AboutKidsHealth

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Head injury and concussionHead injury and concussionHead injury and concussionHEnglishNeurologyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)BrainBrainConditions and diseasesCaregivers Adult (19+)Headache;Nausea;Vision problems;Vomiting2019-02-21T05:00:00ZShawna Silver, MD, FRPCP, FAAP, PEng;Bashar Bukhamsin, MD8.6000000000000064.0000000000000922.000000000000Health (A-Z) - ConditionsHealth A-Z<p>Learn how to recognize a concussion after a head injury and when to see a doctor or seek emergency care. </p><p>​​​A head injury can happen when a child hits their head or when there is a blow to another part of the body that causes the head to spin or jolt. Head injuries caused by falls are especially common when children are learning to walk or ride a bike or are taking part in recreational or competitive activities.</p><p>Most head injuries are minor and result in no symptoms or physical changes, but sometimes they can result in bumps, bruises or swelling to the scalp.</p><p>Sometimes, what seems to be a mild bump or blow to the head can be serious and cause a concussion. This is a risk with any head injury.</p><p>A concussion may result from a:</p><ul><li>direct impact to the head, neck or face</li><li>fall</li><li>blow to the body that causes the head and brain to move back and forth</li></ul><p>A concussion is an "invisible" brain injury that affects the way your child thinks and remembers. It cannot be seen on X-rays, MRIs or other forms of brain imaging.</p>​<h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>Most head injuries are minor.</li><li>Any head injury puts your child at risk for concussion.</li><li>If you think that your child has had a concussion, they should see a doctor on the same day that the head injury occurs.</li><li>If your child has signs of a concussion during a sports activity, they should stop participating immediately and see a doctor.</li><li>A doctor will examine your child and may recommend further tests or, if concussion is diagnosed, provide a post-concussion management plan and prescribe rest.</li><li>Watch your child after a head injury. If you see signs that your child is getting worse, take them to the nearest emergency department or call 911 right away.</li></ul><h2>Signs and symptoms of a concussion</h2><p>Your child does not need to lose consciousness to have a concussion. In younger children, symptoms may not be clear and may be difficult for them to explain.</p><p>After a concussion, your child may experience some of the signs and symptoms below.</p><h3>Physical changes</h3><ul><li> <a href="/Article?contentid=29&language=English">Headache</a></li><li>Nausea or <a href="/Article?contentid=746&language=English">vomiting</a></li><li>Vision changes</li><li>Loss of consciousness</li><li>Irritation from light or sound</li><li>Loss of balance, poor co-ordination</li><li>Decreased playing ability</li></ul><h3>Changes in behaviour</h3><ul><li>Irritability</li><li>Sadness</li><li> <a href="/Article?contentid=18&language=English">Anxiety</a></li><li>Inappropriate emotions</li></ul><h3>Thinking problems</h3><ul><li>Slowed reaction times</li><li>Confusion</li><li>Memory loss or difficulty concentrating</li><li>Feeling dazed</li></ul><h3>Trouble with sleep</h3><ul><li>Drowsiness</li><li>Trouble falling asleep</li><li>Sleeping more than usual</li><li>Sleeping less than usual</li></ul><p>Some symptoms may appear right away. However, in some cases, signs and symptoms evolve over a number of minutes to hours. In addition, symptoms may change over time. Your child may look fine even though they are acting or feeling differently.</p><p>Most people with a concussion recover quickly and fully. But for some people, symptoms can last for days, weeks or longer. In general, recovery may be slower among older adults, young children and teens. If the symptoms of a concussion do not go away after 21 days, your child will need to be reassessed by a doctor.</p><p>Those who have had a concussion in the past are also at risk of having another one and may take longer to recover from a second or further concussion.</p><h2>Taking care of your child after a head injury</h2><h3>Wound care</h3><p>If your child has cut themselves, clean the wound with warm water and soap. To control any bleeding, gently press down on the wound with sterile gauze or a clean cloth. If the cut is large or deep, your child will need to see a doctor as they may require stitches.</p><p>If there is swelling over the injured area, wrap some ice in a cloth and hold it over the swelling for 20 minutes.</p><h3>Concussion</h3><p>If you think that your child has had a concussion, take them to a doctor on the same day that the head injury occurs. If the concussion occurs during a sporting activity, your child should stop the activity immediately; if they continue, they are at greater risk for another injury.</p><h2>When to see a doctor for a head injury</h2><p>See a doctor if your child has a deep cut that requires stitches or if you suspect that your child has a concussion.</p><p>Your child's doctor will assess your child for any physical, cognitive and neurological symptoms, for example any swelling, concentration difficulties or problems with vision or co-ordination. Your child may need to have a brain scan or be admitted to hospital if their symptoms are getting worse or are not improving.</p><p>If your doctor diagnoses your child with a concussion, they will prescribe rest from physical and cognitive (for example problem-solving or memory-based) activities. Your child's doctor should also give you a post-concussion management plan for your child.</p><h2>When to seek emergency care for a head injury</h2><p>Take your child to the nearest emergency department, or call 911, if your child is showing signs of a more serious brain injury.</p><h3>Signs and symptoms of a serious brain injury in babies</h3><ul><li>Poor feeding</li><li>Repeated vomiting (throwing up) after a head injury</li><li>Being unable to stop crying or be consoled</li><li>Appearing very drowsy and unable to be awakened</li><li>Seizures</li><li>Tense bulging of the fontanelle (soft spot on top of head)</li></ul><h3>Signs and symptoms of a serious brain injury in children and teenagers</h3><ul><li>A headache that does not go away or gets worse</li><li>Repeated vomiting (throwing up)</li><li>Confusion, agitation or unusual behaviour</li><li>Trouble seeing, speaking or walking</li><li>Weakness, numbness or decreased co-ordination of an arm or leg</li><li>Drowsiness (sleepiness) or decreased consciousness</li><li>Seizures (convulsions)</li></ul><img alt="" src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/head_injury_concussion.jpg" style="BORDER:0px solid;" />concussionconcussionhttps://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/head_injury_concussion.jpg Learn how to recognize a concussion after a head injury, how to care for your child and when to see a doctor or seek emergency care.
Mental healthMental healthMental healthMEnglishPsychiatryChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)NANANACaregivers Adult (19+)NALanding PageLearning Hub<p>Learn how to support your child’s wellbeing with activity, sleep and nutrition and how to recognize and manage various mental health conditions.<br></p><p>This hub includes resources for parents on how to support your child's mental health and general wellbeing through physical activity, sleep and nutrition. It also provides information on the signs, symptoms and treatments of different mental health conditions, including anxiety, bipolar disorder, depression, behavioural disorders, anorexia nervosa and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.<br></p><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"><i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h2 class="panel-title">Wellbeing</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>The everyday pressures of growing up can put a strain on any child's mental wellbeing. Find out how physical activity, a healthy sleep routine, screen time limits and balanced nutrition can boost your child's mental health and support them through difficult times.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"><i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h3>Physical activity</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=642&language=English">Physical activity: Guidelines for children and teens</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=641&language=English">Physical activity: Benefits of exercise for health and wellbeing</a></li></ol></li><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"><i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h3>Sleep</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=645&language=English">Sleep: Benefits and recommended amounts</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=646&language=English">How to help your child get a good night's sleep</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=647&language=English">How to help your teen get a good night's sleep</a></li></ol></li><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"><i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h3>Screen time</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=643&language=English">Screen time: Overview</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=644&language=English">How to help your child set healthy screen time limits</a></li></ol></li><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"><i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h3>Nutrition</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=639&language=English">Nutrition: How a balanced diet and healthy eating habits can help your child's mental health</a></li></ol></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"><i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h2 class="panel-title">Anxiety disorders</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>Every child feels anxiety at some point as a natural part of growing up. An anxiety disorder, however, is when anxious feelings interfere with a child's everyday routine. Learn more about the signs, symptoms and range of anxiety disorders and how they ​are treated.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=18&language=English">Anxiety: Overview</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=271&language=English">Anxiety: Signs and symptoms</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=270&language=English">Types of anxiety disorders</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=701&language=English">Anxiety: Treatment with medications</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=702&language=English">Anxiety: Psychotherapy and lifestyle changes</a></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"><i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h2 class="panel-title">Obsessive compulsive disorder</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) occurs when a person suffers from troubling and intrusive thoughts and/or follows repetitive or strict routines to feel less worried. Learn about the causes, signs and impact of this disorder and how you can help your child.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=285&language=English">Obsessive compulsive disorder: Overview</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=288&language=English">OCD: Signs and symptoms</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=286&language=English">How OCD affects your child's life</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=709&language=English">OCD: Psychotherapy and medications</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=287&language=English">OCD: How to help your child at home</a></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"><i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h2 class="panel-title">Depression</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>Depression is an illness that causes someone to feel deep sadness or a lack of interest in activities that they once enjoyed. Discover how this condition affects a child's mood, sleep, concentration and energy levels, and how it can be treated.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=19&language=English">Depression: Overview</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=284&language=English">Depression: Signs and symptoms</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=707&language=English">Depression: Treatment with medications</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=708&language=English">Depression: Psychotherapy and lifestyle changes</a></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"><i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h2 class="panel-title">Bipolar disorder</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>When a person has bipolar disorder, they alternate between low and elevated moods for days, weeks or months at a time. Learn about the bipolar disorder spectrum, the symptoms of manic and depressive episodes and how medications, therapy and lifestyle changes can help.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=279&language=English">Bipolar disorder: Overview</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=280&language=English">Bipolar disorder: Signs and symptoms</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=704&language=English">Bipolar disorder: Treatment with medications</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=705&language=English">Bipolar disorder: Psychotherapy and lifestyle changes</a></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"><i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h2 class="panel-title">Suicide and self-harm</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>A child who experiences thoughts of suicide or self-harm is often suffering from overwhelming emotional pain. Find out how to help your child cope with difficult emotions, how to support and protect your child and where to find professional help.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=291&language=English">Suicide in children and teens: Overview</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=289&language=English">Self-harm in children and teens: Overview</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=290&language=English">Signs and symptoms of suicide risk</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=293&language=English">How to help your child with difficult emotions</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=292&language=English">How to protect your child from harm</a></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"><i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h2 class="panel-title">Eating disorders</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>An eating disorder not only risks your child's health but can also disrupt family life. Find out about the symptoms and treatment of anorexia, bulimia, avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder and binge eating disorder and how you can help your child recover.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"><i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h3>Anorexia nervosa</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=268&language=English">Anorexia nervosa: Overview</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=269&language=English">Anorexia: Signs and symptoms</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=267&language=English">Anorexia: Medical complications</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=700&language=English">Anorexia: Treatment options</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=266&language=English">Anorexia: How to help your child at home</a></li></ol></li><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"><i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h3>Bulimia nervosa</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=282&language=English">Bulimia nervosa: Overview</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=283&language=English">Bulimia: Signs and symptoms</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=281&language=English">Bulimia: Medical complications</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=706&language=English">Bulimia: Treatment options</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=294&language=English">Bulimia: How to help your child at home</a></li></ol></li><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"><i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h3>Avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder (ARFID)</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=274&language=English">Avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder: Overview</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=275&language=English">ARFID: Signs and symptoms</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=273&language=English">ARFID: Medical complications</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=703&language=English">ARFID: Treatment options</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=272&language=English">ARFID: How to help your child at home</a></li></ol></li><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"><i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h3>Binge eating disorder (BED)</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=277&language=English">Binge eating disorder: Overview</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=278&language=English">BED: Signs and symptoms</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=640&language=English">Obesity: Medical complications</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=276&language=English">BED: How to help your child at home</a></li></ol></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"><i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h2 class="panel-title">Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) involves difficulties with controlling attention and regulating behaviour. Discover the main symptoms of ADHD in children and teens, how the disorder is diagnosed and how to help your child at home and at school.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1922&language=English">Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: Overview</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1923&language=English">ADHD: Signs and symptoms</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1997&language=English">ADHD: How to help your child at home</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1999&language=English">ADHD: Communicating with your child's school</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1998&language=English">ADHD: Treatment with medications</a></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"><i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h2 class="panel-title">Behavioural disorders</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>Behavioural disorders include oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder. Learn how these disorders differ from typical misbehaviour, how therapy and medications can help and how you can manage problematic behaviour at home.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1924&language=English">Behavioural disorders: Overview</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1925&language=English">Behavioural disorders: Signs and symptoms</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2000&language=English">Behavioural disorders: Treatment with psychotherapy and medications</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2001&language=English">Behavioural disorders: How to help your child at home</a></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"><i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h2 class="panel-title">Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is triggered by experiencing or witnessing a terrifying event. Learn about the main symptoms of PTSD, how the condition is diagnosed and how psychotherapy and medications can help your child.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1927&language=English">Post-traumatic stress disorder: Overview</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1928&language=English">PTSD: Signs and symptoms</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2005&language=English">PTSD: Treatment with psychotherapy and medications</a></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"><i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h2 class="panel-title">Brain disorders and mental health</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>A brain disorder includes a condition, illness or injury that affects the brain and how it develops before or after birth. Find out how a brain disorder can affect your child's learning, mood and social skills, how its impact on mental health is assessed and how to help your child cope.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1926&language=English">Brain disorders and mental health: Overview</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2002&language=English">Brain disorders: Assessing your child for neuropsychological difficulties</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2003&language=English">Brain disorders: How to help your child cope</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2004&language=English">Brain disorders: Common treatments</a></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"><i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h2 class="panel-title">Parenting a child with a chronic condition</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>A chronic conditions can affect a child's mental health and everyday routines. Discover how parents and caregivers can help manage both their child's health care and routines, and support their own mental health.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=3400&language=English">Living with a chronic condition: Overview</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=3401&language=English">Living with a chronic condition: Helping your child manage their health</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=3402&language=English">Living with a chronic condition: Maintaining your child's everyday routines</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=3403&language=English">Living with a chronic condition: Supporting yourself as a caregiver</a></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"><i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h2 class="panel-title">Substance use disorder</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>Substance use is the use of alcohol, tobacco and other drugs for pleasure or enjoyment. Learn about the signs and symptoms of substance use and how you can help your teen if you suspect they have a substance use disorder.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=3663&language=English">Substance use disorder: Overview</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=3664&language=English">Substance use disorder: Signs and symptoms</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=3665&language=English">Substance use disorder: How to help your teen at home</a></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"><i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h2 class="panel-title">Understanding functional symptoms and somatization</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>Somatization involves expressing distress through physical symptoms. Find out about the mind-body connection, signs of somatization and the various ways to support your child or teen.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=3666&language=English">Functional symptoms: Overview</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=3667&language=English">Mind-body connection</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=3668&language=English">Somatization: Signs and symptoms</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=3669&language=English">Somatization: Common treatments</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=3770&language=English">Somatization: How to help your child or teen cope</a></li></ol></div>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/Mental_health_landing-page.jpgmentalhealthhealthyliving
Down syndrome: Related medical conditionsDown syndrome: Related medical conditionsDown syndrome: Related medical conditionsDEnglishGeneticsChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)NANAConditions and diseasesAdult (19+) CaregiversNA2017-10-16T04:00:00ZNirit Bernhard, MSc, MD, FRCPC;Priya Sayal, MD, BHSc.11.600000000000041.50000000000001379.00000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Children with Down syndrome may be at a higher risk for some medical conditions. Learn what these conditions are and how to manage them.</p><p>​<a href="/Article?contentid=9&language=English">Down syndrome</a> is a common congenital condition affecting about one in every 700 babies in Canada. Children with Down syndrome have extra genetic material from chromosome 21, most often a third copy of chromosome 21. While Down syndrome is associated with medical and developmental challenges, each child is affected differently. The medical and developmental issues may be more serious in some children than in others. </p><p>There are several medical conditions that can affect children with Down syndrome. </p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>Down syndrome is a common genetic condition present at birth and is due to the presence of extra genetic material from chromosome 21.<br></li><li>Down syndrome is associated with developmental and medical challenges.</li><li>Each child is unique and is affected differently.</li><li>Hearing and vision problems are the most common medical conditions associated with Down syndrome.</li></ul><h2>Heart</h2><p>About 40–50% of children with Down syndrome have a congenital heart defect. Congenital means they were born with the condition or defect. Many of these defects can be corrected through surgery.</p><p>Children with Down syndrome are routinely screened for congenital heart defects. Sometimes a congenital heart defect can be detected before a baby is born. <a href="/article?contentid=1608&language=English">Atrioventricular septal defects (AVSDs)</a> are the most common type of heart defect in children with Down syndrome. AVSD is caused by a failure of the heart’s four chambers to form properly. Other types of congenial heart conditions such as <a href="/article?contentid=1607&language=English">atrial septal defects</a>, <a href="/article?contentid=1626&language=English">ventricular septal defects</a>, <a href="/article?contentid=1617&language=English">patent ductus arteriosus</a> and <a href="/article?contentid=1621&language=English">tetralogy of Fallot</a> are also common.</p><p>These conditions may be detected and diagnosed by an experienced health-care provider listening for a heart murmur or if the baby has low oxygen levels. However, it is possible to have a major heart problem without hearing a murmur or having low oxygen levels. It is very important for every baby with Down syndrome to have an <a href="/article?contentid=1642&language=English">echocardiogram</a> (heart ultrasound) even if the prenatal ultrasounds were normal. </p><p>Certain kinds of congenital heart defects need to be repaired by surgery early in a baby’s life, while other types of congenital heart disease can be observed closely by a cardiologist. A paediatric cardiologist is a specialist who can diagnose and treat children with congenital heart disease. Speak to your child’s cardiologist for more details about the care plan for your child’s heart condition. </p><h2>Gastrointestinal tract</h2><p>A smaller number of children are born with <a href="/article?contentid=1467&language=English">gastrointestinal tract</a> abnormalities. The gastrointestinal tract includes the esophagus, stomach and intestines. Surgery can correct many of these gastrointestinal congenital abnormalities.</p><p>Some of the common gastrointestinal and digestive problems that affect children with Down syndrome are listed below.</p><h3>Gastrointestinal narrowing</h3><p>If a newborn with Down syndrome has severe vomiting from birth, they may be among the approximately 12% of babies with Down syndrome who have a gastrointestinal narrowing (atresia). Most commonly, the first part of the small intestine—the duodenum—is blocked. The end result is that digested food cannot pass through the duodenum. The treatment for this is surgical removal of the blockage. </p><h3>Hirschsprung disease</h3><p> <a href="/article?contentid=830&language=English">Hirschsprung disease</a> affects fewer than 1% of infants with Down syndrome. Hirschsprung disease occurs when the last part of the large intestine does not function properly due to a lack of nerve cells. As a result, affected individuals have severe constipation. When this is severe, it may cause a bowel obstruction. The treatment involves surgically removing the portion of colon that does not function properly.<br></p><h3>Constipation</h3><p>People with Down syndrome can be <a href="/article?contentid=6&language=English">constipated</a> for all of the same reasons that people without Down syndrome become constipated, such as poor diet and lack of exercise. However, people with Down syndrome are also prone to conditions that can result in constipation, including <a href="/article?contentid=2309&language=English">hypothyroidism</a>, Hirschsprung disease, and <a href="/article?contentid=816&language=English">celiac disease</a>. If constipation is not related to these conditions, caregivers and physicians should work together to explore safe laxative medications.</p><h2>Hearing loss</h2><p>In children, hearing loss can affect educational, language-related, and emotional development. Monitoring and treatment of the ears and ear diseases can lessen the incidence of hearing loss. The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) recommends audiologic testing at birth, then again between six and 12 months of age, followed by yearly hearing tests. Hearing aids should be considered even in cases of mild hearing loss to prevent delays in educational, emotional and language-related development.</p><h2>Visual impairment </h2><p>The greatest concern for children with Down syndrome is congenital <a href="/article?contentid=837&language=English">cataracts</a> (lack of clearness to the lens of the eye). If cataracts are present and left untreated, this condition can lead to blindness. Cataracts may not be visible to the naked eye. The proper way to test for cataracts is to have an experienced health care provider examine the eyes using an ophthalmoscope. Congenital cataracts usually need to be surgically repaired immediately. If caught early, vision can be restored and blindness can be avoided. Ophthalmologists are the eye doctors and surgeons who treat cataracts and similar eye conditions. </p><p>Refractive error (the need for glasses) is much more common in children with Down syndrome than in the general population. <a href="/article?contentid=836&language=English">Strabismus</a> (eye misalignment), also known as lazy eye, is also more common. It is important to diagnose strabismus as a child, as this condition can result in <a href="/article?contentid=835&language=English">amblyopia</a>, which is a loss of vision or stereopsis which is a loss of depth perception.</p><p>In addition to the need for eyeglasses, many children with Down syndrome have tear duct abnormalities, which caregivers will notice as frequent discharge and tearing from the eyes, worsened by colds. This should be monitored by an eye doctor if is it not improving, as sometimes this condition may need to be surgically corrected.</p><h2>Thyroid dysfunction </h2><p> <a href="/article?contentid=2309&language=English">Hypothyroidism​</a> is the most common endocrine problem in children with Down syndrome. It is estimated that approximately 10% of children with Down syndrome have congenital or acquired thyroid disease. Thyroid hormone is important for growth and cognitive (brain) development throughout childhood. Abnormal thyroid levels can be detected through routine blood tests. </p><h2>Increased likelihood of certain infections </h2><p>Individuals with Down syndrome may have a high frequency of infections, usually of the upper respiratory tract. The infections are characterized by increased severity and prolonged course of disease, which are partially related to differences in their immune system. Non-immunological factors, including abnormal anatomical structures (e.g. small ear canal, narrow trachea) and gastro-esophageal reflux, may also play a role in the increased frequency of respiratory tract infections. </p><h2>Cervical spine instability or dislocation </h2><p>Up to 25% of children with Down syndrome may have atlantoaxial instability (AAI). This is a developmental abnormality of their spinal column that causes increased flexibility between the first and second bones of the cervical spine (neck). Most of the time this does not cause any symptoms or problems. It is important to be aware of the potential for problems, however, because dislocation of the vertebrae that protect the spinal cord may lead to spinal cord injury. Routine neck X-rays are no longer recommended by the AAP. Symptoms that are associated with AAI include a change in the way the individual walks, difficulty using their arms or hands, changes in bowel or bladder function, weakness, or if there is new onset neck pain or head tilt. You should contact your doctor immediately if any of these concerns are present. </p><h2>Seizures</h2><p> <a href="/article?contentid=2060&language=English">Seizures​</a> are caused by abnormal brain activity that lead to abnormal body movements. Children with DS are five times more likely than the general population to have seizures. This may occur in infancy or later in life. It is important to detect and treat seizures early to ensure the best brain and cognitive development. </p><h2>Blood disorders</h2><p>Individuals with Down syndrome occasionally have abnormalities in their blood cells. This is why it is recommended that they have a complete blood count done at birth, followed by annual testing. In many instances, the abnormalities resolve spontaneously over a period of time, and this is especially common among newborn babies with Down syndrome. Rarely, if the condition persists, this may lead to a type of cancer called leukemia. Leukemia is a treatable blood cancer that needs to be cared for by a blood specialist called an oncologist.<br></p><p>If you have questions or concerns about any of these conditions, speak with your child’s doctor.</p>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/down_syndrome_medical_conditions_affecting_children.jpg
Special diets & feeding methodsSpecial diets & feeding methodsSpecial diets & feeding methodsSEnglishNutrition;Allergy;MetabolicChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)BodyDigestive systemConditions and diseasesCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2018-01-19T05:00:00Z000Landing PageLearning Hub<p>Find general information about breastfeeding and transitioning to solid foods, as well as information about different food allergens. Also learn about special diets for specific health conditions.<br></p><p>Find general information about breastfeeding and transitioning to solid foods, as well as information about different food allergens. Also learn about special diets for health conditions such as diabetes, epilepsy, cancer treatment and kidney disease. Also find information about feeding methods for children with cleft lip and palate or sensitive gag reflex.</p><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h2 class="panel-title">Special feeding for babies</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>Newborn babies, both full-term and premature, have unique nutritional needs. Read more about the different ways your child can get important nutrients for their first year of life, whether they are feeding at home or in the hospital.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=440&language=English">Breastfeeding</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=634&language=English">Breastfeeding: How do you know your baby is getting enough milk?</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=443&language=English">Expressing breast milk occasionally for your healthy baby</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1971&language=English">Breastfeeding your hospitalized baby</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1845&language=English">Breast milk: Expressing for your hospitalized baby</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1843&language=English">Breastfeeding premature babies in the NICU</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1768&language=English">Feeding methods and nutritional requirements for premature babies</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1684&language=English">Feeding a baby with a heart condition</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1988&language=English">Lactation aid</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=719&language=English">Formula feeding when you cannot provide breastmilk for your baby</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=514&language=English">Failure to thrive</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=635&language=English">Feeding your baby: Weaning</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=968&language=English">Cleft lip and cleft palate: Spoon feeding and cup drinking</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=498&language=English">Nutrition as your baby gets older</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=497&language=English">Introducing solids</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1979&language=English">Finger feeding your baby</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=31&language=English">Sensitive gag reflex: Transition to textured foods</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=457&language=English">Spitting up and vomiting</a></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h2 class="panel-title">G and GJ tubes</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>Gastrostomy tubes (G tubes) are placed in the stomach and gastrojejunal tubse (GJ tubes) are places in the small intestine. Both help with feeding by allowing liquid feeds to be given directly into the stomach or small intestine.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h3>Overview</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2822&language=English">G/GJ tubes: Making the decision to get a feeding tube</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2536&language=English">G/GJ tubes: Corflo PEG tube</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=3387&language=English">G/GJ tubes: Corflo PEG J tube</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2535&language=English">G/GJ tubes: Mic-Key low-profile J tube</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2905&language=English">G/GJ tubes: Caring for your child and their G tube</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2908&language=English">G/GJ tubes: Low-profile G tubes (Mic-Key)</a></li></ol></li><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h3>G and GJ tube management</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=3039&language=English">G/GJ tubes: What to do if your child's feeding tube is blocked</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2910&language=English">G/GJ tubes: What to do if your child's feeding tube is pulled out</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=3041&language=English">G/GJ tubes: What to do if your child's feeding tube moves</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=3398&language=English">Peritonitis related to G and GJ tubes</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=3036&language=English">G/GJ tubes: Permanent feeding tube removal</a></li></ol></li><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h3>Stoma and skin care</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2906&language=English">G/GJ tubes: Preventing and managing infection</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=3018&language=English">G/GJ tubes: Sensitivity and irritation</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=3019&language=English">G/GJ tubes: Granulation tissue</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=3020&language=English">G/GJ tubes: Managing a leaking stoma</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2907&language=English">G/GJ tubes: Hypertonic salt water soaks</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=3040&language=English">Normal saline: How to prepare at home</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2909&language=English">G/GJ tubes: Using silver nitrate to treat granulation tissue</a></li></ol></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h2 class="panel-title">Nasogastric tubes (NG tubes)</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>Nasogastric tubes (NG tubes) are inserted into a nostril and go down to the stomach. Liquid feeds are then able to go directly into the stomach through the tube.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=984&language=English">How to insert your child's NG tube</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2457&language=English">NG tubes: Feeding your child</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2456&language=English">NG tubes: Common problems</a></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h2 class="panel-title">Energy boosting</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>If your child has a health condition, they may need to follow a special diet to help them get the right balance of nutrients. Learn about a sample of special diets that can help manage health conditions or reduce the side effects of some medications.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1199&language=English">Kidney disease and energy boosting</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1197&language=English">Energy boosting during baby's first year</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1198&language=English">Energy boosting for teens and kids over one year old</a></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h2 class="panel-title">Special diets</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>Sometimes children who have a specific condition or are taking a certain medications will need to follow a special diet. These diets, for example, could increase or decrease the amount of a nutrient that is needed or it could limit the amount of fluids a child drinks.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1196&language=English">Chylothorax: Minimal fat diet</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1193&language=English">High-magnesium diet</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1194&language=English">High-potassium diet</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1546&language=English">Low-bacteria diet guidelines</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1201&language=English">Prednisone: What to eat while you are taking prednisone </a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1200&language=English">Restricting fluids</a></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h2 class="panel-title">Food allergies and sensitivities</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>A food allergy is the immune system's response to a protein found in food. A food sensitivity is the digestive system's difficulty in processing a food or chemical. Find out how to manage the most common allergies and sensitivities and when to get your child tested.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=806&language=English">Egg allergy</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=807&language=English">Fish allergy</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=808&language=English">Milk allergy</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=809&language=English">Peanut allergy</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=810&language=English">Seafood allergy</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=811&language=English">Sesame seed allergy</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=805&language=English">Soy allergy</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=812&language=English">Tree nut allergy</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=813&language=English">Wheat allergy</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1993&language=English">Sulphite sensitivity</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1944&language=English">Food allergies and travelling</a></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h2 class="panel-title">Bowel conditions and diseases</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>The bowel, which includes the large and small intestine, plays a vital role in digesting food and helping the body fight infection. Discover the common symptoms that can occur when the bowel is damaged or diseased and how they can be treated and managed.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=4&language=English">Abnormal-looking stool</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=458&language=English">Constipation and diarrhea in newborns</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=817&language=English">Gastroesophageal reflux disease</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=821&language=English">Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=823&language=English">Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and nutrition</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2639&language=English">What's the difference between IBD and IBS?</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=816&language=English">Celiac disease</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=924&language=English">Ulcerative colitis</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=923&language=English">Crohn's disease</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=959&language=English">Anorectal malformation</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1204&language=English">Anorectal malformation diet page</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=830&language=English">Hirschsprung disease</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1205&language=English">Hirschsprung disease diet page</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1975&language=English">Eating after EA/TEF repair</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=983&language=English">Antegrade continence enema (MACE)</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1263&language=English">Bowel management program for fecal incontinence</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=6&language=English">Constipation</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2449&language=English">Distraction during enema</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1027&language=English">Ostomy</a></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h2 class="panel-title">Metabolic disorders</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>A metabolic disorder is a genetic disease that prevents the body from digesting some substances, usually because it lacks an essential enzyme. Learn about the most common metabolic disorders and how a special diet can help ease symptoms.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=938&language=English">Metabolic disorders: PKU, MSUD and nutrition</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1133&language=English">PKU transitions in the early years</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1134&language=English">PKU transitions in the middle years</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1135&language=English">PKU transitions in the teenage years</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1136&language=English">Non-fasting guidelines for children with metabolic disorders</a></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h2 class="panel-title">Health conditions and nutrition</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>Although many health conditions that have a nutritional component are related to the bowel or are metabolic, there are some that are not. There are numerous health conditions or treatments for diseases where nutrition plays an important role.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1545&language=English">Blood and marrow transplant: Feeding and nutrition</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1400&language=English">Brain tumours: Nutritional issues</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=968&language=English">Cleft lip and cleft palate: Spoon feeding and cup drinking</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2098&language=English">Epilepsy: Dietary therapies</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1081&language=English">JIA: Healthy eating</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2864&language=English">Leukemia: Good nutrition during treatment</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1741&language=English">Diabetes: Meal planning for children</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1683&language=English">Heart conditions and nutrition</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1768&language=English">Premature babies: Feeding methods and nutritional requirements </a></li></ol></div>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/special_diets_landing_page.jpgfood,specialdietsspecialdietsSpecial diets and feeding methods To mark Nutrition Month, find out about tube feeding, special diets, food allergies and sensitivities, bowel conditions and more.

 

 

Complications of diabetesComplications of diabetesComplications of diabetesCEnglishEndocrinologyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)PancreasEndocrine systemConditions and diseasesAdult (19+)NAhttps://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/diabetes_vascular_complications_EN.jpg2017-11-20T05:00:00ZCatherine Pastor, RN, MN, HonBScVanita Pais, RD, CDEAndrea Ens, MD, FRCPCJennifer Harrington, MBBS, PhD12.500000000000024.8000000000000708.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Learn what the potential complications of diabetes are, the risk factors and how they can be reduced.</p><p><a href="/Article?contentid=1717&language=English">Diabetes</a> can lead to health complications later in life if it is not properly managed. Complications are unwanted outcomes from an illness. There are various complications from diabetes that occur more often with high blood glucose levels and/or high blood pressure levels that are left untreated. Not everyone with diabetes will develop the complications seen below.</p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul><li>Diabetes complications fall into two groups: microvascular and macrovascular.</li> <li>Risk factors can be improved with proper blood sugar control and a healthy lifestyle.</li> <li>Risk factors for complications include poor blood sugar control, smoking and unhealthy weight.</li></ul><h2>What are the potential complications of diabetes?</h2><p>Complications fall into two groups:</p><ul><li>Microvascular complications involve small blood vessels.</li><li>Macrovascular complications involve large blood vessels.</li></ul><p>The risk of these complications can be improved with proper blood sugar (glucose) control and healthy lifestyle changes.</p><p>There are also other conditions that occur more often in people with diabetes and can develop over time.</p> <figure class="asset-c-80"><span class="asset-image-title">Potential complications of diabetes</span> <img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/diabetes_vascular_complications_EN.jpg" alt="Body parts affected by microvascular and macrovascular diabetes complications highlighted " /> <figcaption class="asset-image-caption">Complications related to diabetes fall into two groups: microvascular complications involving small blood vessels and macrovascular complications involve large blood vessels. Macrovascular complications almost never happen to children or teenagers. </figcaption> </figure> <h3>Microvascular (small blood vessel) complications</h3><p>Microvascular complications occur mostly in people with diabetes. They include:</p><ul><li> <a href="/Article?contentid=2522&language=English">retinopathy</a> (eye damage), cataracts (clouding of the eye’s natural lens) or glaucoma​ (damage to the eye nerve)</li><li> <a href="/Article?contentid=2523&language=English">nephropathy</a> (kidney damage; <a href="https://pie.med.utoronto.ca/htbw/module.html?module=kidney-child">kidneys</a> are the organs of the body that remove bodily waste in the urine)</li><li> <a href="/Article?contentid=2524&language=English">neuropathy</a> (nerve damage; nerves are fibers that carry electric messages and allow communication between the brain and spinal cord and the rest of the body).</li></ul><p>These problems almost never happen in young children and they are uncommon in teenagers. However, diabetes probably starts to have an effect from the time it begins. </p><h3>Macrovascular (large blood vessel) complications </h3><p>Macrovascular complications also occur in the general population, but they are more common in people with diabetes. They include:</p><ul><li>risk of heart attack (<a href="/Article?contentid=2524&language=English">cardiovascular disease</a>)</li><li>risk of stroke (<a href="/Article?contentid=2524&language=English">cerebrovascular disease</a>)</li><li>poor circulation to the limbs, which may also cause foot problems (<a href="/Article?contentid=2524&language=English">peripheral vascular disease​</a>).<br></li></ul><p>Macrovascular complications almost never happen to children or teenagers.</p><h2>Risk factors for complications</h2><p>A person’s risk of having complications is higher in the following situations. Many of these conditions are checked frequently in people with diabetes.</p><h3>Poor blood sugar control</h3><p>Optimal blood sugar control reduces the chance that complications will develop. However, that does not mean that someone with poor control will definitely have complications. It also does not mean that someone with excellent control is guaranteed to be complication-free. </p><h3>Smoking</h3><p>Smoking increases the risk of complications a great deal. Smokers with diabetes are at much greater risk of developing complications than non-smokers. Those complications will also worsen more quickly in people who smoke than in non-smokers. Quitting at any time is beneficial.</p><h3>Unhealthy weight </h3><p>People who are overweight have a greater risk of complications. <a href="/Article?contentid=1741&language=English">Healthy eating</a> and an active lifestyle reduce the risk and should be encouraged in everyone.</p><h3>High blood pressure</h3><p>High blood pressure (<a href="/Article?contentid=898&language=English">hypertension</a>) increases the risk of complications for people with diabetes because of increased pressure on the kidneys, heart and blood vessels. Lowering the blood pressure with medical treatment and a healthy lifestyle reduces this risk. Regular blood pressure checks in clinic are an important part of diabetes care.</p><h3>High blood fats </h3><p>People with diabetes may develop high blood fat levels (hyperlipidemia). Blood fats are called lipids and include <a href="/Article?contentid=891&language=English">cholesterol</a> and triglycerides. Following a healthy lifestyle, keeping a healthy weight, and keeping blood sugar levels in target range, can help keep blood fat levels in the normal range.</p><h3>Having proteins in the urine</h3><p>The kidneys filter the blood and get rid of the waste. Proteinuria is a condition where proteins leak into the urine instead of staying in the body. Finding these proteins in urine may indicate kidney problems.</p><h3>Having diabetes for a longer time </h3><p>Complications rarely arise in people who have had <a href="/Article?contentid=1719&language=English">type 1 diabetes </a>for less than five years and before puberty. In <a href="/Article?contentid=1721&language=English">type 2 diabetes​</a>, complications may occur by the time of diagnosis. The longer a person has had diabetes (either type 1 or 2), the more likely complications are to appear. </p> ​​ Learn about the potential complications of diabetes, such as poor circulation and eye damage, and the most common risk factors.
Self-harm in children and teens: OverviewSelf-harm in children and teens: OverviewSelf-harm in children and teens: OverviewSEnglishPsychiatrySchool age child (5-8 years);Pre-teen (9-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)BodyNAConditions and diseasesCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2016-02-10T05:00:00ZMarijana Jovanovic, MD, FRCPC;Daphne Korczak, MD, MSc, FRCPC (Paediatrics), FRCPC (Psychiatry)9.1000000000000056.9000000000000626.000000000000Health (A-Z) - ConditionsHealth A-Z<p>A child or teen may turn to self-harm as a way to relieve emotional pain. Find out about the main causes and coping methods.</p><h2>What is self-harm?</h2><p>Self-harm can include cutting, burning or hitting oneself. Children and teens who self-harm may be trying to relieve emotional pain or suffering or create a physical wound to represent their emotional suffering.</p><h2>If my child self-harms, does it mean they are suicidal?</h2><p>No, self-harm is not always associated with <a href="/Article?contentid=291&language=English">suicidal thoughts</a>.</p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul> <li>Self-harm can include cutting, burning or hitting oneself to relieve emotional pain. Not everyone who self-harms has thoughts of suicide.</li> <li>Stressful life events and existing mental health conditions, such as depression or anxiety, are the main causes of self-harming​ thoughts and behaviour.</li> <li>If you learn that your child is harming themselves, talk to them about any stressful events and their impact on them.</li> <li>Someone who engages in self-harm may benefit from safer coping strategies such as using ice cubes or icepacks on the skin, flicking an elastic band on the wrist or doing high intensity exercise.</li> </ul><h2>What causes self-harming thoughts and behaviour?</h2><p>Self-harming thoughts and behaviour can have a wide range of causes. These can include stressful life events and existing mental health conditions.</p><h3>Stressful life events</h3><p>Stressful events may lead a child or teen to feel overwhelmed or trapped in a situation. They might include, for example, a relationship break-up, conflict with family or friends, bullying (online or face-to-face), failing a test or experiencing a loss such as a death or the divorce of parents.</p><h3>Mental health conditions</h3><p>A number of mental health conditions can increase a teen's risk for self-harm. These include:</p><ul><li><a href="/Article?contentid=19&language=English">depression</a></li><li> <a href="/Article?contentid=18&language=English">anxiety disorders</a></li><li>substance use disorders</li><li>some personality disorders (such as borderline personality disorder)</li><li><a href="/Article?contentid=1922&language=English">attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)</a></li><li><a href="/Article?contentid=1927&language=English">post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)</a></li><li>eating disorders such as <a href="/Article?contentid=268&language=English">anorexia</a>, <a href="/Article?contentid=282&language=English">bulimia</a> and <a href="/Article?contentid=277&language=English">binge eating disorder</a></li><li><a href="/Article?contentid=279&language=English">bipolar disorder</a></li><li>schizophrenia</li></ul><h2>What can I do if my child is self-harming?</h2><p>First, discuss what the self-harm means to your child and ask why they are engaging in it. Talking to your child about any stressful events and keeping your child safe lets your child know that you are interested and available to them for support when they need it.</p><p>It is also important to find out if your child also has any thoughts of suicide.</p><h2>How can my child cope with the urge to self-harm?</h2><p>A child or teen can learn a number of coping strategies to replace long-lasting self-harm behaviours but still relieve emotional pain. These include:</p><ul><li>flicking an elastic band against the wrist</li><li>using ice cubes on the skin or ice packs against the temples for one or two minutes</li><li>using deep breathing​ or progressive muscle relaxation</li><li>getting a brief amount of high intensity exercise — even 10 to 20 minutes can help</li></ul><p>Other strategies can include self-soothing through the five senses, for example:</p><ul><li>looking at pleasant images or watching a relaxing video</li><li>listening to relaxing music or nature sounds</li><li>eating a favourite food for a meal or snack</li><li>wrapping themselves in a soft blanket or taking a bath</li><li>smelling pleasant scents such as scented candles, creams or balms.</li></ul><h2>When to seek medical help for self-harm</h2> <p>Once you learn that your child is self-harming, speak to your family doctor or paediatrician, as the behaviour may be a symptom of an underlying mental health condition.</p><h2>Further information</h2><p>For more information on protecting your child or teen from suicide or self-harm, please see the following pages:</p><p><a href="/Article?contentid=291&language=English">Suicide in children and teens: Overview</a></p><p><a href="/Article?contentid=290&language=English">Suicide risk: Signs and symptoms</a></p><p><a href="/Article?contentid=293&language=English">Suicide and self-harm: How to talk to your child about their emotions</a></p><p><a href="/Article?contentid=292&language=English">Suicide and self-harm: How to protect your child</a></p><h2>Resources</h2><p>In Canada, children and teens in distress can contact KidsHelpPhone on <a href="http://www.kidshelpphone.ca/" target="_blank">KidsHelpPhone.ca</a> or call 1-800-688-6868.</p><img alt="" src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/self_harm_overview.jpg" style="BORDER:0px solid;" />https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/self_harm_overview.jpg
Sleep: Benefits and recommended amountsSleep: Benefits and recommended amountsSleep: Benefits and recommended amountsSEnglishPreventionChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)NANAHealthy living and preventionCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2016-07-18T04:00:00ZSamantha Metler, MA;Suneeta Monga, MD, FRCPC8.0000000000000068.2000000000000849.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>​Learn how sleep improves brain function and mental health and how much sleep your child needs each night.</p><p>Sleep is a very important part of your child’s mental and physical health because it allows your child’s mind and body to rest and recover. There are many things you can do to help your <a href="/Article?contentid=646&language=English">child</a> or <a href="/Article?contentid=647&language=English">teen</a> get good quality sleep as often as possible.</p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul> <li>Lack of sleep causes irritability, increased stress, forgetfulness, difficulties with learning and low motivation. Over time, it can contribute to anxiety and depression.</li> <li>Sleep time guidelines depend on a child's age. Every child is different, so take time to figure out what works best for your child.</li> <li>If your child's sleep routine is disrupted, return them to a healthy sleep schedule as soon as possible.</li> <li>See your doctor if you have concerns about your child's sleep patterns.</li> </ul><h2>Benefits of sleep for mental health</h2><p>Your child’s brain needs sleep to restore resources that were used up during the day. A well-rested brain can solve problems, learn new information and enjoy the day a lot more than a tired brain. Some areas of your child’s brain are even more active while they sleep.</p><p>Children who consistently get a good night’s sleep:</p><ul><li>are more creative</li><li>can concentrate on tasks for longer</li><li>have better problem-solving abilities</li><li>are better able to make positive decisions</li><li>are more able to learn and remember new things</li><li>have more energy during the day</li><li>can create and maintain good relations with others.</li></ul> <h2>What are the signs and symptoms of lack of sleep?</h2><p>Not getting enough sleep each night can have negative consequences for your child. These cannot always be erased with extra sleep the next night. Over time, not getting enough quality sleep each night can produce a range of behavioural, cognitive (mental) and emotional symptoms.</p><h3>Physical symptoms</h3><ul><li>Finding it difficult to wake up in the morning</li><li>Falling asleep after being woken up and needs you to wake them again or repeatedly</li><li>Yawning frequently during the day</li><li>Complaining of feeling tired or wanting to nap during the day</li><li>Preferring to lie down during the day, even if it means missing activities with friends or family</li><li>Falling asleep or seeming drowsy at school or at home during homework</li><li>Wanting to consume unhealthy stimulants, such as caffeine or sugar, regularly</li><li>Reduced immune system function, so they may be sick more often</li></ul><h3>Cognitive (mental) symptoms</h3><ul><li>Lacking interest, motivation and attention for everyday tasks</li><li>Increased forgetfulness</li><li>Blurred vision</li><li>Difficulty learning new information</li></ul><h3>Emotional symptoms</h3><ul><li>Increased moodiness and irritability</li><li>Increased impulsivity</li><li>Increased stress throughout the day</li></ul><p>When your child owes their mind and body sleep, this is called sleep debt. A large sleep debt (not getting enough sleep for many nights in a row) can result in your child feeling mentally exhausted. It can also worsen the symptoms of any existing behaviour, <a href="/Article?contentid=18&language=English">anxiety</a> and mood disorders such as <a href="/Article?contentid=19&language=English">depression</a> or <a href="/Article?contentid=279&language=English">bipolar disorder​</a>.</p><h2>How much sleep does my child need?</h2><p>Your child’s circadian rhythm (also called their “body clock”) is a 24-hour cycle that tells your child’s body when to sleep. The body clock is influenced by your child’s age; children need less sleep as they get older.</p><p>The Canadian Paediatric Society has produced a general guide to the amount of sleep young children need over a 24-hour period, including naps. </p><table class="akh-table"><thead><tr><th>Age</th><th>Recommended amount of sleep</th></tr></thead><tbody><tr><td>Newborns (0 to 2 months)​</td><td>16 to 18 hours (3 to 4 hours at a time)</td></tr><tr><td>Babies (2 months to 6 months)</td><td>​14 to 16 hours</td></tr><tr><td>Older babies (6 months to 1 year)</td><td>​14 hours</td></tr><tr><td>Toddlers (1 to 3 years)</td><td>​10 to 13 hours</td></tr><tr><td>Pre-schoolers (3 to 5 years)</td><td>​10 to 12 hours</td></tr><tr><td>School-aged children (5 to 10 years)</td><td>10 to 12 hours</td></tr></tbody></table><p>The National Sleep Foundation offers guidelines for older children and teens.</p><table class="akh-table"><thead><tr><th>Age</th><th>Recommended amount of sleep</th></tr></thead><tbody><tr><td>6 to 13 years​</td><td>9 to 11 hours</td></tr><tr><td>14 to 18 years​</td><td>8 to 10 hours</td></tr></tbody></table><p>The recommended amount of sleep is simply a guideline, as each child is different. In addition, sometimes your child might need a little more sleep than what is recommended and other times they may feel fine with a little less. Talk to your child and adjust their sleep schedule to find out how much sleep per night works best.</p><h2>How to respond to changes in your child’s sleep routine</h2><p>Naturally, there are times when your child’s bedtime may be later than usual, for instance on a family vacation or a special occasion. Going to bed a little later than usual is fine once in a while, but it is important to return your child to a healthy sleep schedule right away to give them the best chance of rest and recovery.</p><p>Keep in mind too that some children may have a reason to wake up during the night, for instance if they need to use the washroom, experience <a href="/Article?contentid=16&language=English">bedwetting</a>, have a <a href="/Article?contentid=306&language=English">nightmare</a> or tend to <a href="/Article?contentid=306&language=English">sleepwalk​</a>. If you are concerned about the number of times your child wakes up, snores or has pauses in their breathing during the night, see your family doctor.</p><img alt="" src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/Sleep_tips_how_to_help_your_child.jpg" style="BORDER:0px solid;" />https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/Sleep_tips_how_to_help_your_child.jpg
How child life specialists can help your childHow child life specialists can help your childHow child life specialists can help your childHEnglishNAChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)NANASupport, services and resourcesCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2012-06-13T04:00:00ZNA8.6000000000000063.7000000000000810.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Learn how a child life specialist can help make your child's hospital experience as positive as possible.</p><p>Child life specialists work as a part of the multi-disciplinary health-care team to help make a <a href="/Article?contentid=1161&language=English">child's stay in the hospital</a> as positive as possible. Child life specialists have expertise in:</p><ul><li> child development</li><li>children's reactions to hospitalization<br></li><li> <a href="/Article?contentid=1140&language=English">the importance of play in the hospital</a></li></ul><p>The hospital experience can be very upsetting for children. Giving children information and ways of coping with stress helps them to be more in control of their experience. A child life specialist can help.</p>​<h2>Key points</h2> <ul> <li>A child life specialist has expertise in child development, children's reactions to hospitalization and the importance of play.</li> <li>Child life specialists can help your child cope with procedures and hospitalization.</li> </ul><h2>What does a child life specialist do?</h2><p>Child life specialists help children and parents understand the hospital environment and prepare for procedures and surgery. A child life specialist can:</p><ul><li> help prepare a child for surgery, medical procedures, or tests </li><li> explore coping strategies for children to use during procedures such as <a href="/Article?contentid=36&language=English">blood work</a> </li><li> help distract a child during procedures</li><li> coordinate developmental play and treatment activities </li><li> provide infant stimulation for developmental growth</li><li>provide social and emotional support to patients, siblings or other family members </li><li> help normalize the hospital for children </li></ul><p>When you meet, the child life specialist will discuss your needs and your child's needs, answer any questions you may have and explain any procedures. They will ask about any other hospital experiences your child may have had, and whether these were good or bad. This will affect how your child copes now.</p><p>Some child life specialists use puppets to speak to kids and play the part of the patient. (For example, the puppet may have a chest tube or a blood pressure cuff.) They also use picture books with non-threatening images to show stages of a procedure and medical equipment. Their strategies take into account the different ways and speed at which different children learn.</p><p>Later, the child life specialist may see your child as they are being prepared for procedures or surgery. They may help to calm them down if they are upset, or if they simply need more support. They will use strategies like blowing bubbles, counting, listening to music and deep breathing to help relax your child. They may also see your child after the procedure just to see how things went.</p><p>In addition to all these activities, child life specialists also operate playrooms and organize activities such as movies and games to keep older children occupied during their hospital stay. The child life specialist may also plan special events like birthday parties.</p><h2>How can a child life specialist help you?</h2><p>Sometimes parents just need another explanation of their child's condition. Or, you may want to know about stress your child will feel after the procedure, how your child will cope with going back to school, or how they should discuss the situation with their peers.</p><p>The child life specialist will:</p><ul><li> tell you what to expect </li><li> help address your concerns </li><li> discuss coping strategies and pain management</li><li> share some suggestions about <a href="/Article?contentid=1141&language=English">how to talk to your child</a> about their condition </li><li> suggest what items (like <a href="/Article?contentid=1140&language=English">toys</a> or teddy bears) you should bring to comfort your child during the hospital stay</li></ul><p>Child life specialists also serve as advocates for you. If you do not understand something, they will get you the information. Or if you have a special need or request, they will do their best to accommodate it. And because they will have spent time with your child before the procedure, they will be in a good position to help make sure that your child's developmental needs are being met over the course of the treatment. This may involve having your child referred to other professionals (for example, a physiotherapist) if necessary.</p><h2>Why is it worth meeting with a child life specialist?</h2><p>A visit with a child life specialist is very valuable, even if you and your child have been through a procedure before. Your needs may have changed since then, and your child will likely have different coping and information needs as well. A child who is six, for example, will want to know more about their treatment than a child who is four. A teen may want fairly complex information.</p><p>It is a good idea to bring any of your child's <a href="/Article?contentid=1160&language=English">siblings</a> to the meeting as well. This can help prepare them for their sibling's operation and help address any fears they may have. The ultimate goal of the child life specialist is to make the hospital experience as positive as possible for you and your family.</p><p>For more information or to refer a patient, please ask your nurse or a patient information clerk to contact the child life specialist for your unit.</p><img alt="" src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/child_life_specialists_can_help_your_child.jpg" style="BORDER:0px solid;" />https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/child_life_specialists_can_help_your_child.jpg Learn how child life specialists use their expertise in child development to help you and your child cope with the stress of hospital stays.
Epilepsy ExplainedEpilepsy ExplainedEpilepsy ExplainedEEnglishhttps://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/J4K_epilepsy_explained_promo.pngKids ContentKids<p>overview</p><br><figure class="swf-asset-c-80"> <div class="asset-animation">src="https://kids.aboutkidshealth.ca/Style%20Library/akh/swf.html?swffile=J4K_Module_Epilepsy_Base_EN.swf"<br></div></figure>Epilepsy explained Help your child learn some facts and common feelings about epilepsy and how they can manage the condition while doing their usual activities. epilepsy-explained

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