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Psoriatic arthritisPsoriatic arthritisPsoriatic arthritisPEnglishRheumatologyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)Body;SkinSkeletal systemConditions and diseasesAdult (19+)Joint or muscle pain;Painhttps://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/arthritis_psoriatic_MED_ILL_EN.jpg2017-01-31T05:00:00ZJennifer Stinson RN-EC, PhD, CPNPLori Tucker, MDAdam Huber, MSc, MD, FRCPCLynn Spiegel, MD, FRCPCLaura Schanberg, MDPatrick McGrath, OC, PhD, FRSC8.8000000000000051.9000000000000295.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Psoriatic arthritis is one type of juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Learn about the symptoms and possible complications of this condition.</p><p>Psoriasis is a skin disease. It is a scaly, red rash, usually on the scalp, behind the ears, on the eyelids, elbows, knees, or buttocks, or inside the belly button. Some people with psoriasis may also have pits or ridges in their fingernails. Children or teenagers with psoriasis may also have arthritis. This is called psoriatic arthritis. Sometimes the psoriasis starts before the arthritis, but sometimes the arthritis begins before the psoriasis. A family history of psoriasis is an important clue to the correct diagnosis.</p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul><li>Psoriasis is a scaly, red rash, usually on the scalp, behind the ears, on the eyelids, elbows, knees, buttocks, or inside the belly button.</li> <li>Psoriatic arthritis affects 3% to 10% of children with JIA.</li> <li>It can be mild or it can be severe and last into adulthood.</li></ul><figure> <span class="asset-image-title">Psoriatic arthritis</span> <img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/arthritis_psoriatic_MED_ILL_EN.jpg" alt="Identification of finger, hip and toe joints and illustrations of psoriatic rash, nail splitting and dactylitis" /> <figcaption class="asset-image-caption">Psoriatic arthritis affects both males and females equally. It is characterized by nail pitting, swollen fingers or toes, soreness in any joint, and red scaly rash.</figcaption> </figure> <h2>Quick facts about psoriatic JIA</h2><p>Here are a few more things you should know about psoriatic JIA:</p><ul><li>It occurs in 3% to 10% of young people who have JIA.</li><li>It can occur at any age.</li><li>It affects both boys and girls equally.</li><li>It can affect a few or many joints.</li><li>It may involve the hips or back, similar to enthesitis-related arthritis.<br></li><li>When the tendons of the fingers or toes become swollen or inflamed, they may look like sausages. This is called dactylitis.</li><li>There is a moderate risk of eye disease, called uveitis.</li></ul><p>Some children and teenagers have relatively mild psoriatic arthritis. Others have a more severe disease that can last into adulthood.</p>August is Psoriasis Awareness Month Learn about psoriatic arthritis, a type of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) that affects 3% to 10% of young people who have JIA.Main
Back to schoolBack to schoolBack to schoolBEnglishNAPreschooler (2-4 years);School age child (5-8 years);Pre-teen (9-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)NANAHealthy living and preventionCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2018-01-19T05:00:00Z000Landing PageLearning Hub<p>From homework tips to keeping kids active, our back to school tips will help you prepare for a fun and successful year ahead.</p><p>To most parents, September means one thing: time to send kids back to school. From homework tips, to dealing with bullying, to keeping kids active and healthy, our back to school tips will help you and your child prepare for a fun and successful year ahead.</p><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h2 class="panel-title">Learning</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>Academics are the main reason that kids go to school. Here, find helpful tips on everything from homework help to teaching your child math skills.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=651&language=English">Reading and writing milestones</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1903&language=English">Reading problems: How to help your child</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=722&language=English">Mathematics milestones</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1899&language=English">Mathematics: How to help your child</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=649&language=English">Spatial reasoning skills: How to foster in children</a></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h2 class="panel-title">Screen time</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>These days we all spend a lot of time in front of electronic devices. Find out about the impacts of too much “screen time” and how to set limits.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=643&language=English">Screen time: Overview</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=644&language=English">How to help your child set healthy screen time limits</a></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h2 class="panel-title">Relationships</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>Learn how to help your kids navigate some of the more difficult aspects of relationships with their peers on and off of school grounds.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h3>Bullying</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=303&language=English">Bullying</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=736&language=English">Cyberbullying part one</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=737&language=English">Cyberbullying part two</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=738&language=English">Cyberbullying: Talking to your children</a></li></ol></li><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h3>Sex</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=716&language=English">Sex education: What children should learn and when</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=718&language=English">Sex education for children: Why parents should talk to their kids about sex</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=717&language=English">Sex education for children: Eight tips for parents</a></li></ol></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h2 class="panel-title">Mental health</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>While in school, kids may struggle with social and academic pressures that affect their mental health. Here are some tips to help them cope.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=18&language=English">Anxiety: Overview</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=19&language=English">Depression: Overview</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=289&language=English">Self-harm in children and teens: Overview</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=291&language=English">Suicide in children and teens: Overview</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=625&language=English">Promoting a positive body image</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=626&language=English">Resilience</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=630&language=English">Self-efficacy in children</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1964&language=English">Self-efficacy: How to foster in children</a></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h2 class="panel-title">Physical health</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>Good physical health can help your child to feel great and achieve better academic success. From being active to eating right, we have you covered.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h3>Sleep</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=645&language=English">Sleep: Benefits and recommended amounts</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=646&language=English">Sleep tips: How to help your child</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=647&language=English">Sleep tips: How to help your teen</a></li></ol></li><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h3>Physical activity</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=642&language=English">Physical activity: Guidelines for children and teens</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=641&language=English">Physical activity: Benefits of exercise for health and wellbeing</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1950&language=English">Enhancing movement skills in your child</a></li></ol></li><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h3>Nutrition</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1436&language=English">Canada's Food Guide</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=639&language=English">How a balanced diet and healthy eating habits can help your child's mental health</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1464&language=English">School-aged child, tween and teen meal ideas</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=638&language=English">Healthy eating for teens</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1466&language=English">Healthy food and drink choices outside the home</a></li></ol></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h2 class="panel-title">After school</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>Back to school also means a return to after school activities. Check out these articles on everything from sports to safely crossing the street.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1982&language=English">Helmets: How they prevent injury</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1983&language=English">Helmets: How to get your child to wear one</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1953&language=English">Organized sports: A winning formula for children</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1957&language=English">Playground safety</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1955&language=English">Pedestrian safety for children</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1968&language=English">Water safety and drowning prevention</a></li></ol></div>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/back_to_school_learning_hub.jpgBackToSchoolbacktoschool,healthylivingMain
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: OverviewAttention deficit hyperactivity disorder: OverviewAttention deficit hyperactivity disorder: OverviewAEnglishPsychiatrySchool age child (5-8 years);Pre-teen (9-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)BrainBrainConditions and diseasesCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2017-06-16T04:00:00ZAlice Charach, MD, MSc, FRCPC;Rosemary Tannock, PhD10.900000000000042.9000000000000789.000000000000Health (A-Z) - ConditionsHealth A-Z<p>Discover the main features and causes of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, which affects one in 20 children.</p><h2>What is attention deficit hyperactivity disorder?</h2><p>Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental condition (a condition that causes subtle differences in the brain at or around birth). It mainly involves difficulties with:</p><ul><li>controlling attention</li><li>regulating behaviour and activity levels (impulsivity/hyperactivity).<br></li></ul><p>When left untreated, ADHD can lead to difficulties with school performance, self-control, memory, emotions, friendships, relationships with family and <a href="/Article?contentid=1923&language=English">other areas of life</a>.</p><br><h2>Key points</h2> <ul> <li>ADHD is a neurodevelopmental condition that causes difficulties with controlling attention to a task at hand and regulating behaviour and activity levels.</li> <li>ADHD can affect a child’s learning ability, school performance and relationships with peers and family, among other areas.</li> <li>ADHD is more common when a parent or sibling has the condition. Symptoms can worsen if a child experiences stresses such as divorce, family financial difficulties, harsh or inconsistent parenting or family conflict.</li> <li>ADHD is linked with a number of neurological, mental health and physical conditions.</li> </ul><h2>What causes ADHD?</h2> <p>The exact causes of ADHD are not known. However, two factors associated with the disorder are genetics and environmental factors.<br></p> <h3>Genetics</h3> <p>ADHD runs in families. A child with ADHD is likely to have a sibling or parent with ADHD. When a doctor diagnoses ADHD in a child, it is not uncommon for parents to suspect that a parent or another child may also have the disorder. That being said, there is currently no genetic test to confirm or rule out a diagnosis of ADHD.</p> <p>Genetic causes differ for each child. Researchers are now studying:</p> <ul> <li>how genes work together</li> <li>how genes interact with environmental factors to influence behaviour</li> <li>how genes influence responses to treatment.</li> </ul> <h3>Environmental factors</h3> <p>Environmental factors that play a role in ADHD include:</p> <ul> <li>smoking or alcohol use in pregnancy</li> <li>prematurity or low birth weight</li> <li>exposure to lead or other toxins</li> </ul> <p>Other environmental factors can worsen symptoms of ADHD. These include family stressors such as:</p> <ul> <li>financial difficulties</li> <li>exposure to violence</li> <li>family breakup</li> <li>harsh or inconsistent parenting</li> <li>inconsistent supervision or support, for example if a caregiver cannot supervise a child properly because of their own physical or mental health challenges.</li> </ul> <h2>How common is ADHD?</h2> <p>On average, ADHD affects 5 per cent of school-aged children around the world, or about one in every 20 children. ADHD also affects about 4 per cent of adults, or about one adult in 25.</p> <p>ADHD is about three times more common in boys than in girls. It is often easier to recognize and diagnose ADHD in boys because they tend to be more active. Girls with ADHD may be more likely to be overlooked because their symptoms are less obvious even though they may have as much difficulty as boys with academic and social skills.</p><h2>Does ADHD occur with other conditions?</h2> <p>ADHD can occur with other conditions such as:</p> <ul> <li><a>autism spectrum disorder</a></li> <li>speech and language difficulties</li> <li>specific learning difficulties</li> <li>Tourette’s syndrome and other tic disorders (conditions that cause short, sudden and repeated movements or sounds)</li> <li><a>epilepsy</a></li> <li>developmental co-ordination disorder (DCD) (suspected when a child’s co-ordination is poorer than expected for their age and intelligence)</li> <li>acquired brain injury</li> </ul> <p>Children with ADHD may sometimes also have mental health conditions such as <a>anxiety</a>, mood disorders (such as <a>depression</a> or <a>bipolar disorder</a>) or <a href="/Article?contentid=1924&language=English">behaviour disorders</a>. These can affect school performance and lead to problems in the teen years.</p> <p>ADHD has also been linked with physical conditions such as <a>asthma</a>, sleep difficulties, and hearing and vision problems.</p> <p>About two thirds of children with ADHD have at least one other condition. It is important to understand if a child has another condition alongside ADHD, as it may affect diagnosis and treatment.</p><h2>When to see a doctor about ADHD</h2> <p>See your child’s doctor if you suspect your child may have ADHD. You can find out more in the page about ADHD <a href="/Article?contentid=1923&language=English">signs and symptoms</a>.</p> <p>If your child is diagnosed with ADHD, your doctor can review <a href="/Article?contentid=1997&language=English">parenting approaches</a> and, depending on your child’s age, discuss <a href="/Article?contentid=1998&language=English">medication treatments</a>.</p><h2>Further information</h2><p>For more information on ADHD, please see the following pages:</p><p> <a href="/Article?contentid=1923&language=English"><span>ADHD: S</span>igns and symptoms</a></p><p> <a href="/Article?contentid=1997&language=English">ADHD: How to help your child at home</a></p><p> <a href="/Article?contentid=1999&language=English">ADHD: Communicating with your child's school</a></p><p> <a href="/Article?contentid=1998&language=English">ADHD: Treatment with medications</a></p><h2>Resources</h2><p>The following resources offer support and additional information about ADHD. </p><h3>Websites</h3><p> <a href="http://www.ldao.ca/" target="_blank">Learning Disabilities Association of Ontario</a></p><p> <a href="https://caddac.ca/adhd/" target="_blank">Centre for ADHD Awareness, Canada - CADAC</a></p><h3>Journal articles</h3><p>Heinonen, K. et al (2010). <a href="https://bmcpediatr.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1471-2431-10-91" target="_blank">Behavioural symptoms of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder in preterm and term children born small and appropriate for gestational age: A longitudinal study</a>. <em>BMC Pediatrics</em>. Dec 15 2010 10:91. doi: 10.1186/1471-2431-10-91.</p><p>Sucksdorff, M. et al (2015). <a href="https://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/136/3/e599..info" target="_blank">Preterm Birth and Poor Fetal Growth as Risk Factors of Attention-Deficit/ Hyperactivity Disorder</a>. <em>Pediatrics</em> Sept 2015 136 (3) e599-e608. doi:10.1542/peds.2015-1043.</p>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/attention_deficit_hyperactivity_disorder_overview.jpgADHD: OverviewMain
MononucleosisMononucleosisMononucleosisMEnglishInfectious DiseasesChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)BodyImmune systemConditions and diseasesCaregivers Adult (19+)Abdominal pain;Fatigue;Fever;Headache;Nausea;Rash;Sore throat2015-01-07T05:00:00ZShawna Silver, MD, FRCPC, FAAP, PEng8.2000000000000061.70000000000001180.00000000000Health (A-Z) - ConditionsHealth A-Z<p>Mononucleosis, or mono, is a type of viral infection. Learn about signs and symptoms and how to take care of your child at home.</p><h2>What is mononucleosis?</h2><p>Mononucleosis (mono) is a viral infection that is usually caused by the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). This virus spreads through infected saliva. In children, this may happen through <a href="/Article?contentid=774&language=English">coughing</a> or by handling or chewing toys that have been contaminated by the virus. In teens, the virus can spread through sharing food and drinks, or toothbrushes or through close, personal contact such as kissing.</p><p>Other viruses that can cause a mononucleosis-like illness include cytomegalovirus, <em>Toxoplasma gondii</em>, adenovirus and viral hepatitis.</p><br><h2>Key points</h2> <ul> <li>In children, mono is a type of viral infection that can cause no symptoms or a mild febrile illness.</li> <li>Teens and young adults with mono often have other symptoms with their fever, including sore throat, headaches and swollen lymph nodes.</li> <li>Keep your child comfortable and hydrated while their body fights the illness.</li> <li>Avoid sports and heavy lifting. Injury to the spleen can cause severe internal bleeding.</li> </ul><h2>Signs and symptoms of mono</h2> <p>A child or teen can have infectious mononucleosis from EBV for some time before showing any symptoms. This is known as the incubation time of a virus. The incubation time for mono can be up to 30 to 50 days in teens, but it is shorter for children.</p> <h3>Children</h3> <p>In children, mono typically shows very few or no symptoms. Any minor symptoms are usually limited to:</p> <ul> <li>a <a href="/Article?contentid=12&language=English">cold</a></li> <li>a mild to moderate <a href="/Article?contentid=30&language=English">fever</a>, which is not dangerous and usually lasts less than two weeks.</li> </ul> <h3>Teens and young adults</h3> <p>Symptoms for this age group start slowly over one or two weeks. They can include:</p> <ul> <li>a <a href="/Article?contentid=748&language=English">sore throat</a></li> <li>tiredness, loss of energy and body aches</li> <li>large red tonsils covered with pus</li> <li><a href="/Article?contentid=777&language=English">swollen lymph nodes</a> in the neck, armpits, groin and elsewhere</li> <li>a fever for 10 to 14 days</li> <li><a href="/Article?contentid=29&language=English">headache</a></li> <li>nausea and loss of appetite</li> <li>abdominal pain</li> <li>a rash</li> <li>a slightly enlarged spleen</li> <li>a slightly enlarged liver</li> <li>jaundice.</li> </ul> <p>Most teens have only mild symptoms for a week. Even those with severe symptoms often feel completely better after two to four weeks.</p><h2>How a doctor diagnoses mono</h2> <p>Your child’s doctor will diagnose mono by examining your child and asking about any symptoms. They may also order blood tests to help confirm the diagnosis or rule out more serious (but less common) causes of your child's symptoms.</p><h2>What your child’s doctor can do for mono</h2> <p>Mononucleosis is a viral infection. Antibiotics cannot treat a virus, so, in most cases, your child’s doctor will suggest medicines to ease fever or pain. But if your child’s tonsils are so large that they are almost touching, the doctor may prescribe steroid medication to reduce the swelling.</p><h2>Complications of mono</h2> <p>Although it is not common, mono can sometimes cause more serious complications. These include:</p> <ul> <li>dehydration</li> <li>an enlarged spleen</li> <li>breathing problems</li> <li>a rash</li> </ul> <h3>Dehydration</h3> <p><a href="/Article?contentid=776&language=English">Dehydration</a> occurs when a sore throat prevents a child from drinking enough fluids. Try to prevent dehydration by giving your child pain medicines for their throat and small, frequent amounts of fluids.</p> <h3>Enlarged spleen</h3> <p>Mono can cause your child’s spleen to become enlarged (get bigger) and leave it at risk for <a href="/Article?contentid=1183&language=English">injury</a>. A hit to the stomach could rupture the enlarged spleen and cause internal bleeding. This is an emergency.</p> <p>You can keep your child’s spleen safe by having your child avoid contact sports (see below), preventing <a href="/Article?contentid=6&language=English">constipation</a> and avoiding heavy lifting.</p> <p>If your child has sudden, severe pain in the abdomen (belly), call 911 or take them to the emergency department right away.</p> <h3>Breathing problems</h3> <p>Mono may cause breathing difficulties if your child’s throat is swollen and their airway is partially blocked. This could happen if there are enlarged tonsils, <a href="/Article?contentid=831&language=English">adenoids</a> or other lymph tissue at the back of the throat.</p> <p>A child may describe a feeling of “something being stuck” if they have a sore throat or difficulty breathing. Your child’s doctor can examine their throat to see if there is a risk of blockage and may prescribe medicines to reduce any swelling.</p> <h3>Rash</h3> <p>Sometimes patients with mono develop a <a href="/Article?contentid=791&language=English">rash after taking certain antibiotics</a>. This rash is copper-coloured and itchy and can develop after taking ampicillin or, less frequently, amoxicillin. If your child develops this kind of rash, ask their doctor about stopping the antibiotic. Your child may need a different antibiotic instead or may not need an antibiotic at all, as antibiotics will not treat mono.</p><h2>Taking care of your child with mono at home</h2> <h3>Fever and pain medicines</h3> <p>Give your child <a href="/Article?contentid=62&language=English">acetaminophen</a> or <a href="/Article?contentid=153&language=English">ibuprofen</a> to ease the discomfort of swollen lymph nodes or fever. Always follow the instructions on the package.</p> <h3>Relief for sore throat</h3> <p>If your child finds it painful to eat and drink, try:</p> <ul> <li>giving soft foods that are easy to swallow, such as soups, ice cream, pudding or yogurt</li> <li>avoiding highly salted, spicy or acidic (vinegar or citrus fruits) foods if they make the pain worse</li> <li>letting your child take their fluids through a straw or sippy cup</li> <li>having your child gargle with warm salt water (older children and teens)</li> <li>giving your child ice cubes and lozenges to suck (older children and teens). Do not give lozenges or cubes to young children, as they are a choking hazard.</li> </ul> <h3>Fluids</h3> <p>Make sure your child drinks plenty of fluids. Your child is getting enough fluid if:</p> <ul> <li>they urinate (pee) at least two or three times a day</li> <li>they have moist eyes and tears when they cry</li> <li>their mouth is moist and has saliva.</li> </ul> <h3>Rest and activity</h3> <p>Your child will likely need to rest, but they do not need to be isolated or stay in bed. Usually children slow down when they have a fever and then become more active when they feel better.</p> <h3>Returning to school</h3> <p>Children can go back to school when their fever is gone and they can swallow normally. Most children are ready to return to their normal routine in two to four weeks.</p> <h3>Sports</h3> <p>All children with mono should avoid contact sports for at least four weeks or until cleared by their doctor. This is to prevent damage to the spleen if it became enlarged.</p><h2>How to prevent mono from spreading</h2> <p>Mono is most contagious while your child has a fever. After the fever is gone, the virus is still carried in the saliva in small amounts for up to six months. To prevent the spread of the mono virus, your child should use separate drinking glasses and utensils. Teens with mono should avoid kissing until the fever has been gone for several days.</p><h2>When to see a doctor</h2> <p>Call your child’s regular doctor if:</p> <ul> <li>your child cannot drink enough fluids and is not peeing</li> <li>your child is not back to school two weeks after being diagnosed with mono</li> <li>your child still has symptoms after four weeks</li> <li>you have other questions or concerns, for example about your child's return to sports.</li> </ul> <p>Call 911 or go to the nearest emergency department if your child:</p> <ul> <li>is dehydrated</li> <li>has problems breathing</li> <li>has abdominal pain, especially high on their left side.</li> </ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/Mononucleosis.jpgMain
Soft tissue injuriesSoft tissue injuriesSoft tissue injuriesSEnglishOrthopaedics/MusculoskeletalChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)BodySkin;Skeletal muscle;Ligaments;TendonsConditions and diseasesCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2014-06-17T04:00:00ZShawna Silver, MD, FRCPC, FAAP, PEng7.7000000000000064.2000000000000890.000000000000Health (A-Z) - ConditionsHealth A-Z<p>Soft tissue injuries such as sprains and strains are common. Learn how to recognize and treat a soft tissue injury.</p><h2>What is a soft tissue injury?</h2><p>Soft tissue injuries can include injuries to the skin, muscles, tendons, ligaments or the tissue capsules that surround certain joints.<br></p><h3>Sprains and strains</h3><ul><li> <a href="/Article?contentid=929&language=English">Sprains</a> are injuries to the ligaments when they are overstretched. Ligaments are the tissues that connect two bones.</li><li><a href="/article?contentid=945&language=English">Strains</a> are injuries to muscles and/or the tendons that attach or connect the muscles.</li></ul><p>These types of soft tissue injury are common. They are usually mild, but they can sometimes be quite serious. They can also occur together in the same injured area.</p> ​<h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>Soft tissue injuries include strains and sprains. Strains affect muscles and tendons; sprains affect ligaments.</li><li>Most soft tissue injuries are mild and can be treated with rest, cool packs, compression and raising the injured body part. Over-the-counter pain medicine can also help with pain.</li> <li>Your health-care provider will talk to you about how soon your child can return to their regular activity.</li></ul><h2>Symptoms of a soft tissue injury</h2> <p>A person with a soft tissue injury will have pain and swelling. Depending on how severe it is and where it is, the injury may affect activities that use the injured body part. Severe soft tissue injuries will cause the child or teen to stop their activity.</p><h2>Causes of a soft tissue injury</h2> <p>Sprains and strains are caused by severe or sudden twisting, stretching or (for muscles) contraction. These forces stretch or even tear the fibres of the muscle, tendon or ligament. They may even cause the muscle, tendon or ligament to detach from its anchor point (for example, a bone).</p><h2>Taking care of your child at home</h2> <p>Most soft tissue injuries are mild and can be cared for by parents, coaches, teachers or other caregivers. In very mild cases, it may be okay to continue the activity that caused the injury.</p> <p>To decide if it is safe to return to activity, a parent or responsible caregiver should check your child's injury. They should also tend to the injury later.</p> <p>Ideally, tending to the injury will:</p> <ul> <li>relieve discomfort</li> <li>keep the joint stable</li> <li>minimize swelling</li> </ul> <p>After an injury, the swelling of the injured body part may interfere with healing.</p> <h3>How to tend to an injury</h3> <ul> <li>Rest and keep the injured area still. If the area is very painful, use splints, slings, dressings or crutches as directed by your health-care provider.</li> <li>Use ice, or cold packs, in the first 48 hours after an injury. Do not apply ice directly to the skin; wrap it in a thin cloth first. You can also use a bag of frozen vegetables or crushed ice; it will shape itself to the injured area. Apply the cold pack for up to 20 minutes every two or three hours or as directed.</li> <li>Use compression or elastic dressings to help reduce swelling when your child is up and moving around, but do not rely on them to provide support. Your child should remove them when resting and before going to sleep. If the area near the dressing becomes numb, loosen the dressing, as it may be too tight.</li> <li>Elevate (raise) the injured area as much as possible above the level of the heart in the first day or two after the injury. This will help reduce swelling. For example, if your child injures their leg, they can use cushions or pillows as props to keep it raised when they are sitting or lying down.</li> <li>If needed, your child may take medicine such as ibuprofen to decrease any pain and inflammation. Use according to the package directions or as instructed by your health-care provider.</li> </ul> <h2>When can my child return to regular activity?</h2> <p>Your health-care provider will talk to you about your child's gradual return to activity based on the type of injury. For mild to moderate injury, early movement and light activity will help your child get better faster. More severe injuries may take as long as four to six weeks to heal and activity may make the injury worse.</p><h2>How to prevent soft tissue injuries</h2> <p>Many tissue injuries can be prevented by wearing protective gear such as helmets or wrist protectors. Stretching and warming up before activity is also very important for joint and ligament health.</p><h2>When to see a doctor</h2> <p>Call your child's regular doctor if:</p> <ul> <li>your child is not getting better by four or five days after the injury</li> <li>your child needs a medical checkup before going back to sports or activities</li> <li>there is increasing redness or swelling around the site of injury</li> <li>your child has a fever</li> </ul> <p>Call your child's doctor immediately if your child has a significant break in the skin or has decreased feeling (sensation) around the site of injury. These are signs that the injury may be more than a soft tissue injury.</p> <h3>When to get help from emergency services</h3> <p>Go to your nearest Emergency Department or call 911 if:</p> <ul> <li>your child cannot use the affected area at all within a short time after the injury</li> <li>your child has a constant numbness, coldness or loss of feeling in the injured area</li> <li>the affected body part no longer has its normal shape</li> <li>your child has constant or severe pain that does not get better with medicine such as acetaminophen or ibuprofen.</li> </ul><img alt="" src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/soft_tissue_injuries.jpg" style="BORDER:0px solid;" />softtissueinjuriessofttissueinjurieshttps://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/soft_tissue_injuries.jpgMain



Supporting your mental health and wellbeingSupporting your mental health and wellbeingSupporting your mental health and wellbeingSEnglishPrevention;PsychiatryTeen (13-18 years)NANAHealthy living and preventionTeen (13-18 years)NAhttps://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/Being_with_all_of_your_experiences.png2019-03-22T04:00:00ZSara Ahola Kohut, PhD, CPsych8.70000000000000618.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Growing up can be hard at times. You need to balance your everyday responsibilities like school with becoming more independent. </p><p>If you have a chronic condition, this balancing act becomes more complicated. Now, you need to manage doctor’s appointments, your medication schedule and, sometimes, tests and procedures. All this can get in the way of going to school or seeing your friends. </p><p>It’s important to learn how to take care of yourself. A big part of this is knowing when and how to ask for help.</p><p>Taking care of your chronic condition means taking care not only of your physical health but also your mental and social health. Here are some ideas to help you get the support you need.</p><div class="call-out"><div class="asset-video"> <iframe src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/jaNAwy3XsfI?rel=0" frameborder="0"></iframe> <span class="vid-title"><strong>Being with all of your experiences</strong></span></div><p> <strong>How to use:</strong> This animation explains why pushing away unwanted thoughts, feelings and sensations can often make a situation worse. Use it when you are finding it hard to focus on the people and things that are important to you, or if you are spending too much energy avoiding your unwanted thoughts or feelings. After the video, take a moment to let all of your thoughts, feelings and sensations be with you, without pushing any of them away.</p></div><h2>Taking care of your physical health</h2><ul><li>Take your medication and do your exercises as prescribed.</li><li>Stay in contact with your healthcare team and ask questions if you are unsure of anything. Write down your questions so you don’t forget them at your next appointment.</li><li>Keep track of any symptoms that come up in the weeks or months between your medical appointments. It can be easy to forget what you have been experiencing over several months if you feel differently on the day or two before your next appointment. </li><li>If you find it hard to cope with symptoms, consider asking your healthcare team for support to learn new coping strategies. Some healthcare providers specialize in helping kids and teens learn to cope with physical symptoms such as nausea and pain that might not go away completely.</li></ul><h2>Taking care of your mental health</h2><div class="call-out"><div class="asset-video vid-small"> <iframe src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/CMcx9tJ70rA?rel=0" frameborder="0"></iframe> <span class="vid-title"></span><span class="vid-title"></span><span class="vid-title"></span><span class="vid-title"></span><span class="vid-title">Joy</span><span class="vid-type">audio</span><span class="vid-type"></span><span class="vid-type"></span><span class="vid-type"></span><span class="vid-type"></span> </div><p> <strong>How to use:</strong> This guided audio meditation helps you connect with joy. Use it when you’d like to take a break or when you’re dealing with unwanted thoughts, physical sensations or emotions. Follow along with the meditation, connecting with the natural rhythm of your breath and exploring a joyful memory.</p></div><ul><li>Find someone you trust, such as family, friends, coaches or teachers, and tell them how you feel. It is important to be open about your feelings.</li><li>Make time to take care of yourself, take breaks and do fun and relaxing things. It can be helpful to try to treat yourself the way you would treat a friend. What would you tell or suggest to a friend who was feeling the same way as you? </li><li>If you are having trouble with high levels of <a href="/Article?contentid=3777&language=English">stress</a>, worries or sadness, talk to your medical team about helping you find someone who can help. This can be a psychologist, psychiatrist, social worker or another mental health professional. There are people who specialize in helping children and teens living with a chronic condition.</li></ul><div class="call-out"><div class="asset-video vid-small"> <iframe src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/O5F3-Xw2XPE?rel=0" frameborder="0"></iframe> <span class="vid-title">The </span><span class="vid-title"></span><span class="vid-title"></span><span class="vid-title"></span><span class="vid-title">mountain</span><span class="vid-type">audio</span><span class="vid-type"></span><span class="vid-type"></span><span class="vid-type"></span><span class="vid-type"></span></div><p> <strong>How to use:</strong> This guided audio meditation helps you find a sense of stillness within yourself. Use it to find a place of stillness within your mind and body when you are feeling upset or agitated. Follow along with the meditation, taking time to visualize yourself as grounded and strong, like a mountain.</p></div><p>If you ever have thoughts of harming yourself because of your chronic condition, seek help immediately.</p><h2>Taking care of your social life</h2><ul><li>Stay connected to family and friends. If you cannot do this in person, stay connected through video or phone calls, messaging or texts. </li><li>Keep up with your hobbies and extracurricular activities whenever you can. Even if you can’t participate fully, you may be able to attend events or games to stay connected to your team. </li><li>Meet other people who are living with the same chronic condition as you (or something similar). It can be helpful to be around people who ‘get it’. They can often also give you tips and tricks on coping well with symptoms.</li></ul><p>Many different therapies can help address the physical, mental and social symptoms related to living with a chronic condition. These include approaches like cognitive behavioural therapy, acceptance and commitment therapy, <a href="/Article?contentid=3778&language=English">mindfulness</a>, dialectical behavioural therapy, emotion-focused therapy or interpersonal therapy – just to name a few! Different approaches work for different people and different situations.</p><div class="call-out"><div class="asset-video vid-small"> <iframe src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/YnL-hjXo4EQ?rel=0" frameborder="0"></iframe> <span class="vid-title">Self-</span><span class="vid-title"></span><span class="vid-title"></span><span class="vid-title"></span><span class="vid-title">compassion</span><span class="vid-type">audio</span><span class="vid-type"></span><span class="vid-type"></span><span class="vid-type"></span><span class="vid-type"></span></div> <p> <strong>How to use:</strong> This guided audio meditation helps you develop kindness and compassion towards yourself. Use this meditation to acknowledge physical pain or unpleasant emotions without harshness or judgment. Follow along with the meditation, noticing your breath and recognizing unpleasant sensations as useful signals.</p></div><p>Asking for help when you need it is hard, but it’s also rewarding. Remember that everybody needs support from time to time. Your friends, family, healthcare team and other professionals can help you develop the skills and practices you need to do well and enjoy life despite your chronic condition.</p>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/Supporting-your-mental-health-and-wellbeing.jpgBeing with all of your experiences Learn how letting all your thoughts, feelings and sensations be with you instead of pushing them away can help your mental health.Teenshttps://youtu.be/jaNAwy3XsfI
ConstipationConstipationConstipationCEnglishGastrointestinalChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)Large Intestine/ColonLarge intestine;RectumConditions and diseasesAdult (19+)Constipation2019-05-16T04:00:00ZBeth Gamulka, MD, and SickKids Constipation Working Group;Behnaz Mahmoodian, MD8.1000000000000062.20000000000001297.00000000000Health (A-Z) - ConditionsHealth A-Z<p>Find out about the different causes of constipation and how you can help your child relieve it with diet, toilet training and/or medicines.</p><h2>What is constipation? </h2><p>Constipation is an abnormal pattern of bowel movements that causes a person to pass harder and smaller stools (poo), less often than usual. Constipation makes passing stools uncomfortable. In more extreme cases, there may be <a href="/Article?contentid=3&language=English">soiling</a> (encopresis).</p><p>Everyone has a different bowel pattern. A normal frequency of stools can vary from several times a day to once every few days. If your child's stools have become harder, smaller or the pattern has slowed down, they may be constipated.</p><p>Constipation can occur over days, weeks or months or it can occur during a change in routine such as <a href="/Article?contentid=636&language=English">toilet training</a>, starting school, having a new sibling, going on holiday or having a change in diet.</p><p>With constipation, stool may build up in the bowels over time. This build-up can cause stomach cramps and pain, but the symptoms of constipation may go unrecognized for a long time. For children who have been constipated for a long time, retraining the bowel and returning it to normal can take many months or sometimes even years.</p><p>Remember: Constipation can still happen even if a child is having a bowel movement every day.</p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>Constipation means bowel movements that are less frequent than usual, painful or hard to pass.</li><li>Constipation can be caused by inadequate fluids or fibre in the diet, a change in bowel routines or medicines.</li><li>Genetics may play an important role in your child’s bowel patterns.<br></li><li>Changes in your child's diet may improve constipation.</li><li>Your child's doctor may also suggest giving medicine such as stool softeners to clear the bowel.</li><li>See your doctor if your child has blood in their stool, is having accidents with bowel movements or has a fever or severe abdominal pain and vomiting.</li></ul><h2>What causes constipation?</h2><p>In most children, constipation is caused by issues with bowel routines or diet. Some common causes of constipation are:<br></p><ul><li>not drinking enough fluids</li><li>not having enough fibre from whole grains or cereals, fruits and vegetables</li><li>eating too much junk food or other foods that promote constipation</li><li>withholding stools to avoid painful bowel movements if there are small tears (fissures) at the bowel opening (anus)</li><li>genetics - some children inherit a tendency toward constipation from their parents</li><li>poor bowel routines, problems with toilet training and sometimes refusing to spend time on the toilet.</li></ul><p>Some children may have a fear of public bathrooms or bathrooms at school. Other children simply prefer to keep playing rather than go to the bathroom when they feel the urge to have a bowel movement. Instead, they 'hold back', causing a build-up of stool.</p><p>Other less common causes of constipation are:</p><ul><li>illnesses that cause <a href="/Article?contentid=746&language=English">vomiting</a> or <a href="/Article?contentid=30&language=English">fever</a> and lead to a loss of body fluids and <a href="/Article?contentid=776&language=English">dehydration</a></li><li>some medicines such as morphine</li><li>underactive thyroid gland (<a href="/Article?contentid=2309&language=English">hypothyroidism</a>)</li><li> <a href="/article?contentid=830&language=English">Hirschsprung's disease</a>, a disease of the bowel that is usually diagnosed in the first few weeks of life</li></ul><h2>How to care for your child with constipation</h2><p>In some children, constipation can be relieved by making diet and lifestyle changes. Once constipation starts, it can last a long time. Treatment is long-term and requires patience, co-operation and commitment from family members and from the school.</p><h3>Diet in children less than one year old</h3><p>Babies under two months old generally do not have constipation. Talk to your child's doctor before you make any changes to your baby's milk or formula or give any medicine to treat constipation.</p><p>If your baby is under four months old, you may consider giving 1 ounce (30 mL) of apple, pear or prune juice once or twice a day.</p><p>Once your baby is more than four months old, try giving high-fibre, strained foods. These include apricots, beans, cereals, peaches, pears, peas, plums or prunes.</p><h3>Diet in children over one year old</h3><p>Give your child plenty of fluids, especially water.</p><p>Make sure your child eats fruits and vegetables every day. Canada's Food Guide recommends that children have four to six servings of fruits and vegetables a day. Some good examples are apples, apricots, beans, blueberries, brocolli, cabbage, cauliflower, dates, figs, lettuce, peas, pears, prunes and raisins. Avoid any foods that could cause <a href="/Article?contentid=1039&language=English">choking</a> in younger children.</p><p>Take steps to increase the amount of <a href="/Article?contentid=964&language=English">fibre</a> in your child's diet. Have your child eat bran every day. It is high in fibre and is a natural stool softener. There are many sources of bran to choose from. Try bran cereals, bran muffins, whole wheat or multigrain bread, graham crackers or oatmeal. If your child is older than four years of age, popcorn is another great fibre source.</p><p>Some foods are known to cause constipation. You may wish to limit them in your child's diet. Examples include low-fibre foods such as white rice or bread, and junk food such as chips and pop. Filling up on too much dairy may also contribute to constipation. Diet changes are most successful when the entire family follows these healthy choices.</p><h3>Toilet training</h3><p>Two or three times a day, 20-30 minutes after each meal, have your child spend at least five minutes on the toilet or the potty. Even if there is no bowel movement, you are helping to set a pattern. You might find it helpful to use a calendar to reinforce the schedule. Younger children may like stickers they can put on a chart for sitting on the toilet after a meal.</p><p>Your child should be comfortable, with the knees up. A foot rest can prevent your child's legs from hanging down. It will also keep the knees bent, which helps bowel movements pass more easily.</p><p>If you are having problems with toilet training and your child is holding back stool, you may need to delay toilet training until the constipation is successfully treated.</p><h3>Regular physical activity</h3><p>Exercise or physical activity can help keep the bowels moving. Children ages one to four need 180 minutes (3 hours) <a href="/Article?contentid=642&language=English&hub=mentalhealth">regular physical activity</a> each day. Children ages five or older need 60 minutes (1 hour) of physical activity.</p><h3>Medicines</h3><p>If a change in diet does not relieve your child's constipation, talk to your child's doctor.</p><p>Some children with constipation will not respond to diet and toilet routine changes alone and will need medicine.</p><p>The most effective medicines for constipation are stool softeners. These work by drawing water into the bowel to 'flush' out the stool. The most commoly used medicine is <a href="/Article?contentid=219&language=English">polyethylene glycol (PEG 3350)</a>. Polyethylene glycol is safe for children and can be used long-term. Many brands are available without a prescription and it is tasteless when fully dissolved in a drink.</p><p>For children who are severely constipated, higher doses of medicines are often needed at first to clean out backed-up stool and provide relief from the pain linked to constipation. You can then adjust the dose so your child has at least one soft stool every day.</p><p>Avoid using suppositories or enemas when possible. Only use suppositories or enemas if your child's doctor has suggested them.</p><p>Do not be afraid to give your child long-term medicine under your doctor's supervision to help treat their constipation. The bowels do not become dependent on PEG 3350 and will not become lazy. Routine emptying of the bowel is important for overall bowel health.</p><h2>When to see your child's doctor for constipation</h2><p>See your child's doctor if your child:</p><ul><li>is generally affected by poor bowel movements</li><li>has blood in the stool</li><li>has a <a href="/Article?contentid=30&language=English">fever</a></li><li>is urinating (peeing) often or finds urinating painful</li><li>starts to soil underwear</li><li>loses weight</li><li>wakes up from sleep to pass stool</li><li>complains of abdominal pain </li></ul><h3>Take your child to the nearest Emergency Department if:</h3><ul><li>your child develops severe abdominal pain</li><li>your child is vomiting (throwing up) repeatedly or vomiting dark green</li><li>your child's abdomen (belly) becomes swollen</li></ul><img alt="" src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/constipation.jpg" style="BORDER:0px solid;" />constipationconstipationhttps://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/constipation.jpgMain
Substance use disorder: How to help your teen at homeSubstance use disorder: How to help your teen at homeSubstance use disorder: How to help your teen at homeSEnglishPsychiatry;AdolescentTeen (13-18 years)NANAConditions and diseases;Healthy living and preventionAdult (19+) CaregiversNA2019-01-30T05:00:00ZKaren Leslie, MD, MEd, BSc9.2000000000000058.3000000000000856.000000000000Health (A-Z) - ConditionsHealth A-Z<p>​Discover how to monitor your teen's substance use effectively and what to do if your teen has a substance use disorder.<br></p><p>As your teen develops and becomes more independent, they may be spending more time outside the home with friends and be more willing to try new things, including drugs or alcohol. You can help your teen stay safe and healthy by monitoring their substance use. If they have, or you suspect they have, a substance use disorder, you can take clear steps at home to support their recovery. <br></p><h2>How to monitor your teen's substance use</h2><ul><li>Ask questions about your child's or teen's school, friends and other parts of their lives (such as any sports and hobbies) to learn about their interests and well-being outside the home. </li><li>Practise authoritative parenting by setting age-appropriate expectations and limits around your teen's routine such as curfews, <a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=643&language=English">screen time</a>, chores and so on.</li><li>Have conversations with your teen about alcohol and drug use, including over-the-counter and prescription medications and high-caffeine energy drinks. </li><li>Keep open communication with your teen. Listen to them and be open to negotiation.</li><li>Discuss your expectations about your teen's use of alcohol or drugs. Effective messaging about risky behaviour can include statements such as:</li><ul><li> <em>"If you decide to try alcohol or other drugs, I (we) hope that you will use as little as possible."</em></li><li> <em>"If you do decide to use, you can always call me (us) if you are in a situation where you don't feel safe." </em></li></ul><li>Be a role model. Demonstrate to your teen that you can use alcohol (and other drugs) responsibly.</li><li>Spend time with your teen. There is no standard guideline — how much time you spend, and what you do, will be different for every family, depending on work, school and other activities.<br></li></ul><h2>​Key points<br></h2><ul><li>Take time to learn about your teen's well-being outside the home, create open communication with your teen and role model responsible use of substances. <br></li><li>Set age-appropriate rules for your teen's routine and set clear expectations for their behaviour if they decide to try drugs or alcohol. <br></li><li>If your teen has a (suspected) substance use disorder, seek help from a health-care provider who specializes in treating substance abuse in young people.<br></li><li>Support professional treatment with strict ground rules for your teen about avoiding substance use at home, avoiding dangerous situations and attending school or treatment regularly.  <br></li></ul><h2>What to do if your teen has (or you suspect they may have) a substance use disorder</h2><p>First, seek help and support for both you and your teen from a health-care provider, clinic or agency that specializes in treating substance abuse in young people.<br></p>While receiving professional guidance, you may also want to consider setting clear ground rules for your child or teen. For instance, set a clear expectation that your teen does not bring substances into the home or onto the property. Make sure you monitor how your child or teen follows this rule. <p></p><h3>Enforce ground rules</h3><p>Monitoring your teen may involve invading their privacy. This might be difficult, but it is important to remind yourself, and your teen, that their health and safety are your top priority. You may also need to follow a “when/then” script with your teen to explain any stricter rules and inspections. For instance, you might say something like “When I see you making better choices for your health, I’ll respect your privacy again.” Or something like, “I look forward to respecting your privacy in the future, but right now I need you to make sure that you are following house rules.”</p><p>If your child’s or teen’s behaviour has placed them in unsafe situations, do not be afraid to ground them and have them demonstrate responsible behaviour to earn increases in freedom again. Although your child or teen may not acknowledge it, and may even argue forcefully against it, they may be secretly grateful that you are putting limits on their behaviour.</p><h3>Express concerns about behaviour, not people</h3><p>Allow your child and teen to choose their own friends. If you disapprove of your teen’s or their friends’ behaviour, express your concerns about the behaviour rather than the people themselves. Be sure to state clearly what behaviour you expect to see instead.</p><h3>Be clear about regular attendance at school or treatment</h3><p>When a teen is using substances, make it clear that you expect them to attend school every day and on time, unless a physical or mental health condition prevents it. Reinforce your expectations by offering rewards for consistent school attendance.</p><p>If your teen’s substance use is preventing your teen from attending school regularly, make it clear that you expect them to attend treatment regularly.</p><p>Parent Action on Drugs (n.d.). <em>Information for parents</em>. Retrieved from <a href="https://parentactionondrugs.org/for-parents/">https://parentactionondrugs.org/for-parents/</a></p><p>Government of Canada (2019). <em>Talking with teenagers about drugs.</em> Retrieved from <a href="https://www.canada.ca/en/health-canada/services/substance-abuse/talking-about-drugs/talking-with-teenagers-about-drugs.html">https://www.canada.ca/en/health-canada/services/substance-abuse/talking-about-drugs/talking-with-teenagers-about-drugs.html</a></p><p>Canadian Pediatric Society (2017). <em>How to talk to your teen</em>. Retrieved from <a href="https://www.caringforkids.cps.ca/handouts/talk_with_your_teen">https://www.caringforkids.cps.ca/handouts/talk_with_your_teen</a></p><p>Parent Action Pack (n.d.). Retrieved from <a href="http://parentactionpack.ca/">http://parentactionpack.ca/</a> </p><p>Fleming, K., & McKiernan, A. (2018). <em>Talking Pot with Youth: A Cannabis Communication Guide for Youth Allies</em>. Ottawa, ON: Canadian Centre on Substance Use and Addiction. Retrieved from <a href="http://www.ccdus.ca/Resource%20Library/CCSA-Cannabis-Communication-Guide-2018-en.pdf">http://www.ccdus.ca/Resource%20Library/CCSA-Cannabis-Communication-Guide-2018-en.pdf</a> </p>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/Substance_use_disorder-How_to_help_your_teen_at_home.jpgSubstance use disorder: How to helpMain
Understanding your baby's feeding cuesUnderstanding your baby's feeding cuesUnderstanding your baby's feeding cuesUEnglishNutritionChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)NANAHealthy living and preventionCaregivers Adult (19+) Educators Hospital healthcare providers Community healthcare providers Remote populations First nationsNA2013-09-27T04:00:00ZStephanie Gladman, RD, MHSc.;Elly Berger, BA, MD, FRCPC, FAAP, MHPE6.4000000000000075.9000000000000568.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Find out when and how to respond safely to your baby's interest in solid food and feeding cues.</p><p>You can begin introducing your baby to <a href="/Article?contentid=497&language=English">solids</a> at around six months of age. By about nine to 12 months of age, your baby will show signs that they are ready to feed themselves. </p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul><li>Babies can start pureed or mashed food at around six months, when they can hold food in their mouth and sit up and control their head independently.</li> <li>Never force feed your baby. Instead, understand that they can go through phases of wanting more, or less, food.</li> <li>Encourage your baby to eat a range of nutritious foods by demonstrating healthy eating habits. </li> <li>To prevent choking, always have an adult supervise a baby while they are feeding.</li></ul><p>You may have noticed that your baby can start to pick up small objects such as toys and food using their thumb and forefinger. Developing this pincer grasp is a major milestone for your baby. They may soon be ready to hold a spoon and take part in feeding with you.</p><p>You will see that your baby can gradually pick up small bits of food like O-shaped cereal or cut-up pieces of toast. They can chew these foods with their gums and safely swallow them.</p> <a href="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/INM_NRC_track2-2_intro_to_food_pdf.pdf" target="_blank"> <figure> <img alt="Introducing food to baby download PDF" src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/INM_NRC_track2-2_download_pdf_EN.png" /> </figure> </a> <h2>Your baby's feeding cues</h2><p>Feeding your baby is an active process that you and your baby do together. It will take time for your baby to feed themselves on their own. The key is to share this special time with your baby by following their cues and abilities. It may take some time for your baby to understand what to do with the spoon of food in their mouth or how to chew and swallow solid food. Be patient. You baby may take a few weeks to really understand the idea of eating.</p><p> <strong>Never</strong> force feed your baby! Babies are very good at regulating the amount of food and fluid they should have. They may go through phases when they want to eat more and other phases when they want to eat less. Respect your child's wishes. Your job is to provide healthy, nutritious food and model good eating patterns. Your job is <strong>not</strong> to make your baby eat.</p><p>Babies who show an interest in food may watch intently as you eat, grab your food or utensil or open their mouths. Once your baby is into a routine of eating solid food at meal times, you may discover that they prefer some tastes or textures to others. Sometimes you need to offer a food 10 to 20 times on separate occasions before your baby or child will try it. Your child will be more likely to try a new food if they watch you eating it.</p><h2>Safety issues</h2><p>Babies need to be closely supervised by an adult while they are feeding. Your older children may enjoy helping to feed your baby, but they may not realize what textures are appropriate for your baby or recognize the signs of <a href="/Article?contentid=1463&language=English">choking</a>. Do not let older children feed a baby or young child unless closely supervised by an adult.</p><h2>Dealing with messy mealtimes</h2><p>Feeding babies is certainly a messy time. Do not sweat it when food spills and falls on the highchair or floor. As your baby's co-ordination improves, they will eat more and leave less behind. A splatter mat may help.</p>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/nutrition_and_heart_conditions.jpg Learn the signs that your baby is ready to feed themselves and find out how to keep them safe while they eat solid foods.Main

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