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HeadacheHeadacheHeadacheHEnglishNeurologyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)HeadBrainConditions and diseasesCaregivers Adult (19+)Headache2019-07-22T04:00:00ZElizabeth Berger BA, MD, FRCPC, FAAP, MHPE​​​​; Shawna Silver, MD, FRCPC, FAAP, PEng8.0000000000000057.6000000000000847.000000000000Health (A-Z) - ConditionsHealth A-Z<p>Your child may have a headache for a number of different reasons. Find out what these are and what you can do to help alleviate the pain.</p><h2>What is a headache?</h2> <p>A headache is a pain, ache or throbbing sensation in any area of the head. Headaches are common in school-aged children and teenagers.</p> <h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>Headaches in children are uncomfortable and may cause you to worry. They are rarely associated with a more serious medical condition.</li><li>Care for simple headaches by making your child feel comfortable. Give over-the-counter medications like acetaminophen or ibuprofen.</li><li>A doctor can help identify the cause of a recurrent or persistent headache and assess if there is a more serious medical condition.</li></ul><h2>Signs and symptoms of headache</h2><p>A headache can feel like a sharp pain, throbbing sensation, or a dull ache. The pain may occur on one or both sides of the head.</p><p>Observe your child and ask about any associated symptoms, such as:</p><ul><li>changes in concentration, memory, or speech</li><li>weakness of an arm or leg</li><li>any vision or hearing changes</li><li> <a href="/Article?contentid=30&language=English">fever</a></li><li>congestion, runny nose or muscle aches</li><li>nausea or <a href="/Article?contentid=746&language=English">vomiting</a> (throwing up)</li><li>trauma or accidents</li><li>pain at the back of the head</li></ul><p>Make note of possible triggers relating to the headaches, such as:</p><ul><li>lack of sleep</li><li>skipping meals</li><li> <a href="/Article?contentid=776&language=English">dehydration</a></li><li>stress</li><li>using video games or watching TV for a prolonged period of time</li><li>menstruation in girls</li></ul><h2>Causes of headache</h2> <p>Headaches can be primary or secondary. Primary headaches do not have a serious underlying medical cause. This category includes tension-type headaches and migraines.</p> <h3>Tension-type headaches</h3> <p>A tension-type headache feels like there is a tight band around the head. They are usually mild to moderate in intensity and last anywhere from 30 minutes to several days. They are not associated with nausea or vomiting. Treatment involves emotional support and pain medication.</p> <h3>Migraines</h3> <p>Children can suffer from migraine headaches. Children who develop migraines are likely to have one or more relatives with migraines. Migraine headaches are usually recurrent. This means they come back repeatedly. They can last from two to 72 hours and are often described as feeling pulsatile.</p> <p>Migraine headaches are associated with other symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, and sensitivity to noise and light. They are severe in intensity and often interfere with regular activities. Symptoms get worse with activity and improve with rest.</p> <p>There are medications that can be used to prevent migraine headaches from recurring and medications to treat a migraine once it starts. Speak to your doctor for more details of these medications.</p> <h3>Secondary causes of headache</h3> <p>A secondary headache is caused by another medical condition that your child already has. There are many possible causes which include:</p> <ul> <li>minor illness (such as a cold) or major infection (such as meningitis)</li> <li><a href="/Article?contentid=804&language=English">allergies</a></li> <li>effects of medications</li> <li><a href="/Article?contentid=766&language=English">head injury or trauma</a></li> <li>sinus infection</li> <li>elevated blood pressure</li> <li>dental or TMJ (temporomandibular joint) problems</li> <li>exposure to drugs or toxins</li> <li>brain tumour</li> <li>bleeding in the brain</li> </ul><h2>Taking care of your child with a headache at home</h2><p>Your child may have a headache because they feel hungry. Offer your child some food to eat. A nap or resting in a calm and peaceful setting may also help your child feel better.</p><p>If the headache is very strong, you can offer your child pain medications such as <a href="/Article?contentid=62&language=English">acetaminophen</a> or <a href="/Article?contentid=153&language=English">ibuprofen</a>. If your child has been diagnosed with migraine or recurrent headaches, give pain relief as soon as your child feels the headache coming on. This will help stop the headache early.</p><h2>Before going to the doctor <br></h2><p>If your child complains of repeated or recurring headaches, take them to the doctor. Before the appointment, take notes on the details of the headache, such as:</p><ul><li>the type of pain</li><li>the location of the pain (where it is)</li><li>how long the pain lasts (minutes or hours)</li><li>the time of day when your child feels the pain (morning, afternoon or evening)</li><li>triggers (Is there a bright light? Is it during a certain class at school?)</li><li>any treatment that helps lessen the pain</li></ul><p>If your child has recurrent headaches, record the timing of the headaches in a "headache diary." This helps the doctor find a pattern. </p><h2>When to see a doctor</h2> <p>Make an appointment with your child’s regular doctor if:</p> <ul> <li>headaches last longer than two days</li> <li>headaches do not improve, or get worse, despite using acetaminophen or ibuprofen or other headache medicines<br></li> <li>headaches affect your child’s usual habits or routines such as play, school, eating, drinking or sleeping</li> <li>recurrent headaches happen more often or are worse than usual</li> <li>recurrent headaches are not improving with recommended treatments and medications</li> <li>the headaches are waking your child at night or are associated with vomiting</li> </ul> <p>Go to your nearest Emergency Department or call 911 if your child has a headache with the following symptoms:</p> <ul> <li>sudden severe pain in the head</li> <li>a headache that gets worse or continues to come back following a head injury</li> <li>dizziness, fainting or loss of consciousness</li> <li>fever</li> <li>stiff neck</li> <li>nausea or vomiting (throwing up)</li> <li>slurred or altered speech</li> <li>weakness of a part of the body</li> <li>difficulty sleeping</li> <li>changes in vision</li> </ul><img alt="" src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/headache.jpg" style="BORDER:0px solid;" />headacheheadachehttps://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/headache.jpgHeadache Your child may have a headache for a number of different reasons. Find out what these are and what you can do to help alleviate the pain.Main
Reading and writing milestonesReading and writing milestonesReading and writing milestonesREnglishDevelopmentalPreschooler (2-4 years);School age child (5-8 years);Pre-teen (9-12 years)NANAHealthy living and preventionCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2013-09-24T04:00:00ZJanine Flanagan, MD7.9000000000000065.10000000000001296.00000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Find out what reading and writing tasks a child can normally complete at different ages.</p><p>Once children start speaking, they move on to develop reading skills and later writing skills. This page describes the typical reading and writing achievements for a child at different grade levels from kindergarten to Grade 3.</p><p>The "milestones" below are a general guide. Not all children learn at the same pace.</p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul> <li>Your child will go through a range of steps, or "milestones" as they develop their reading and writing skills. Not all children learn at the same pace.</li> <li>You can help your child develop their skills by asking them about the ideas they are reading about, sounding out letters in print and reading many different materials together.</li> <li>Other ways to support your child include praising them for their successes, keeping track of their progress and asking teachers for help if necessary.</li> </ul><h2>Reading skills </h2> <p>Children are eager learners and can develop their reading skills in a number of ways. You can help your child when they first learn to read and write by talking to them about the ideas they are reading about. This helps them build their comprehension skills and engage more fully with what they are reading. Over time, and with regular practice, your child will develop fluency in reading and learn to think more deeply about the stories or information that they read. </p> <h3>By the end of Senior Kindergarten (SK)</h3> <p>By the end of SK, your child should be able to:</p> <ul> <li>identify most letters of the alphabet</li> <li>recognize that words consist of beginning, middle and final sounds</li> <li>start matching written words to spoken words and seeing relationships between sounds and letters</li> <li>know most of the basic sound-letter associations</li> <li>read labels and familiar signs and break up and sound out simple words</li> <li>use word order and knowledge of sounds to identify and predict the next word in simple text</li> <li>start experimenting with reading and says words out loud when reading</li> <li>use pictures on the page or screen to help them understand the meaning of words</li> <li>ask lots of questions about their world and what they would like to learn.</li> </ul> <h3>By the end of Grade 1 (age 6 to 7)</h3> <p>By the end of Grade 1, your child should be able to:</p> <ul> <li>recognize many words</li> <li>know how to make sense of words</li> <li>be willing to try reading new things</li> <li>adapt their reading to different types of reading materials, such as comics, books or emails.</li> </ul> <h3>By the end of Grade 3 (age 8 to 9) </h3> <p>By the end of Grade 3, your child should be able to:</p> <ul> <li>use context, a dictionary and phonics (breaking a word into syllables) to figure out unfamiliar words</li> <li>use punctuation to help understand what they read</li> <li>tell fact from fiction​</li> <li>read a variety of fiction and non-fiction books</li> <li>read aloud clearly and with expression</li> <li>identify and restate the main idea in a story and cite supporting details</li> <li>identify and describe some elements of stories, such as the plot, central idea, characters and setting</li> <li>enjoy reading and do it out of choice</li> <li>predict events in a story</li> <li>connect ideas and experiences in print to their own knowledge and experience</li> <li>understand that media are used for different purposes, for example to educate, convey a message or sell something.</li> </ul> <h2>Writing skills </h2> <p>Writing skills fall into two broad categories. The first is the mechanics of writing, such as holding a pencil or making the shapes of letters. The second is written expression, which means using written language to communicate ideas. There is an important difference between the two categories: for example, a child might be able to make letter shapes but still be unable to clearly express ideas in writing.</p> <p>If your child has any problems with writing, note whether they relate to the mechanics or expression. This will affect the type of help that would most benefit your child.</p> <h3>By the end of Senior Kindergarten (SK)</h3> <p>By the end of SK, your child should be able to: </p> <ul> <li>show they understand that text is written left to right, words have spaces between them and words have capital and lowercase letters</li> <li>print most letters of the alphabet</li> <li>print their own name, names of family members and some short words, for example "cat" and "dad"</li> <li>use a variety of tools to communicate, including crayons, paper, the computer, chalkboard and markers</li> <li>contribute words or sentences to a class story written down by the teacher</li> <li>write messages using a combination of pictures, symbols, letters and phonics (letters to present sounds).</li> </ul> <h3>By the end of Grade 1 (age 6 to 7)</h3> <p>By the end of Grade 1, your child should be able to:</p> <ul> <li>use phonics to decode or spell unfamiliar words</li> <li>write simple but complete sentences</li> <li>correctly form the plural of single-syllable words</li> <li>use periods, commas and capitals when writing</li> <li>correctly spell words that have been identified by the teacher on charts or lists in the room or on individual word lists</li> <li>use capitals to begin sentences and to distinguish names, days of the week or months of the year</li> <li>print clearly</li> <li>leave spaces between words when writing.</li> </ul> <h3>By the end of Grade 3 (age 8 to 9)</h3> <p>By the end of Grade 3, your child should be able to:</p> <ul> <li>use correct subject-verb agreement when writing</li> <li>use nouns, verbs, adjectives and adverbs correctly</li> <li>use irregular plurals correctly such as deer, children</li> <li>use apostrophes in contractions, for example cannot = can't</li> <li>use exclamations</li> <li>use phonics (letter sounds) and spelling rules when spelling</li> <li>use different sources to check how to spell unfamiliar words</li> <li>divide words into syllables</li> <li>use prefixes, suffixes and compound words</li> <li>use titles and subheadings to organize writing</li> <li>print words clearly and start to use cursive writing (handwriting) instead of printing.</li> </ul> <p>If your child is having trouble mastering these skills, talk to their teacher to discuss a plan of action. This might include further evaluation with a psychologist or other support in or beyond the classroom.</p> <h2>How to help your child with reading and writing </h2> <h3>Talk to your child from an early age.</h3> <p>Sound out letters in print, ask your child questions about their ideas and give them time to think of an answer before they reply.</p> <h3>Get your child into the habit of understanding what they read.</h3> <p>Ask your child questions about a story you are reading together, for example, "Why is this happening?" or "What might happen next?"</p> <p>Allow your child time to figure out a word they do not know or to recognize a mistake in their reading. Good tactics include sounding out the word, looking at pictures or re-reading the words before and after the difficult word.</p> <h3>Read every day.</h3> <p>Read traffic, store and restaurant signs, food labels, flyers, instructions or advertisements with your child. Write shopping lists and telephone messages, and write the date and time of appointments and activities on a family calendar. You could also read and write greeting cards, thank you notes, letters, emails and text messages together. Having your child practise printing, cursive handwriting or using a keyboard is fine.</p> <h3>Make it fun, make it matter.</h3> <p>Talk to your child about the things they would like to read about. Choose different reading materials together, for example fiction and non-fiction books, newspapers, comics, baseball game cards, jokes or even song lyrics. Ask your child why an author might have written a story or if all the characters are represented fairly. This will help your child think more deeply about what they read and apply it to their own experience.</p> <h2>How to support your child as they develop their reading and writing skills</h2> <ul> <li>Praise your child for their successes.</li> <li>Do not dwell on mistakes.</li> <li>Encourage your child to ask a teacher for help.</li> <li>Help your child keep track of how they are doing.</li> </ul><img alt="" src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/reading_writing_milestones.jpg" style="BORDER:0px solid;" />https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/reading_writing_milestones.jpgFamily Literacy Day, January 27: Mark Family Literacy Day by learning the reading and writing tasks a child can normally complete at different ages and stages.Main
Nutrition and mental health: The basics of a healthy dietNutrition and mental health: The basics of a healthy dietNutrition and mental health: The basics of a healthy dietNEnglishNutrition;Psychiatry;AdolescentTeen (13-18 years)BodyNAHealthy living and preventionTeen (13-18 years)NA2019-03-22T04:00:00ZElizabeth Dettmer, PhD, CPsych;Alisa Bar-Dayan, RD; Alissa Steinberg, RD9.2000000000000060.5000000000000555.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>For your mood and general wellbeing, eat a balance of macronutrients (complex carbohydrates, protein and healthy fats) and micronutrients (vitamins and minerals).</p><h2>Carbohydrates</h2><p>Carbohydrates are your body’s main source of energy and your brain’s only source of energy. This energy keeps you thinking clearly and ready to take on your daily routine.</p><p>To keep your mood and energy levels stable, try to choose complex carbohydrates such as vegetables, legumes (such as chickpeas or lentils), whole grain products, and some fruits, with their skins on if possible. These foods are also an important source of fibre, which helps you feel full for longer and helps food move through your digestive system regularly. </p><p>Candy, juices and other sugary food and drinks are all forms of simple carbohydrates. You can eat them occasionally, but don’t rely on them to give you energy. They can cause your blood sugar to “spike” and then suddenly drop off, leading to energy slumps during the day. </p><h2>Protein</h2><p>As a building block for your body, protein helps to build and repair your muscles, organs and bones and helps to maintain a healthy immune system to keep you feeling well. Protein is made up of amino acids that your body needs to function as well as possible. Overall, protein also helps you feel full for longer, which in turn helps you function better. </p><p>You can get protein from chicken, beef, fish and other meats as well as from eggs, milk, cheese and yogurt. Plant-based sources of protein include beans, lentils, nuts, seeds, tofu and tempeh. </p><h2>Fats</h2><p>Fats play a key role in body and brain development. They also help your body absorb essential micronutrients such as vitamins A, D, E and K.</p><p>You might have heard or read that all fat is bad, but there are healthier and less healthy fats. Oily fish, nuts, seeds, avocados and vegetable oils contain unsaturated fats. When eaten in moderation, these fats help prevent many chronic (long-term) conditions such as high cholesterol, heart disease and type 2 diabetes. Less healthy fats, also known as saturated and trans fats, are found in animal products such as high-fat meats and dairy products, including butter. You can still include these foods a balanced diet, but choose leaner options when you can.</p><h2>Vitamins and minerals</h2><p>It is important to get a range of vitamins and minerals every day for your general health.</p><p>Your brain and mental wellbeing benefit from eating regularly throughout the day, roughly every three hours. Rather than zone in on any trendy ‘super foods’ or supplements, simply try to eat a colourful mix of vegetables and fruits daily. These foods contain lots of vitamins and minerals (also known as micronutrients) and phytochemicals, which may play an important role in brain health.</p><p>Iron plays a key role in regulating fatigue. Every day, aim to eat foods rich in iron, such as dark leafy greens, beans, nuts, legumes (such as chickpeas or lentils) and lean meats. Whole grains, low-fat dairy, eggs, nuts, lean meats and legumes are rich in B vitamins. These help your brain and body transform food into energy.</p><p>Remember that different foods provide different micronutrients. “Eating the rainbow” (foods of different colours) makes sure you are consuming all the vitamins and minerals your body needs.<br></p><h2>Resources</h2><p> <a href="https://www.health.harvard.edu/staying-healthy/listing_of_vitamins">Harvard Health Publishing - Listing of vitamins</a></p><p> <a href="https://www.mind.org.uk/information-support/tips-for-everyday-living/food-and-mood/#.XJU1eBNKiWZ">Mind (UK) - Food and mood</a></p><p> <a href="https://meant2preventkitchen.ca/">Meant2Prevent: Kitchen</a></p>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/basics_of_health_diet.jpgNutrition and mental health This resource for teens teaches the basics of a healthy diet and how a balanced diet can support their mood and general wellbeing. Teens
Winter tipsWinter tipsWinter tipsWEnglishNAChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)NANAHealthy living and preventionCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2018-01-19T05:00:00Z000Landing PageLearning Hub<p>Winter is a time of year when we participate in outdoor activities and then gather around a fire. Unfortunately, we may also experience seasonal illnesses. Keep the family healthy during the cold weather with our winter tips.</p><p>Winter is a time when we experience cold weather, snow and ice. It is a time of year when we look forward to participating in outdoor activities and then gathering around a warm fire. Unfortunately, we may also experience those annoying seasonal illnesses. Keep the whole family safe, healthy and happy during the cold weather season with our winter tips.</p><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"><i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h2 class="panel-title">Outdoor activity safety</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>Playing outside can be fun for your child during the winter. Make sure your child is dressed properly for the cold weather and follow these handy safety tips.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1954&language=English">Outdoor winter safety: Staying safe during winter activities</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1940&language=English">Dressing for the cold</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1912&language=English">Cold weather injuries</a></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"><i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h2 class="panel-title">Stay healthy<br></h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>The whole family made it through the summer and fall healthy and safe. Here is some advice on how to keep everyone healthy throughout winter.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1939&language=English">Preventing burns: Winter safety</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=778&language=English">Nasal congestion: How to clear your baby's dry, stuffy nose</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=773&language=English">Eczema (atopic dermatitis)</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1114&language=English">Eczema: Seasonal changes</a></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"><i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h2 class="panel-title">Winter bugs</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>Winter brings everyone indoors and closer together, where we share warmth... and germs. Learn more about colds, the flu and other winter-associated illnesses. Also learn how to avoid them and how to treat them.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=30&language=English">Fever​</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=12&language=English">Colds (viral upper respiratory infections)</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=765&language=English">Bronchiolitis​</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=764&language=English">Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=17&language=English">Croup</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=763&language=English">Influenza (flu): An overview</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=912&language=English">Influenza (flu): Protecting your family</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1111&language=English">Influenza (flu): The truth about vaccines</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=784&language=English">Pneumonia</a></li></ol></div>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/winter_safety_landing_page.jpgwintersafetywintersafetyWinter safety tips Visit the Winter tips Learning Hub to learn how to stay healthy and enjoy outdoor activities safely this winter. Main

 

 

Anaphylaxis: How to recognize and respond to a severe allergic reactionAnaphylaxis: How to recognize and respond to a severe allergic reactionAnaphylaxis: How to recognize and respond to a severe allergic reactionAEnglishAllergyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)BodyImmune systemConditions and diseasesCaregivers Adult (19+)Abdominal pain;Cough;Diarrhea;Nausea;Vomiting;Rash2019-04-01T04:00:00ZVy​ Kim, MD, FRCPC;Anna Kasprzak, RN;Laura Umbrello, MD, FAAP9.0000000000000056.2000000000000822.000000000000Health (A-Z) - ConditionsHealth A-Z<p>Anaphylaxis is a severe reaction to an allergen. Learn how to prevent and identify anaphylaxis and how to respond when someone has a reaction. </p><h2>What is anaphylaxis?</h2><p>Anaphylaxis is a severe <a href="/Article?contentid=804&language=English">allergic reaction</a> to certain substances called allergens. When an allergen enters the body of a child with an allergy, the child’s immune system treats it as an invader and overreacts. This reaction happens a few minutes to an hour after the child is exposed to an allergen and can be life threatening.</p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>Anaphylaxis is a severe reaction to an allergen such as certain foods, medications and insect bites or stings.</li><li>Common symptoms of anaphylaxis include difficulty breathing, dizziness, hives, swelling of the face and vomiting. If left untreated, anaphylaxis can be life threatening.</li><li>If someone has anaphylaxis, call 911 or go to your nearest emergency department immediately.</li><li>If it is your child’s first episode of anaphylaxis, see an allergist for a full assessment. Your child should be prescribed an epinephrine injector, which they should carry with them at all times. <br></li></ul><h2>Signs and symptoms of anaphylaxis</h2><p>The signs and symptoms of anaphylaxis may include sudden onset:</p><ul><li> <a href="/Article?contentid=789&language=English">hives</a>, itching, redness of the skin</li><li>swollen eyes, lips, tongue or face</li><li>difficulty breathing, throat constriction (tightening) or difficulty swallowing</li><li>abdominal (belly) pain, nausea, <a href="/Article?contentid=746&language=English">vomiting</a> or <a href="/Article?contentid=7&language=English">diarrhea</a></li><li>coughing</li><li>stuffy and/or runny nose, watery eyes, sneezing</li><li> <a href="/Article?contentid=779&language=English">fainting</a>, confusion, light-headedness or dizziness</li><li>rapid or irregular heartbeats</li><li>cold, clammy, sweaty skin </li><li>voice changes</li></ul><h2>Common causes of anaphylaxis</h2><p>Common allergens include foods, such as peanuts, tree nuts or eggs; insect bites or stings, such as bee stings, and drugs, such as penicillin.</p><p>An allergen can enter the body in different ways.</p><ul><li>A child may eat or inhale (breathe in) an allergen. It is best to speak to your child’s allergist about the inhaled allergens that would be a problem for your child, as not all of these allergens will cause a reaction.</li><li>A child might receive a medication via an injection that contains an allergen.</li></ul><p>When the body is exposed to an allergen, it releases chemicals called histamines. These and other chemicals released by the body cause the common signs and symptoms of anaphylaxis.</p><h2>Complications of anaphylaxis</h2><p>Anaphylaxis may cause tightening or blockage of your child’s airway, making it difficult for your child to breathe. It can also lead to a drop in blood pressure. These symptoms can lead to death if not treated.</p><h2>How to prevent repeated episodes of anaphylaxis</h2><p>The best way to prevent anaphylaxis is for your child to avoid any known allergens. Many people are not aware of an allergy until they are exposed to an allergen and have an anaphylactic reaction.</p><p>Following their first episode of anaphylaxis, your child should see an allergist. This is a doctor who specializes in diagnosing and treating allergies.</p><p>The allergist will try to figure out the allergen responsible for your child’s anaphylaxis and may also prescribe an <a href="/article?contentid=130&language=English">epinephrine</a> auto-injector such as EpiPen. Your child should carry this medication with them at all times in case of an emergency. Ideally, your child will carry one injector and a second will be readily available nearby.</p><p>Your child should also wear a <a href="https://www.medicalert.ca/">MedicAlert</a> or similar bracelet that indicates their allergies. Talk to your child’s school or daycare about creating an anaphylaxis emergency plan for your child.</p><h2>What you can do for your child during anaphylaxis</h2><p>Anaphylaxis is a medical emergency. If you suspect your child is having anaphylaxis, call 911 or go to the emergency department <strong>right away</strong>.</p><ul><li>If your child has an emergency anaphylaxis medication, such as an epinephrine auto-injector (EpiPen), inject it right away. You can give a second dose of epinephrine as early as five minutes after the first dose if there is no improvement in symptoms.</li><li>Call 911 or take your child to your nearest emergency department.</li><li>Calm and reassure your child and have them lie down.</li><li>Check your child's airway and breathing. Strained breathing or talking, a hoarse voice or high-pitched breathing sounds are all signs that your child's throat may be swollen.</li><li>Do not give any medication by mouth if your child is having trouble breathing.</li></ul><p>Because symptoms can disappear and then return within a few hours (even with treatment), a child with anaphylaxis will likely stay in the hospital for a period of observation after any anaphylactic reaction.</p><p>If this is your child’s first time having anaphylaxis, they should get a referral to an allergist for a full assessment. They should also receive a prescription for an epinephrine auto-injector.</p><img alt="" src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/anaphylaxis.jpg" style="BORDER:0px solid;" />anaphylaxisanaphylaxishttps://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/anaphylaxis.jpgAnaphylaxis Anaphylaxis is a severe reaction to an allergen. Learn how to prevent and identify anaphylaxis and how to respond when someone has this type of reaction.Main
Substance use and substance use disorderSubstance use and substance use disorderSubstance use and substance use disorderSEnglishAdolescent;PsychiatryTeen (13-18 years)NANAConditions and diseasesTeen (13-18 years)NAhttps://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/Substance_use_disorder-How_to_help_your_teen_at_home.jpg2019-11-04T05:00:00ZKaren Leslie, MD, MEd, FRCPC53.300000000000011.20000000000001150.00000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<h2>What is substance use?</h2><p>Substance use is the use of alcohol, tobacco and drugs (including prescription and over-the-counter medications) for pleasure or enjoyment. You and other teens you know may choose, or may have already chosen, to experiment with or try some kind of substance. Some teens may be using substances often, while other teens make a choice not to use any substances, or may try something and then decide that they do not want to use it again.</p><p>A smaller number of teens experience problems as a result of their substance use. It’s important to know about the risk factors that increase the risk of developing a problem with drugs or alcohol. </p><h2>What does it mean to have a substance use disorder?</h2><p>A substance use disorder is the term used when someone is: </p><ul><li>using substances (including alcohol) in ways that are dangerous to themselves or others</li><li>experiencing relationship problems with family, friends or romantic partners as a result of their substance use</li><li>having difficulty at school or work as a result of their substance use</li><li>showing signs of physical dependence on the substance </li></ul><p>A person with a substance use disorder may have tried to stop using a substance but can’t. They may spend a lot of their time using or trying to get a substance, and have stopped many of the other activities they might have done before they started to use.</p><h2>Factors that may increase your risk of developing a substance use disorder</h2><p>A substance use disorder is more likely to develop if a person:</p><ul><li>has depression, <a href="/Article?contentid=3810&language=English&hub=mentalhealthAZ#mentalhealth">anxiety</a> or another mental health condition such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)</li><li>has a family history of substance use problems (addictions)</li><li>has experienced abuse or <a href="/Article?contentid=3781&language=English&hub=mentalhealthAZ#mentalhealth">trauma</a> </li><li>identifies as LGBTQ2+</li><li>is street-involved or experiences insecure housing</li><li>has a <a href="/Article?contentid=3780&language=English&hub=mentalhealthAZ#mentalhealth">chronic health condition</a></li><li>has friends who use alcohol or other drugs </li></ul><p>Even without having any of these risk factors, regular use of alcohol or other drugs can cause your brain and body to become dependent on these substances. Dependence (sometimes also referred to as "addiction") can negatively affect your health and wellbeing.</p><h2>When is substance use something that I should worry about?</h2><p>The more regularly you use a substance, the more likely you are to experience problematic signs and symptoms because of this use. </p><p>Regular substance use can be associated with a range of health problems (both physical and mental), difficulties at school and at home, and trouble with the law. The health risks of substance use increase when a person uses more than one substance at the same time, in particular, combining one or more substances with alcohol.</p><p>Substance use can lead to dependence. The level of dependence varies with the substance, the amount you use and how frequently you use it. If you are physically dependent on a substance, you build up a tolerance to it, which means that over time, you must use more of the substance to get the same effect.</p><p>When you stop using or try to use less of the substance, you may experience physical symptoms (also known as withdrawal symptoms). Depending on what the substance or drug is, these symptoms might include: </p><ul><li>trouble sleeping</li><li>agitation</li><li>tremors/shakiness</li><li>seizures (only in some cases)</li></ul><h2>Do issues with substance use occur with other mental health conditions?</h2><p>Someone who has a mental health condition is at a higher risk for developing a substance use disorder, just like someone with a substance use disorder is at a higher risk for developing a mental health condition. </p><p>About one-third to half of young people with a mental health condition such as depression, anxiety or ADHD will also develop a substance use disorder. This is called a concurrent disorder. Of teens with a substance use disorder, one third to half will develop a concurrent mental health condition. </p><p>Other things to think about if you have mental health or physical health conditions and are using or thinking about using alcohol or other substances:</p><p>If you are taking prescribed or over-the-counter medication(s) for a mental or physical health condition, there can be interactions between the medication, and alcohol or other substances. Depending on the medication, this interaction could result in lower or higher amounts of the medication in your system; this can have a negative impact on your health. </p><p>Alcohol and other drugs affect different organs and systems in your body, including your brain, heart, lungs, liver, intestines, kidneys, muscles and nerves. This can sometimes make the symptoms of your condition worse, or make it difficult for your health-care team to know if the treatments they are prescribing are helping or not. </p><p>To learn more about how alcohol and drug use can interact with your prescriptions, you can ask the pharmacist questions when you pick up your prescriptions. You can also check out a website called <a href="http://www.drugcocktails.ca/">drugcocktails.ca</a>. Developed by health-care experts from across Canada, the website provides information about the combination of prescription and over-the-counter medications, and alcohol, cannabis and other drugs. </p><h2>When to see a doctor or health-care professional for specific help</h2><p>If you have any questions or concerns about your substance use (or someone else’s), arranging an appointment with a health-care professional or another helping professional, such as a guidance counselor, is a good first step.</p><p>If you have a family doctor or paediatrician you see for regular check-ups or when you are sick, you can use these visits as a time to ask questions and get information about the substances you are using and any mental or physical health issues you might be experiencing. </p><div class="callout2"><p>As with any health care visit, the health-care professional will keep your information private and will not share it with anyone else without your permission (unless you share that someone is harming you and you are under 16 years of age, or you share that you are planning to harm yourself or someone else).</p></div> What if my doctor thinks I might have a substance use disorder? <p>Depending on their assessment, a health-care professional will make some suggestions to you about what might be helpful. </p><p>Some options include seeing a counsellor who can help you look at areas where you might want to make some changes. </p><p>Other types of treatment include: </p><ul><li>Day treatment, where you attend a group based program Monday to Friday to get treatment and obtain school credits.</li><li>Hospital based treatment, which may be helpful if you need to withdraw or "detox" in a safe way, or would benefit from further assessment over a few days or weeks.</li><li>Residential treatment, where you stay at a treatment centre and receive support and schooling every day. </li></ul><p>These different treatments usually include some kind of family and/or parent treatment and support. In most provinces, these treatment programs require a teen to agree to take part. Some provinces have laws that allow parents to make this decision instead if the teen is younger than 16 years of age.</p>Substance use & substance use disorder Share this resource with your teen to help them learn about the risks of substance use and what it means to have a substance use disorder. Teens
Ibuprofen for fever or painIbuprofen for fever or painIbuprofen for fever or painIEnglishPharmacyNANANervous systemDrugs and SupplementsCaregivers Adult (19+)NAhttps://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/ICO_DrugA-Z.png2019-06-15T04:00:00ZLori Chen, BScPhm, RPh, ACPR;Jennifer Drynan-Arsenault, BSc, RPh, ACPR; Elaine Lau, BScPhm, PharmD, MSc, RPh8.3000000000000058.0000000000000889.000000000000Drugs (A-Z)Drug A-Z<p class="akh-article-overview">Your child needs to take the medicine called ibuprofen. This information sheet explains what ibuprofen does, how to give it, and what side effects or problems your child may have when they take this medicine.</p><p>Your child needs to take the medicine called ibuprofen (say: eye-byoo-PROE-fen). This information sheet explains what ibuprofen does, how to give it, and what side effects or problems your child may have when they take this medicine. </p><h2>Before giving ibuprofen to your child?</h2><p>Tell your doctor if your child has an allergy to ibuprofen or any other NSAIDs, including <a href="/Article?contentid=77&language=English">ASA</a> (Aspirin).</p><h3>Talk with your doctor or pharmacist if your child has any of the following conditions. Precautions may need to be taken with this medicine if your child has: </h3><ul><li> <a href="/asthma">asthma</a></li><li>kidney or liver problems </li><li>stomach ulcers or inflammatory disease </li><li>bleeding or blood clotting problems </li><li>heart failure or <a href="/Article?contentid=898&language=English">high blood pressure</a></li></ul><h2>How should you give your child ibuprofen?</h2> <p>Follow these instructions when giving your child ibuprofen:</p> <ul><li>Give this medicine with food to prevent upset stomach. </li> <li>Chewable tablets may be crushed and mixed with food or chewed. These should not be swallowed whole. </li> <li>A liquid (drops, suspension) is available if your child cannot swallow pills. Shake suspension well before use. </li> <li>Children who have feeding tubes can also use the liquid. Flush the feeding tube before and after medicine is given. </li> <li>Measure liquid doses carefully. Use the measuring device that comes with the medicine. If none is available, get an oral syringe, a medicine dropper, a medicine spoon, or a medicine cup (only for older children) from your pharmacist. </li></ul><h2>What should you do if your child misses a dose of ibuprofen?</h2> <ul><li>Give the missed dose as soon as you remember. </li> <li>If it is almost time for the next dose, skip the missed dose. Give the next dose at the regular time. Wait at least 6 hours between doses. </li> <li>Do not give your child two doses to make up for one missed dose. </li></ul><h2>How long does ibuprofen take to work?</h2> <p>Your child may start feeling better soon after starting this medicine for fever or pain.</p><h2>What are the possible side effects of ibuprofen?</h2> <p>Your child may have some of these side effects while they take ibuprofen. Check with your child's doctor if your child continues to have any of these side effects and they do not go away or they bother your child: </p> <ul><li>stomach ache </li> <li><a href="/Article?contentid=746&language=English">nausea and vomiting</a> (throwing up) </li> <li><a href="/Article?contentid=7&language=English">diarrhea</a> (watery bowel movements) or <a href="/Article?contentid=6&language=English">constipation</a> </li></ul> <p>Call your child's doctor during office hours if your child has unusual bleeding or bruising.</p> <h3>Most of the following side effects are not common, but they may be a sign of a serious problem. Call your child's doctor right away or take your child to the Emergency Department if your child has any of these side effects: </h3> <ul><li>black, tarry, or bloody stools (bowel movements) </li> <li>skin rash or any other sign of allergic reaction </li> <li>blood in the urine </li> <li>wheezing or trouble breathing </li></ul><h2>What safety measures should you take when your child is using ibuprofen?</h2> <p>Talk to your doctor or pharmacist if your child is allergic to tartrazine (yellow dye) or has phenylketonuria (PKU), as this medicine may contain tartrazine or phenylalanine. </p> <p>There are some medicines that should not be taken together with ibuprofen or in some cases the dose of ibuprofen or the other medicine may need to be adjusted. It is important that you tell your doctor and pharmacist if your child takes any other medications (prescription, over the counter, herbal, or natural products) including anticoagulants (like <a href="/Article?contentid=265&language=English">warfarin</a>), <a href="/Article?contentid=115&language=English">cyclosporine</a> and <a href="/Article?contentid=244&language=English">tacrolimus</a>, <a href="/Article?contentid=185&language=English">methotrexate</a>, diuretics (water tablets), or other heart medicines. </p><h2>What other important information should you know about ibuprofen?</h2><ul><li>Keep a list of all medications your child is on and show the list to the doctor or pharmacist.</li><li>Do not share your child's medicine with others. Do not give anyone else's medicine to your child.</li><li>Make sure you always have enough ibuprofen to last through weekends, holidays, and vacations. Call your pharmacy at least 2 days before your child runs out of medicine to order refills. </li><li>Keep ibuprofen at room temperature in a cool, dry place away from sunlight. Do not store it in the bathroom or kitchen.</li><li>Do not keep any medicines that are out of date. Check with your pharmacist about the best way to throw away outdated or leftover medicines.<br></li></ul> Discover what ibuprofen does, how to give it, and what side effects or problems your child may have when they take this medicine.Main
Temperature takingTemperature takingTemperature takingTEnglishNAChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)NANANon-drug treatmentCaregivers Adult (19+)Feverhttps://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/IMD_temperature_oral_EN.jpg2016-04-27T04:00:00ZElana Hochstadter, MD;Tania Principi, MD, FRCPC, MSc​6.2000000000000069.10000000000001488.00000000000Health (A-Z) - ProcedureHealth A-Z<p>Learn how to correctly take your child's temperature when they have a fever.</p><div class="asset-video"> <iframe src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/aEy9ZIzoHOc?rel=0" frameborder="0"></iframe> </div> <p>Children often feel warm to the touch when they have a <a href="/Article?contentid=30&language=English">fever</a>, but putting your hand to your child's forehead is not enough to find out if your child has a fever. To confirm that your child has a fever, use a thermometer to measure your child's body temperature.</p><p> <strong>A temperature of 38°C (100.4°F) or higher is a fever</strong></p><h2>Converting Fahrenheit (°F) and Celsius (°C)</h2> <p>Temperatures are measured in degrees Celsius (°C) or degrees Fahrenheit (°F). The table below shows equivalent Celsius and Fahrenheit temperatures.</p> <table class="akh-table"> <thead> <tr><th>°C</th><th>°F</th></tr> </thead> <tbody> <tr> <td>37°C</td> <td>98.6°F</td> </tr> <tr> <td>37.2°C </td> <td>99°F</td> </tr> <tr> <td>37.5°C </td> <td>99.5°F</td> </tr> <tr> <td>37.8°C </td> <td>100°F</td> </tr> <tr> <td>38°C </td> <td>100.4°F</td> </tr> <tr> <td>38.3°C </td> <td>101°F</td> </tr> <tr> <td>38.9°C </td> <td>102°F</td> </tr> <tr> <td>39.5°C </td> <td>103°F</td> </tr> <tr> <td>40°C </td> <td>104°F</td> </tr> <tr> <td>40.6°C </td> <td>105°F</td> </tr> <tr> <td>41.1°C </td> <td>106°F</td> </tr> <tr> <td>41.7°C </td> <td>107°F</td> </tr> </tbody> </table><br><h2>Key points</h2> <ul> <li>Use a thermometer to find out if a child has a temperature.</li> <li>The best way to take a temperature depends on a child’s age.</li> <li>Always wash thermometers before and after taking a temperature.</li> <li>See your doctor right away if your child has a temperature that last three days or if your child has a temperature and is less than three months old.</li> </ul><h2>When to see a doctor</h2> <h3>See your child's regular doctor or go to the nearest Emergency Department right away if your child has a fever and:</h3> <ul> <li>Your child is less than three months old.</li> <li>You have recently returned from travelling abroad.</li> <li>Your child develops a rash that looks like small purple dots that do not go away when you apply pressure with your fingers (blanching).</li> <li>Your child is not able to keep down any fluids, is not peeing and appears dehydrated.</li> <li>Your child's skin looks very pale or grey, or is cool or mottled.</li> <li>Your child is in constant pain.</li> <li>Your child is lethargic (very weak) or difficult to wake up.</li> <li>Your child has a stiff neck.</li> <li>Your child has a seizure associated with fever for the first time or a long seizure associated with fever.</li> <li>Your child is looking or acting very sick.</li> <li>Your child seems confused or delirious.</li> <li>Your child does not use their arm or leg normally or refuses to stand up.</li> <li>Your child has problems breathing.</li> <li>Your child cries constantly and cannot be settled.</li> </ul> <h3>See a doctor within 24 hours if your child has a fever and:</h3> <ul> <li>Your child is between three and six months old.</li> <li>Your child has specific pain, such as ear or throat pain that may require evaluation.</li> <li>Your child has had a fever for more than three days.</li> <li>The fever went away for over 24 hours and then came back.</li> <li>Your child has a bacterial infection that is being treated with an antibiotic, but the fever is not going away after two to three days of starting the antibiotic.</li> <li>Your child cries when going to the bathroom.</li> <li>You have other concerns or questions.</li> </ul> <p>If you are unsure, call Telehealth Ontario at 1-866-797-0000 (toll-free number) if you live in Ontario.</p><h2>Use a thermometer to measure a temperature</h2> <p>The easiest way to measure your child’s temperature is with a digital thermometer. These are available at most drug stores. </p> <p>You can also use a glass thermometer. Never use glass thermometers that contain mercury because mercury is toxic. If you only have access to a glass thermometer, take very special care. If the thermometer is cracked or damaged in any way, do not use it. Even an undamaged glass thermometer can be a risk for your child. If you believe your child may bite down on the thermometer, do not use it to take a temperature in the mouth.</p> <h3>Four places to take a child’s temperature</h3> <ul> <li>in the mouth</li> <li>in the anus (or rectum)</li> <li>under the armpit</li> <li>in the ear</li> </ul> <p>Do not use a rectal thermometer in the mouth or an oral thermometer in the rectum. Always wash any thermometer with soap and warm water before and after use.</p> <h3>The best way to take a temperature depends on your child’s age</h3> <table class="akh-table"> <thead> <tr><th rowspan="2" colspan="1">Age</th><th rowspan="1" colspan="2">Where to take the temperature</th></tr> <tr><th><em>Most accurate</em></th><th><em>Alternative method</em></th></tr> </thead> <tbody> <tr> <td>Newborns to 3 years</td> <td>Rectal temperature (anus)</td> <td>Axial temperature (armpit)</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Children over 3 years</td> <td>Oral temperature (mouth)</td> <td>Ear or axial temperature</td> </tr> </tbody> </table><h2>How to take an oral (in the mouth) temperature</h2> <figure> <span class="asset-image-title">How to measure an oral temperature</span> <img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/IMD_temperature_oral_EN.jpg" alt="Girl lying under a blanket while her temperature is taken by mouth" /> </figure> <p>Taking a temperature in the mouth works with children who are old enough to hold the thermometer under their tongue and who will not bite the thermometer. A mouth thermometer is the most accurate way of measuring the temperature of an older child. Make sure your child has not had cold or hot drinks in the 30 minutes before taking their temperature.</p><ul><li>To get an accurate reading, carefully place the tip of the thermometer under your child’s tongue.</li><li>Ask your child to keep the thermometer in place by forming a seal with their lips. Make sure they do not bite down on the thermometer. If they cannot breathe through their nose, use one of the other methods to measure their temperature.</li><li>If you are using a digital thermometer, leave it in the mouth until you hear it beep.</li><li>Carefully read the temperature on the thermometer.</li><li>Turn off the digital thermometer, wash the tip with soap and warm (not hot) water, and wipe it off with alcohol. Dry well.</li></ul><h2>How to take a rectal (in the anus) temperature</h2> <figure> <span class="asset-image-title">How to measure a rectal temperature</span> <img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/IMD_temperature_rectal_EN.jpg" alt="Baby lying on tummy across a lap with thermometer inserted in the baby’s rectum" /> </figure> <p>Using the rectal method works best on babies and young children. Older children may resist having something put in their bum.</p><ul><li>Before taking your child’s temperature, make sure they are relaxed. Place your child on their stomach on a comfortable surface if they can hold their head and do <a href="/Article?contentid=296&language=English">tummy time</a>. Place your child on their back if they are still unable to safely lie on their stomach.</li><li>Before inserting the thermometer, make sure it is clean. Coat the end of it with petroleum jelly (Vaseline). This will make the insertion easier.</li><li>Insert the thermometer gently into your child’s rectum about 2 cm (1 inch). If there is any resistance, pull the thermometer back a little. Never try to force the thermometer past any resistance. You could injure your child by damaging the wall of the bowel.</li><li>Hold your child still while the thermometer is in.</li><li>If you are using a digital thermometer, take it out when you hear the signal (usually a beep or a series of beeps).</li><li>Read the temperature.</li><li>Turn off the digital thermometer, wash the tip with soap and warm (not hot) water. Dry well.</li></ul><h2>How to take an armpit (axillary) temperature</h2> <figure> <span class="asset-image-title">How to measure an armpit (axillary) temperature</span> <img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/IMD_temperature_armpit_EN.jpg" alt="Baby lying on their back with a thermometer held under the armpit" /> </figure> <p>Taking the temperature under the armpit may be less accurate than in the rectum or the mouth but easier in some babies or children. To take a temperature in the armpit, your child must be able to hold their arm to the body and not move it for up to two minutes.</p><ul><li>If you are using a digital thermometer, turn it on.</li><li>Put thermometer under your child’s dry armpit. The silver tip must touch the skin.</li><li>Hold the top of thermometer with one hand and hold down your child’s arm with the other hand.</li><li>If using a digital thermometer, wait until you hear the signal (usually a beep or a series of beeps).</li><li>Turn off the thermometer, wash the tip with soap and warm (not hot) water. Dry well.</li></ul><h2>How to take an ear (tympanic) temperature</h2> <figure> <span class="asset-image-title">How to measure an ear (tympanic) temperature</span> <img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/IMD_temperature_ear_EN.jpg" alt="Child having temperature taken by ear with one hand pulling the ear up and the other holding the thermometer in the ear" /> </figure> <p>Tympanic thermometers may be less accurate than oral or rectal thermometers. Tympanic thermometers are unsuitable for children under two years of age because their ear canal may be too small to allow for a temperature reading. Always clean the thermometer tip before use and follow the manufacturer’s instructions carefully.</p><ul><li>Gently tug on the ear, pulling it up and back. This will help straighten the ear canal and make a clear path inside the ear to the eardrum.</li><li>Gently insert the thermometer until the ear canal is fully sealed off.</li><li>Squeeze and hold down the button for one second.</li><li>Remove the thermometer and read the temperature.</li></ul><h2>Temperature checking methods to avoid</h2> <p>Digital electronic pacifier thermometers and temperature strips (which measure temperature on the forehead) are inaccurate and unreliable. Do not use these methods to take your child's temperature. </p> <p>Touching your child's forehead or neck may give you a hint that your child has a fever, but this is not a reliable way to check for fever. Confirm your suspicion of a fever by taking a true measurement using the methods explained above.</p><h2>References:</h2><p>Richardson M, Purssell E. (2015). Who's afraid of fever? <em>Arch Dis Child</em>. 100(9):818-20. doi:10.1136/archdischild-2015-309491. Retrieved on February 10th, 2016 <a href="https://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/pediatrics/127/3/580.full.pdf">https://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/pediatrics/127/3/580.full.pdf</a></p><p>Sullivan JE, Farrar HC. (2011). Fever and antipyretic use in children. <em>Pediatrics</em>. 127(3):580-7. doi:10.1542/peds.2010-3852. Retrieved February 10th, 2016. <a href="https://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/pediatrics/127/3/580.full.pdf">https://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/pediatrics/127/3/580.full.pdf</a><br></p><p>Mistry N, Hudak A. (2014). Combined and alternating acetaminophen and ibuprofen therapy for febrile children. <em>Paediatrics & child health</em>. 19(10):531-2. Retrieved on February 10th, 2016 <a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4276386/pdf/pch-19-531.pdf">https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4276386/pdf/pch-19-531.pdf</a> and Corrigendum. (2015). <em>Paediatrics & Child Health</em>, 20(8), 466–467. Retrieved on February 10th, 2016 <a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4699537/">https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4699537/</a> </p> Learn how to correctly take your child's temperature when they have a fever, depending on their age, and which methods to avoid.Main