img alt="" src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/sleep_tips_how_to_help_your_teen.jpg" style="BORDER:0px solid;" />https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/sleep_tips_how_to_help_your_teen.jpgSleep tips for teens
PneumoniaPneumoniaPneumoniaPEnglishRespiratoryChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)LungsLungsConditions and diseasesCaregivers Adult (19+)Abdominal pain;Cough;Fever;Vomiting2013-11-28T05:00:00ZElly Berger, BA, MD, FRCPC, FAAP, MHPE​​7.0000000000000067.0000000000000498.000000000000Health (A-Z) - ConditionsHealth A-Z<p>Pneumonia is an infection of the lungs and lower respiratory tract. Learn about the signs and symptoms and how to take care of your child. </p><h2>What is pneumonia?</h2><p>Pneumonia is an infection in the lungs. It may also be called a lower respiratory tract infection. Most cases of pneumonia are caused by viruses in children age three and younger. In older children and teenagers, most cases of pneumonia are caused by bacterial infections. A child could start out by having a viral pneumonia which then becomes complicated by a bacterial pneumonia.</p> <figure class="asset-c-100"><span class="asset-image-title">Pneumonia</span> <img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/Pneumonia_XRAY_MEDIMG_PHO_EN.png" alt="An x-ray of normal left and right lungs and an x-ray of lungs with pneumonia in the right side" /> <figcaption class="asset-image-caption">In the lung with pneumonia, the affected part of the lung will appear white in a chest X-ray. The white shadow is caused by fluid in the lung's air sacs.</figcaption> </figure> <h2>Key points</h2> <ul> <li>Pneumonia is an infection deep in the lungs. It can be caused by viruses or bacteria.</li> <li>If your child is given antibiotics, be sure to finish all of them, even if your child is feeling better.</li> <li>Keep your child comfortable and give them lots of fluids.</li> </ul><h2>Signs and symptoms of pneumonia</h2><p>Pneumonia symptoms can vary greatly in children. Common signs and symptoms of pneumonia include:</p><ul><li>high and/or persistent <a href="/Article?contentid=30&language=English">fever</a></li><li> <a href="/Article?contentid=774&language=English">cough</a></li><li>fast breathing</li><li>trouble breathing</li><li>crackly noises in the lung</li><li>loss of appetite</li><li> <a href="/Article?contentid=746&language=English">vomiting</a> due to the cough or from swallowing mucus</li><li>feeling unwell</li><li>abdominal (belly) pain or chest pain</li></ul> ​<h2>What your doctor can do for pneumonia</h2> <p>Your doctor will listen to your child's lungs with the stethoscope and observe your child's breathing. If your doctor suspects pneumonia, your child may have a <a href="/article?contentid=1647&language=English">chest X-ray</a> to see what your child's lungs look like. Viral pneumonia does not need antibiotic treatment. If your doctor suspects a bacterial infection as a cause of the pneumonia, then your doctor will prescribe antibiotics. Your child's doctor will look at many factors before deciding the best treatment.</p><h2>Taking care of your child at home</h2> <h3>Finish all antibiotics</h3> <p>If your child was given antibiotics, they must finish all the pills or liquid , even if they are feeling better. This is important to prevent the infection from coming back and to decrease the chance of antibiotic resistance.</p> <h3>Monitor and treat the fever</h3> <p>To treat the fever or achy muscles, use <a href="/Article?contentid=62&language=English">acetaminophen</a> or <a href="/Article?contentid=153&language=English">ibuprofen</a>. You can give these medicines even if you child is also on antibiotics. They do not interact. DO NOT give your child <a href="/Article?contentid=77&language=English">acetylsalicylic acid (ASA)</a>.</p> <h3>Keep your child fed and hydrated.</h3> <p>Make sure your child drinks plenty of fluids to stay <a href="/Article?contentid=776&language=English">hydrated</a>. Your child may not want to eat much at first. Once the infection begins to clear and your child starts to feel better, they will want to eat more.</p> <h3>Avoid smoky places</h3> <p>Keep your child away from smoke and other lung irritants.</p> <h3>Cough symptoms</h3> <p>Your child's cough may get worse before it gets better. As the pneumonia goes away, your child will cough to get rid of the mucus. The cough may continue for two to three weeks.</p><h2>When to see a doctor</h2><h3>See your child's regular doctor if:</h3><ul><li>Your child's cough lasts for more than three to four days and is not improving</li><li>Your child has a fever for more than two to three days</li><li>Your child's fever lasts more than three days after starting antibiotics<br></li></ul><h3>Take your child to the nearest Emergency Department, or call 911 if your child:</h3><ul><li>has difficulty breathing</li><li>becomes very pale or blue in the lips</li><li>vomits antibiotic doses or will not take fluid</li><li>appears more sick<br></li></ul><h2>Hospital admission if needed</h2><p>Most children can be cared for at home. Very sick children may need to go to the hospital. They may need oxygen and other medicines. They may need antibiotics given intravenously (into a vein) at first, and then by mouth as they get better.</p><img alt="" src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/pneumonia.jpg" style="BORDER:0px solid;" />pneumoniapneumoniahttps://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/pneumonia.jpg

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