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GI tractGI tractGI tractGEnglishNutritionChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)AbdomenDigestive systemHealthy living and preventionCaregivers Adult (19+) Educators Hospital healthcare providers Community healthcare providers Remote populations First nationsNAhttps://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/J4K_belly_Bonanza_promo.png2013-09-27T04:00:00Z7.3000000000000066.0000000000000813.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Learn how the different parts of the GI tract work together to digest food.</p><figure><span class="asset-image-title">GI tract</span><img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/IMD_digestive_system_V3_EN.jpg" alt="Salivary glands, esophagus, stomach, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, small and large intestines, and anus" /> </figure> <p>When you eat, your body turns the food into energy and extracts vitamins, minerals and other nutrients to help it work properly. This process is called digestion. The parts of the body that are involved in digestion are called the digestive system.</p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul><li>The digestive system includes the GI tract and the accessory organs of the liver, gall bladder and pancreas.</li> <li>The GI tract is divided into the upper GI tract, which runs from the mouth to the stomach, and the lower GI tract, which includes the small and large intestines.</li> <li>Together, the GI tract and accessory organs use mechanical digestion and chemical digestion to break down food.</li></ul><p>The central part of the digestive system is a winding muscular tube called the GI (gastrointestinal) tract. </p><p>Other parts of the digestive system, called <a href="/Article?contentid=1468&language=English">accessory organs</a>, help the GI tract to digest food. They include the:</p><ul><li>liver</li><li>gall bladder</li><li>pancreas.</li></ul><p>The GI tract, or digestive tract, has two main parts:</p><ul><li> the upper digestive tract</li><li> the intestines.</li></ul><h2>Upper digestive tract</h2> <figure> <span class="asset-image-title">Upper digestive tract</span><img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/IMD_digestive_system_upper_EN.jpg" alt="Identification of the salivary glands, pharynx, esophagus and stomach in the upper digestive tract" /> </figure> <p>The upper digestive tract includes the mouth, the esophagus and the stomach.<br></p><h3>Mouth</h3><p>The mouth is where digestion begins. Even before we eat, the sights and smells of food trigger salivary glands in our cheeks and jaw to release saliva.</p><p>Saliva has two roles when we eat.</p><ul><li>It contains digestive juices called enzymes to break down the starch in food.</li><li>It helps to form the food into a compact "glob" called a bolus in our mouth. This makes the food easier to swallow.</li></ul><h3>Esophagus</h3><p>When food leaves the mouth, it passes through the pharynx into the esophagus. The esophagus is the muscular tube that gradually pushes food down to the stomach. It does this through waves of contractions known as peristalsis.</p><p>The wall of the esophagus releases a thick, sticky liquid called mucus. This mucus helps the body absorb the food you eat. It also lubricates the esophagus so food moves easily to the stomach.</p><h3>Stomach</h3><p>The stomach is a bean-shaped, hollow muscular organ that contains digestive acids. These acids help to break down food some more and turn it into liquid. The walls of the stomach are thick and elastic.</p><p>The size of the stomach depends on a person's size and body type and how much and how recently they have eaten.</p><p>The upper part of the stomach mainly stores food and relaxes to allow food to enter from the esophagus. In the lower part of the stomach, food is broken down through mechanical and chemical digestion.</p><ul><li>Mechanical digestion means that the stomach mixes, churns and pummels food using its muscles. This turns the food into a thick liquid paste called chyme.</li><li>Chemical digestion uses gastric juice to break down the protein in food. This gastric juice is a mix of chemicals and water and is very acidic.</li></ul><p>These processes account for part of digestion. The rest of digestion happens in the intestines.</p><h2>Intestines</h2><h3>Small intestine</h3><p>Food first passes into the small intestine. This long, hollow tube breaks down food through mechanical and chemical digestion and allows the food to pass into your blood.</p><p>The small intestine gets its name only because it is narrow. In fact, in an average adult, it measures about 22 feet (seven metres)!</p><p>The small intestine has three parts.</p><ul><li>The duodenum is where most of the remaining chemical digestion takes place. Chemicals and digestive juices from the <a href="/Article?contentid=1468&language=English">liver, gall bladder and pancreas</a> help in this process.</li><li>The jejunum is where <a href="/Article?contentid=1443&language=English">carbohydrates</a> and <a href="/Article?contentid=1439&language=English">proteins</a> pass into the blood.</li><li>The ileum is where <a href="/Article?contentid=1446&language=English">vitamin B12</a> and bile salts pass into the blood.</li></ul> <figure class="asset-c-80"> <span class="asset-image-title">Parts of the small intestine</span><img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/IMD_intestine_small_parts_EN.jpg" alt="Identification of the duodenum, jejunum and ileum in the small intestine" /> </figure> <p>By this time, food has been broken down into its smallest, most basic units and is ready to be absorbed. The small intestine has a large surface area for this function due to its special folds and tiny, finger-like projections, called villi.</p><p>Once food passes through the walls of the small intestine, it separates. Carbohydrates, proteins and some fats go to the liver to be processed. The remaining fats go into the blood.</p><h3>Large intestine</h3><p>The large intestine is sometimes called the colon. In adults, it is about five feet (1.5 metres) long.</p><p>Its role in digestion is to absorb the water from any leftover undigested food. It is also home to <a href="/Article?contentid=1469&language=English">gut flora</a>, which help us digest food and protect us from infections.</p><p>Three bands of muscle on the surface of the large intestine move waste products along by waves of contractions called mass movements. When there is enough waste material in the colon, further contractions push the feces (poo) into the rectum before it is released through the anus.</p><h2>Just for Kids</h2><p>Your child can learn about digestion by checking out the <a href="https://kids.aboutkidshealth.ca/player?title=belly-bonanza">Belly Bonanza</a> cartoon in our Just for Kids section.<br></p> <a class="sponsor-img-link" href="https://kids.aboutkidshealth.ca/player?title=belly-bonanza"> <img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/INM_NRC_track6-2_J4K_bellyBonanza.png" alt="Belly Bonanza cartoon" /></a>Belly bonanza ​Follow the adventures of Blueberry and Green Pea to help your child learn how food travels through their digestive system. Mainhttps://kids.aboutkidshealth.ca/player?title=belly-bonanza
JIAJIAJIAJEnglishNATeen (13-18 years)NANANATeen (13-15 years)NA2018-03-16T04:00:00ZLanding PageLearning Hub<p>The Taking Charge: Managing JIA Online Program provides teens with information on different types of JIA, managing symptoms, and coping with JIA management now and in the future.<br></p><p>The Taking Charge: Managing JIA Online Program provides teens with information on different types of JIA, managing symptoms, and coping with JIA management now and in the future.<br></p><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h2 class="panel-title">Getting started</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>Welcome to the Taking Charge: Managing JIA Online Program! In this section you will learn what to expect in the program, how to get started and how to set goals to better manage JIA.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2550&language=English">Introduction: Goals of this session and getting started</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2551&language=English">Goal setting in JIA</a></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h2 class="panel-title">About JIA<br></h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>JIA stands for juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Find out what causes JIA, the different types of JIA and how it will affect you now and in the future.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h3>Overview</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2552&language=English">What is JIA?</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2553&language=English">What causes JIA?</a></li></ol></li><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h3>Different types of JIA</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2554&language=English">Types of JIA</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2555&language=English">Oligoarticular JIA</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2556&language=English">Polyarticular JIA</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2557&language=English">Systemic JIA</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2558&language=English">Enthesitis-related JIA</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2559&language=English">Psoriatic JIA</a></li></ol></li><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h3>Effects of JIA</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2560&language=English">How will JIA affect you?</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2561&language=English">Complications of JIA</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2562&language=English">Eye problems and JIA</a></li></ol></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h2 class="panel-title">Diagnosis of JIA<br></h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>Diagnosing JIA may be difficult as joint pain and swelling may be a part of many different illnesses. Diagnosis of JIA typically includes a physical exam, blood tests and imaging studies.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h3>Diagnostic tests</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2563&language=English">Diagnosing JIA</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2564&language=English">Blood tests and JIA</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2565&language=English">Imaging tests and JIA</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2566&language=English">Bone scan and bone density and JIA</a></li></ol></li><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h3>Coping with diagnosis</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2567&language=English">Coping with a JIA diagnosis</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2568&language=English">Regular check-ups for JIA</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2569&language=English">Regular eye exams for JIA</a></li></ol></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h2 class="panel-title">Managing symptoms<br></h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>Pain, stiffness, and tiredness or fatigue, are common symptoms of JIA. These symptoms can lead to difficulties with participating in school and sports activities, and enjoying time with your friends. Learn about pain, fatigue, and stiffness, how to manage symptoms and how these symptoms can cause stress.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h3>Managing pain</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2570&language=English">What is pain?</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2571&language=English">Medications for pain</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2572&language=English">Physical methods to treat pain</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2573&language=English">Coping strategies for pain</a></li></ol></li><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h3>Managing fatigue</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2574&language=English">What is fatigue?</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2575&language=English">Medications for fatigue</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2576&language=English">Physical methods to improve fatigue</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2577&language=English">Coping strategies for fatigue</a></li></ol></li><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h3>Managing stiffness</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2578&language=English">What is stiffness?</a></li></ol></li><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h3>Managing stress</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2579&language=English">What is stress?</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2580&language=English">What causes stress?</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2581&language=English">Symptoms of stress</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2582&language=English">Managing your stress</a></li></ol></li><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h3>Your plan for managing symptoms</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2583&language=English">Your plan for managing symptoms</a></li></ol></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h2 class="panel-title">Coping strategies<br></h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>There are several strategies you can use to help you cope with pain, stress, and sleep problems. These include relaxation, distraction, and managing your thoughts. In this section, learn more about how each of these strategies work.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h3>Relaxation</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2584&language=English">What is relaxation?</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2585&language=English">Ways to relax</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2586&language=English">Relaxation with tension</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2587&language=English">Relaxation without tension</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2588&language=English">Mini relaxation</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2589&language=English">Behaviour rehearsal</a></li></ol></li><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h3>Distraction</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2590&language=English">What is distraction?</a></li></ol></li><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h3>Managing your thoughts</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2591&language=English">Becoming aware of your thoughts</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2592&language=English">Changing unhelpful thoughts</a></li></ol></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h2 class="panel-title">JIA medications<br></h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>When you know about your medications, you can talk to your doctor about them and make good choices for yourself. Find out about the different types of JIA medications, how they work, common side effects, and the importance of talking to your doctor about your medication plan.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2593&language=English">Overview of JIA medications</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2594&language=English">Taking JIA medications</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2595&language=English">Types of JIA medications</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2596&language=English">Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) for JIA</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2597&language=English">Corticosteroids for JIA</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2598&language=English">Corticosteroid injections for JIA</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2599&language=English">Disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs) for JIA</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2600&language=English">Biologic agents for JIA</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2601&language=English">Other questions about JIA medications</a></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h2 class="panel-title">Other types of care for JIA</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p> Did you know that there are many other therapies that you can use to manage JIA symptoms? They can help to prevent complications so that you can do all the things you want to do. In this section, learn more about physical, occupational, and psychological therapies; maintaining healthy nutrition; surgical options for JIA, and more.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h3>Physiotherapy</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2602&language=English">Physiotherapy and JIA</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2603&language=English">Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) and JIA</a></li></ol></li><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h3>Exercise and yoga</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2604&language=English">Exercise and JIA</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2605&language=English">Yoga</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2606&language=English">Basic yoga poses</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2607&language=English">Yoga poses for tension relief</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2608&language=English">Yoga poses for muscle strengthening</a></li></ol></li><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h3>Occupational therapy</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2610&language=English">Occupational therapy and JIA</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2611&language=English">Footwear and orthotics for JIA</a></li></ol></li><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h3>Other types of care</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2609&language=English">Nutrition and JIA</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2612&language=English">Psychological therapy and JIA</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2613&language=English">Complementary and alternative medicines (CAMs) for JIA</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2614&language=English">Surgical procedures and JIA</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2615&language=English">Eye care and JIA</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2616&language=English">Dental care and JIA</a></li></ol></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h2 class="panel-title">Therapies, self-monitoring and supports</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>Your role in making decisions about your treatment plan is very important. Your health-care team and other members of your support system are available to help you make these decisions. In turn, they can help you to manage your JIA. </p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2617&language=English">Getting the most from JIA treatments</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2618&language=English">Self-monitoring: How to recognize JIA symptoms</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2619&language=English">Getting the most from your support systems</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2620&language=English">Talking to your doctor</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2621&language=English">Speaking alone with your doctor</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2622&language=English">Talking to your teacher</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2623&language=English">Dealing with bullying</a></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h2 class="panel-title">Your lifestyle</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>Whether you have JIA or not, you need to maintain a healthy lifestyle. Find out how to stay healthy and active, learn about puberty and relationships, healthy body image, and making healthy lifestyle choices.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2624&language=English">Staying active</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2625&language=English">Eating healthy</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2626&language=English">Getting enough sleep</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2627&language=English">Puberty, relationships and JIA</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2628&language=English">Feeling good about yourself</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2629&language=English">Lifestyle choices and JIA</a></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h2 class="panel-title">Looking ahead</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>Sometime between the ages of 18 to 22, you most likely will transition from your pediatric rheumatologist to the adult health care setting. At that time, there are a number of things you, your family, and your health-care team can do to help make this change go smoothly.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2630&language=English">Transitioning to adult health care</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2631&language=English">Birth control and pregnancy </a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2632&language=English">Moving on: Higher education</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2633&language=English">Moving on: Working</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2634&language=English">Maintaining your treatment program</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2635&language=English">Coping with symptoms, stress, flare-ups and setbacks</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2636&language=English">The future of JIA</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2637&language=English">JIA resources</a></li></ol></div>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/encouraging_healthy_coping_behaviors_JIA_US.jpgjiateenhub ​Learn about the different types of juvenile idiopathic arthritis and how to manage symptoms and cope with daily life. Teens
Mathematics: How to help your pre-school and school-aged child Mathematics: How to help your pre-school and school-aged child Mathematics: How to help your pre-school and school-aged child MEnglishDevelopmentalPreschooler (2-4 years);School age child (5-8 years);Pre-teen (9-12 years);Teen (13-15 years)NANAHealthy living and preventionCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2020-07-20T04:00:00Z7.2000000000000065.6000000000000754.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Learn about the everyday activities you can do with your young child to help develop their math skills.</p><h2>Playing games</h2><h3>Supporting the development of your child’s math skills can be fun</h3><ul><li>Playing card games such as Go Fish, War, Spit, Uno and Concentration are an engaging way to support your child’s knowledge of numbers, number sequences and number concepts such “more than” or “less than”.</li><li>Young children may enjoy setting up a store with a register, which can support money identification, money value, and basic addition and subtraction.</li><li>Have your child create their own game with dice and rules, and play it as a family. This also allows your child to practice number recognition and planning.</li><li>Activities using a stopwatch can support the understanding of numbers, time estimation and elapsed time.</li><li>Puzzle books with connect-the-dots puzzles support development of number sequences.</li></ul><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>​Everyday activities can support your pre-school and school-aged child in developing a positive attitude towards math and essential skills.</li><li>Workbooks and computer programs provide extra exposure and practice.</li></ul><h2>Math in everyday life</h2><ul><li>Teach your child about temperature and have them report it to you each morning.</li><li>Point out the time and calculate how much time various activities take to create a schedule with your child (e.g., measure how long it takes the bus to get to school, how long it will be before dinner, how much time there is to play in the park, etc.).</li><li>Have a calendar hanging up and count how many days there are until an event (e.g., a birthday party, a holiday). Have your child write down and monitor those events to appreciate the passage of time.</li><li>Cooking or baking with your child exposes them to measuring and fractions.</li><li>Point out prices while shopping and ask your child to consider what items are “more” or “less”.</li><li>Have your child plan a movie night and ask them how much they think it would cost for your family to go to the theatre (i.e., the cost of the activity and any snacks).</li><li>Consider giving your child a weekly allowance, which will let them keep track of, estimate, and balance money.</li></ul><h2>Fostering spatial reasoning skills: Shapes are all around us</h2><p>There are various ways of <a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=649&language=English">fostering spatial reasoning skills</a> in your child:</p><ul><li>Use spatial terms including “above”/“below”, “behind”/“in front” and “near”/“far” in everyday activities (e.g., when taking dishes out of the dishwasher) or while playing games (e.g., when setting up a train set).</li><li>Talk about spatial properties (e.g., doing up laces – over and under; placing things in the trunk of a car).</li><li>Take turns pointing out spaces around you (e.g., while out walking consider the different shapes that comprise a house or a garden and how they relate to one another).</li><li>Use paper and pencil mazes to support development of your child’s visual problem-solving, planning and visual-spatial skills.</li><li>Play games such as Mighty Minds, Tetris and Blockus to support development of your child’s visual problem-solving, planning and visual-spatial skills.</li><li>Have fun making paper airplanes, paper fortune tellers, and origami.</li></ul><h2>Looking for patterns</h2><ul><li>Look for and point out recurring patterns (e.g., on floor tiles, clothing, utensils on the dinner table, house styles on the street, windows on houses, stones/beds in gardens, etc.).</li><li>Make up patterns using different colours, sizes, shapes, rhythms or actions (e.g., reciting nursery rhymes, crafting with beads, clapping or singing music patterns).</li></ul><h2>General tips</h2><ul><li>Praise your child for engaging in math activities.</li><li>Encourage your child to ask for help when they need it.</li><li>Include math activities in daily life.</li></ul><h3>What if I have questions about my child’s math development?</h3><p>Early math skills provide the foundation for later math development. Practising math in a variety of contexts, both at school and at home, can support your child’s learning. Without mastering early skills, learning more advanced math can be difficult for your child. If you think your child may be falling behind in math, please speak to their teacher.</p><h2>Resources</h2><p>Workbooks are available that can be used to supplement the school math curriculum and activities. Look for ones that use the Canadian curriculum. Use books in keeping with your child’s functional skills level, which may be higher or lower than their grade level.</p><p>Computer programs are also available to support development. Many school boards used specific programs, such as Prodigy or IXL, and may share your child’s skill level and details with you for practice at home. These types of programs can also be purchased by families.</p><p>The following document contains further activities that you can do at home: <a href="http://www.edu.gov.on.ca/eng/literacynumeracy/parentguidenumen.pdf">http://www.edu.gov.on.ca/eng/literacynumeracy/parentguidenumen.pdf</a><br></p><img alt="" src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/mathematics_problems_how_to_help.jpg" style="BORDER:0px solid;" />https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/Teacher%20and%20kids%20playing%20with%20geometric%20shapes.jpgMathematics: How to help your child ​Learn about the everyday activities, like playing games, you can do with your young child to help develop their math skills. Main
Mental healthMental healthMental healthMEnglishPsychiatryTeen (13-18 years)NANAConditions and diseases;Healthy living and preventionTeen (13-18 years)NALanding Page (Overview)Learning Hub<p>Learn how to support your mental health and well-being and how to recognize and manage various mental health conditions, with multimedia resources including articles, animations and guided meditations.<br></p><p>Learn how to support your mental health and well-being and how to recognize and manage various mental health conditions, with multimedia resources including articles, animations and guided meditations.</p>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/teen_mentalhealth1.jpgmentalhealthmentalhealthTeen mental health ​Learn how to support your teen’s mental health and wellbeing, and how to recognize and manage various mental health conditions. Teens
ThrombosisThrombosisThrombosisTEnglishHaematologyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)NACardiovascular systemConditions and diseasesAdult (19+) CaregiversNALanding PageLearning Hub<p>Blood clots help to stop wounds from bleeding, but when they happen in the deep veins of the body they can be harmful. Learn about the signs and causes of blood clots; the complications of blood clots; and the different medical and non-medical treatments that are available for children.</p><p>Blood clots help to stop wounds from bleeding, but when they happen in the deep veins of the body they can be harmful. Learn about the signs and causes of blood clots; the complications of blood clots; and the different medical and non-medical treatments that are available for children.<br></p><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h2 class="panel-title">Thrombosis and post-thrombotic syndrome</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>Learn about the signs of deep vein thrombosis and post-thrombotic syndrome, and how they are diagnosed and managed.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2534&language=English">Deep vein thrombosis</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2884&language=English">Post-thrombotic syndrome</a></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h2 class="panel-title">Thrombophilia</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>Thrombophilia is a blood clotting that increases the risk of developing blood clots in the blood vessels. Read about the two most common types of thrombophilia, the causes and management.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=3938&language=English">Factor V Leiden</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=3939&language=English">Prothrombin gene mutation</a></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h2 class="panel-title">Management of thrombosis and post-thrombotic syndrome</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>Find out about the different treatments available for thrombosis, including compression garments and medications, and how to safely use these treatments at home.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2883&language=English">Elastic compression garments</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=129&language=English">Enoxaparin</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=993&language=English">Enoxaparin: Injecting at home</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=253&language=English">Tinzaparin</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=994&language=English">Tinzaparin: Injecting at home</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=265&language=English">Warfarin</a></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h2 class="panel-title">Videos</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>If your child is prescribed enoxaparin or tinzaparin, watch the videos below to learn about these medications and how to inject them at home.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://youtu.be/8SxlEB9uyyw">Enoxaparin for Children</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://youtu.be/HYZLi5hFyV4">Tinzaparin for Children</a></li></ol></div>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/deep_vein_thrombosis_DVT_EN.jpgthrombosis ​Learn about the signs and causes of blood clots; their complications; and the different treatments that are available for children. Main

 

 

COVID-19COVID-19COVID-19CEnglishInfectious DiseasesChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)NAImmune systemConditions and diseasesAdult (19+) CaregiversNA2020-03-26T04:00:00Z000Landing PageLearning Hub<p>Learn about COVID-19 and how to talk to and support your family. Also find resources such as videos and audio meditations to help you cope.</p><p>This hub includes resources on COVID-19 and how to help you cope. There are resources on how to support your child's mental health and general wellbeing through physical activity, sleep, nutrition and learning. Also included are videos and audio meditations to help you cope with stressful thoughts and experiences that occur throughout your day.<br></p><div class="asset-video"> <iframe src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/VJ4tKxYISRk"></iframe>  </div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h2 class="panel-title">COVID-19 information</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>Find information about COVID-19 from AboutKidsHealth.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3872&language=English">Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) </a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3907&language=English">Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C)</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://www.canada.ca/en/public-health/services/diseases/coronavirus-disease-covid-19.html">Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) (Public Health Agency of Canada)</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3863&language=English">COVID-19: Information for parents of immunocompromised children and children with chronic medical conditions</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3870&language=English&hub=COVID-19">COVID-19: Information for parents of children with congenital heart disease</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://covid19healthliteracyproject.com/#languages">COVID-19 fact sheets in 34 different languages (Harvard Health Publishing)</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://www.publichealthontario.ca/en/diseases-and-conditions/infectious-diseases/respiratory-diseases/novel-coronavirus/public-resources">COVID-19 public resources (Public Health Ontario)</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://www.pcmch.on.ca/covid-19-resources-for-children-youth-and-families/">COVID-19 resources for children, youth, and families (Provincial Council for Maternal and Child Health)</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://www.caringforkids.cps.ca/handouts/the-2019-novel-coronavirus-covid-19">The 2019 Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) (Caring for Kids)</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://www.ontario.ca/page/2019-novel-coronavirus">The 2019 Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) (Ontario Ministry of Health)</a></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h2 class="panel-title">COVID-19 vaccines</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>Find information about the COVID-19 vaccines that are available in Canada and about their safety and effectiveness.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3937&language=English">COVID-19 vaccines</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VJ4tKxYISRk">Youth COVID-19 vaccination: What to expect (video)</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/CARD_Vaccination_Handout.pdf">CARD handout: Coping with pain and fear around vaccination for teens</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/CARD_Vaccination_Poster.pdf">CARD poster: Coping with pain and fear around vaccination for teens</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://www.canada.ca/en/health-canada/services/drugs-health-products/covid19-industry/drugs-vaccines-treatments/vaccines.html">Vaccines for COVID-19: Authorized vaccines</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://covid-19.ontario.ca/covid-19-vaccines-ontario">COVID-19 vaccines for Ontario</a></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h2 class="panel-title">COVID-19 testing</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>Find information that will help you and your child prepare or either a saliva test or a nasopharyngeal swab.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/COVID-19%20Testing%20How%20to%20prepare%20and%20comfort%20your%20child.pdf">COVID-19 Testing: How to prepare and comfort your child</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://youtu.be/Ru-vFZdImes">Saliva testing (video)</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://youtu.be/nO1L-oYo9TA">Nasopharyngeal (NP) swab (video)</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3908&language=English">After your child’s COVID-19 test</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://youtu.be/8d9SPC7T6KM">After your child's COVID-19 test - Virtual discharge (video)</a></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h2 class="panel-title">Talking to your child about COVID-19</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>Helpful resources that provide information about how to explain and talk to your child about COVID-19. </p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3866&language=English">How to talk to your child about COVID-19</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="http://hollandbloorview.ca/services/family-workshops-resources/family-resource-centre/explaining-covid-19-kids">Explaining COVID-19 and Coronavirus to children (Holland Bloorview)</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://www.cps.ca/en/blog-blogue/how-can-we-talk-to-kids-about-covid-19">How can we talk to kids about COVID-19? Be “realistically reassuring” (Canadian Pediatric Society)</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://www.pbs.org/parents/thrive/how-to-talk-to-your-kids-about-coronavirus#.XmuZ3QV_gax.twitter">How to Talk to Your Kids About Coronavirus (PBS)</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3869&language=English">Supporting your child with a neurodevelopmental disorder through the COVID-19 crisis</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://cmho.org/talking-to-your-anxious-child-about-covid-19/">Talking to your anxious child about COVID-19 (Children's Mental Health Ontario)</a></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h2 class="panel-title">Coping</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>Information on how to help your child cope with stress during the COVID-19 crisis and how to help them deal with separation from family and friend. </p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3868&language=English">Coping with separation from family and friends during COVID-19</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3882&language=English">COVID-19: Frequently asked questions</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3883&language=English">COVID-19: Well-being and mental health resources</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3888&language=English">Stressed adults and anxious young children: Supporting infants, toddlers and preschoolers through COVID-19</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3867&language=English">Is my child or adolescent feeling stressed about COVID-19?</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/Anxiety%20Individual%20handout_Eng%2004_03_2020_v2.pdf">CARD: Coping with your own fears and anxiety</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/Anxiety%20caregiver%20handout_Eng%2004_03_2020.pdf">CARD: Helping your child cope with anxiety</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://www.caringforkids.cps.ca/handouts/disaster">Helping children and teens cope with stressful public events (Caring for Kids)</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://www.cps.ca/en/blog-blogue/how-to-help-youth-tackle-the-blues-during-covid-19">How to help youth tackle the blues during COVID-19 and #physicaldistancing (Canadian Pediatric Society)</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://afirm.fpg.unc.edu/supporting-individuals-autism-through-uncertain-times">Supporting individuals with autism through uncertain times (Autism Focused Intervention Resources & Modules)</a></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h2 class="panel-title">Mental health</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>Taking care of your mental health during difficult and stressful times is important. Learn more about anxiety and depression.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=18&language=English">Anxiety: Overview</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://teens.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3810&language=English">Anxiety and anxiety disorders</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/Anxiety%20Individual%20handout_Eng%2004_03_2020_v2.pdf">CARD: Coping with your own fears and anxiety</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/Anxiety%20caregiver%20handout_Eng%2004_03_2020.pdf">CARD: Helping your child cope with anxiety</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=19&language=English">Depression: Overview</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://www.camh.ca/en/health-info/mental-health-and-covid-19">Mental health and the COVID-19 pandemic (CAMH)</a></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h2 class="panel-title">Parenting</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>Find some helpful information on parenting during the COVID-19 crisis. </p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://youtu.be/jwwwF9KQ7CQ">Parenting during COVID-19 and beyond (podcast)</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3935&language=English">Keeping your child active during the COVID-19 pandemic</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://www.caringforkids.cps.ca/handouts/health_information_on_the_internet">A parent’s guide to health information on the Internet (Caring for Kids)</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://www.cps.ca/en/blog-blogue/covid-youth-and-substance-use-critical-messages-for-youth-and-families">COVID, youth, and substance use: Critical messages for youth and families (Canadian Pediatric Society)</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://www.cps.ca/en/blog-blogue/parenting-during-covid-19-a-new-frontier">Parenting during COVID-19: A new frontier (Canadian Pediatric Society)</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://www.sickkids.ca/en/news/archive/2021/updated-covid19-school-operation-guidance-document-released/">SickKids - Updated guidance for school operation during the pandemic</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://hollandbloorview.ca/sites/default/files/2020-07/HB-BackToSchool-Recommendations.pdf">Return to school recommendations for children with special needs (Holland Bloorview)</a></li><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h3>Learning</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=651&language=English&hub=COVID-19">Reading milestones</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=1903&language=English&hub=COVID-19">Reading: How to help early and struggling readers</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3871&language=English&hub=COVID-19">Writing milestones</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=1881&language=English&hub=COVID-19">Visual-motor skills: How to foster in children</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=722&language=English&hub=COVID-19">Mathematics milestones</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=721&language=English&hub=COVID-19">Mathematics: How to help your pre-school and school-aged child</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=649&language=English&hub=COVID-19">Spatial reasoning skills: How to foster in children</a></li></ol></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h2 class="panel-title">Well-being</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>Find out how physical activity, a healthy sleep routine, screen time limits and balanced nutrition can boost your child's mental health and support them to achieve better academic success and help them through difficult times. </p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h3>Handwashing</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=1981&language=English">Hand hygiene</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://www.caringforkids.cps.ca/handouts/handwashing">Handwashing for parents and children (Caring for Kids)</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://www.youtube.com/watch?time_continue=9&v=7PKwE1jIuws&feature=emb_title">Protect don’t infect (CHEO)</a></li></ol></li><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h3>Sleep</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=645&language=English">Sleep: Benefits and recommended amounts</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://teens.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3632&language=English">Sleep and your mental health: Overview</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://teens.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3633&language=English">Sleep and mental health: Sorting out your sleep routine</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=646&language=English">How to help your child get a good night's sleep</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=647&language=English">How to help your teen get a good night's sleep</a></li></ol></li><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h3>Physical activity</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://teens.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3783&language=English">Physical activity and mental health: Overview</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://teens.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3784&language=English">Physical activity and mental health: Types of physical activity</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=641&language=English">Physical activity: Benefits of exercise for health and wellbeing</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=642&language=English">Physical activity: Guidelines for children and teens</a></li></ol></li><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h3>Nutrition</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://teens.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3773&language=English">Nutrition and mental health: The basics of a healthy diet</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=639&language=English">How a balanced diet and healthy eating habits can help your child's mental health</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://teens.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3774&language=English">Nutrition and mental health: Developing positive eating habits</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=1464&language=English&hub=COVID-19">Meal ideas for school-aged children, tweens and teens</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=638&language=English">Healthy eating for teens</a></li></ol></li><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h3>Screen time and social media</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=643&language=English">Screen time: Overview</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://teens.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3775&language=English">Screen time for teens: Overview</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=644&language=English">How to help your child set healthy screen time limits</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://teens.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3776&language=English">Setting limits and staying safe with screen time</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3894&language=English">Supporting healthy and responsible screen use during COVID-19</a></li></ol></li><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h3>Stress and resilience</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://teens.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3777&language=English">Stress and health</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://teens.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3778&language=English">How to become more resilient</a></li></ol></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h2 class="panel-title">Tools, videos and resources for you and your child</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>Find helpful resources including handouts, videos and other resources about COVID-19.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/Anxiety%20Individual%20handout_Eng%2004_03_2020_v2.pdf">CARD: Coping with your own fears and anxiety</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/Anxiety%20caregiver%20handout_Eng%2004_03_2020.pdf">CARD: Helping your child cope with anxiety</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fBkA2ZTUnyI&feature=youtu.be">Dr. Cheddar chats with Dr. Ronni from SickKids (video)</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://youtu.be/nO1L-oYo9TA">Nasopharyngeal (NP) swab (video)</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=r51gYrDzpHQ">Physical distancing (video)</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://www.youtube.com/watch?time_continue=9&v=7PKwE1jIuws&feature=emb_title">Protect don’t infect (CHEO)</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://www.brainson.org/shows/2020/03/10/understanding-coronavirus-and-how-germs-spread-for-kids?fbclid=IwAR21Y_n6fsy33QD2s07In2Q892xQoI5OEFMMZ5vcMyVoLdkH8tv4yZjaZsc">Understanding coronavirus and how germs spread (Brains On!)</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://kidshelpphone.ca/get-info/were-here-for-you-during-covid-19-novel-coronavirus/">We’re here for you during COVID-19 (novel coronavirus) (Kids Help Phone)</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sNinywG7BtY">What is personal protective equipment (PPE) (video)</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://youtu.be/gqeyRuvF9WU">Your virtual video visit overview</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3889&language=English">Virtual care at SickKids</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3910&language=English">Virtual care: How to accurately measure your child’s height and weight at home</a></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h2 class="panel-title">Videos to support sleep and mindfulness</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>Find videos that will help you prepare for sleep and for when you need a moment of peace, to understand your situation more clearly and coping with stressful thoughts and experiences.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h3>Sleep video</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://youtu.be/2fbaoqkY0Qk">Sleep: A bed time story</a></li></ol></li><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h3>Mindfulness videos</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://youtu.be/nQdM_Cku9pA">A moment of peace</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://youtu.be/cFCiUlFKuO4">Two wings to fly</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://youtu.be/jaNAwy3XsfI">Being with all of your experiences</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://youtu.be/0QXmmP4psbA">You are not your thoughts</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://youtu.be/Ty93GRPplJo">Dealing with difficult moments</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://youtu.be/QTsUEOUaWpY">Everyday mindfulness</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://youtu.be/GgBVIZAEQqU">STOP for mindfulness</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KYcLfBf-T9c">Stress and thinking: The mind/body connection</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://youtu.be/EWzDHN7Jdg8">Dealing with flares: Controlling the controllables</a></li></ol></li></ol></div> <br> <div class="asset-video"> <iframe src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/jwwwF9KQ7CQ"></iframe> </div><p>See "Tools, videos and resources for you and your child" in the menu above for more videos or visit the <a href="https://www.youtube.com/user/Aboutkidshealth">AboutKidHealth YouTube channel</a>.</p>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/iStock-1157093074.jpgCOVID-19,COVID19COVID-19COVID-19 learning hub Learn about COVID-19 and how to talk to and support your family. Also find resources such as videos and audio meditations to help you cope.Main
Depression: Signs and symptomsDepression: Signs and symptomsDepression: Signs and symptomsDEnglishPsychiatrySchool age child (5-8 years);Pre-teen (9-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)NANAConditions and diseasesCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2016-07-15T04:00:00Z9.4000000000000056.2000000000000632.000000000000Health (A-Z) - ConditionsHealth A-Z<p>​Discover the signs and symptoms of depression in children and teens.</p><h2>What are the main signs and symptoms of depression in children and teens?</h2> <p>The main signs and symptoms of depression fall into the following categories:</p><ul><li>emotional</li><li>cognitive (mental)</li><li>behavioural</li><li>physical</li></ul><h2>Key points</h2> <ul> <li>Depression has a number of emotional, physical, cognitive and behavioural symptoms. They need to be present for two weeks or longer in order for the diagnosis to be made.</li> <li>Your child's doctor will conduct an interview, and possibly have you and your child fill out rating scales in order to confirm the diagnosis.</li> <li>Your child's doctor might recommend that your child see another mental health professional for therapy or further evaluation, and may recommend medications or lifestyle changes.</li> </ul><h2>Symptoms of depression in children and teens?</h2><h3>Emotional symptoms</h3><p>If your child or teen is depressed, they will likely experience:</p><ul><li>a general low mood</li><li>irritability</li><li>feelings of guilt, hopelessness or worthlessness</li></ul><h3>Cognitive symptoms</h3><p>A child or teen who experiences depression may:</p><ul><li>have generally negative or distorted thoughts about themselves or their environment</li><li>think about <a href="/Article?contentid=289&language=English">self-harm​</a> or <a href="/Article?contentid=291&language=English">suicide</a></li> </ul><h3>Behavioural symptoms</h3><p>If a child or teen is depressed, they may change their behaviour or routine by:</p><ul><li>losing interest in or avoiding activities they previously enjoyed</li><li>avoiding school</li></ul><h3>Physical symptoms</h3><p>Depression can have a number of physical effects on a child or teen, including:</p><ul><li>low energy</li><li>trouble with concentration</li><li>decreased or increased appetite</li><li>sleeping less or more than usual</li><li>feeling physically slowed down</li><li>feeling tense and restless</li></ul><h2>How children experience depression</h2><p>Children may experience depression as an increase in irritability, for instance through more frequent temper tantrums and crying. They are also likely to start avoiding previously enjoyed activities.</p><p>Young children may not be able to express how they are thinking or feeling but may complain more often of vague physical complaints such as nausea or stomach aches. They might also experience a change in their appetite. Some children may voice thoughts of suicide or the wish to no longer be around.</p><h2>How teens experience depression</h2><p>The physical symptoms of depression are similar in teenagers and children. However, teens tend to have different cognitive and behavioural symptoms. For instance, teens with depression may express thoughts of <a href="/Article?contentid=291&language=English">suicide</a> more often than younger children. They may also become more withdrawn and choose to spend more time by themselves rather than attend school, spend time with friends or take part in extra-curricular activities (such as sports or hobbies). Some teens may also <a href="/Article?contentid=289&language=English">self-harm</a> as part of depression.</p><h2>How depression is diagnosed</h2> <p>Your child's doctor will speak to you and your child or teen and ask you both about:</p> <ul> <li>your concerns and symptoms that are interfering with your child's everyday routine</li> <li>any current stressors in your child's life</li> <li>any event that could have triggered your child's depressive symptoms</li> <li>your child's development (from pregnancy onwards)</li> <li>your family's mental health history</li> <li>general family functioning and any stressors that might contribute to your child's symptoms</li> </ul> <p>The doctor might ask you and your child, if they are old enough, to fill out rating scales to help them make a diagnosis. If the doctor identifies a number of signs and symptoms over a certain time (two weeks or longer), your child might meet the criteria for depression.</p><h2>What your child's doctor can do for depression</h2> <p>If your child is diagnosed with depression, you, your child and the doctor will decide together on the best treatment plan. This decision may need input from other members of your family or your child's teachers.</p> <p>Your doctor may also suggest that your child see a therapist or a <a href="/Article?contentid=708&language=English">psychiatrist and make lifestyle changes</a>. They may also recommend <a href="/Article?contentid=707&language=English">medications​</a>.</p><h2>Further information</h2><p>For more information on depression, please see the following pages:</p><p><a href="/Article?contentid=19&language=English">Depression: Overview</a></p><p><a href="/Article?contentid=707&language=English">Depression: Treatment with medications</a></p><p><a href="/Article?contentid=708&language=English">Depression: Treatment with psychotherapy and lifestyle changes</a></p><img alt="" src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/depression_warning_signs.jpg" width="3862" style="BORDER:0px solid;" />https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/depression_warning_signs.jpg ​Learn how to recognize the signs and symptoms of depression, how they can impact your teen and how depression is diagnosed. Main
Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccineHuman papillomavirus (HPV) vaccineHuman papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine: What you need to knowHEnglishPharmacyPre-teen (9-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)PelvisReproductive systemDrugs and SupplementsCaregivers Adult (19+)NAhttps://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/ICO_DrugA-Z.png2013-04-29T04:00:00Z8.7000000000000056.50000000000001144.00000000000Flat ContentDrug A-Z<p>The human papillomavirus (HPV) is an infection that spreads through sexual intercourse and sexual contact. The HPV vaccine protects against the most common strains of the virus.<br></p><h2>What is human papillomavirus (HPV)? </h2><p>The <a href="/Article?contentid=25&language=English">human papillomavirus (HPV)</a> is a virus that spreads through sexual intercourse, oral sex, anal sex and also sexual touching (hand to genital contact). HPV is the most common sexually transmitted disease in Canada. Most people do not know that they have HPV because they do not have any symptoms. Unfortunately, they can still pass on the virus to their partner. Persistent HPV infection can lead to certain types of cancers. </p><p>HPV is very common. About one in four Canadians under the age of 25 have HPV. </p><p>There are many different strains of HPV. The HPV vaccine protects against the four most common strains:<br></p><ul><li>The strains HPV-6 and HPV-11 cause <a href="/Article?contentid=25&language=English">genital warts</a>.</li><li>HPV-16 and HPV-18 are the leading cause of cancers of the cervix, which is the lower part of the uterus that narrows into a canal and opens into the vagina. These strains can also cause cancers in the penis and anus as well as cancers of the head and neck. </li></ul><p>In Canada, two vaccines can protect against HPV: Gardasil and Cervarix. </p><h2>How can the HPV vaccine help protect against HPV? </h2><p>Gardasil protects against four types of HPV: </p><ul><li>HPV-16 and HPV-18, which cause about 70 percent of all cancers of the cervix</li><li>HPV-6 and HPV-11, which cause about 90 percent of all genital warts </li></ul><p>Gardasil can be prescribed to females between the ages of nine and 45. The vaccine is licensed for use in males age nine to 26. It offers protection against certain cancers of the penis, anus, head and neck. It also protects the partners of males who have had the vaccine. Unfortunately, the cost of the vaccine for boys is not yet funded by most public health programs. </p><p>Cervarix protects against HPV-16 and HPV-18. It is given to females between the ages of 10 and 25. </p><p>Both vaccines require three doses to be given over the course of six months (Cervarix is given at zero, one and six months; Gardasil is given at zero, two and six months). In Canada, one of the vaccines is given to females in school in Grade 4-8, depending on the province (see table below). </p><h2>Important facts about the HPV vaccine</h2><p>There are many common misconceptions about the HPV virus and vaccine. The correct information is provided below so that you have all the facts when discussing sexual health and the HPV vaccine with your child.</p><h3>The HPV vaccine is <em>not</em> a substitute for regular checkups </h3><p>The vaccine protects against some types of HPV that can potentially lead to cancers. Regular checkups with the doctor are still important. About 30% of cervical cancers will not be prevented by the vaccine because it does not cover all HPV strains. Women should continue to be screened for cervical cancer with pap smears, even after getting all three shots of either HPV vaccine. </p><h3>The vaccine <em>cannot </em>treat HPV infections or HPV-related disease </h3><p>HPV vaccine helps prevent HPV-related infections or disease but will not treat an infection. It is most effective in women who are not yet sexually active because they are less likely to have contracted an HPV infection. </p><h3>There is currently <em>no medical cure</em> for the HPV virus </h3><p>Once someone is infected it can take weeks to months before genital warts become apparent. Warts inside the vaginal or anal areas may not be obvious. Some home therapies and other treatments in the doctor's office can be used to treat warts, but none can completely eliminate the virus. Even if the warts disappear, the virus can remain and warts recur. When warts are treated it can take 8 months or longer for them to disappear. </p><h3>HPV vaccines <em>do not </em>protect against other sexually transmitted infections </h3><p>The HPV vaccine protects against genital warts, which is one type of sexually transmitted infection (STI). It cannot protect against all types of STIs, such as HIV, chlamydia, or gonorrhea. It is important to practice safe sex. Parents should advise teens on how to reduce their risk of contracting STIs.<br></p><h3>The HPV vaccine <em>will not</em> make your child more promiscuous </h3><p>There is no evidence that giving the vaccination will increase sexual activity. </p><p>The HPV vaccination is an opportunity for parents to discuss sex and health with their children. <a href="/Article?contentid=718&language=English">Parents should be talking about sex with their children </a>regularly. </p><p>Studies show that sex education does not increase sexual activity. In fact, sex education may decrease early sexual activity, especially if the message encourages delaying sex and having protected sex. </p><h2>Can sexually active females benefit from the vaccine? </h2><p>The vaccines are most beneficial when given to girls before becoming sexually active. For this reason, doctors usually prescribe HPV vaccines to girls between the ages nine and 13. However, few sexually active women are infected with all types of HPV. For this reason, the vaccine can still help prevent infection and can be given to girls older than 14 years of age. A person with HPV usually has it for life. However, the vaccine can still help prevent recurrences. </p><h2>Is the vaccine protection long-lasting? </h2><p>Studies show that people exhibit strong immunity against HPV. Scientists do not know exactly how long the vaccine protects again HPV because long-term studies have not been done, but protection is for at least five years. </p><h2>Are the HPV vaccines safe? </h2><p>Studies show both HPV vaccines are safe. For both vaccines, the most common side effect is soreness at the site of injection. This is temporary. </p><p>The only reason not to get the vaccine would be if you have had an allergic reaction to a previous dose of the vaccine or if you are pregnant. </p><p>The vaccines contain particles from part of the virus. They cannot infect you with HPV. The vaccines also do not contain any antibiotics or preservatives, such as mercury or thimerosal. Cervarix contains a new additive called (ASO4). According to Health Canada, ASO4 is safe. </p><p>For more information, visit <a href="http://healthycanadians.gc.ca/health-sante/sexual-sexuelle/hpv-vph-eng.php">Health Canada</a>. </p>Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine Separate fact from fiction with up-to-date and accurate information on the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine.Main
RehabilitationRehabilitationRehabilitationREnglishOtherChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)NANANon-drug treatmentCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2018-01-19T05:00:00Z000Landing PageLearning Hub<p>There are many reasons your child may need rehabilitation therapy. A therapist can help with things such as feeding problems or hand difference. If you child has a health condition they may need physiotherapy to help them recover.</p><p>There are many reasons your child may need rehabilitation therapy. An occupational therapist can help with things such as feeding problems, brachial plexus palsy or hand difference. If you child has a health condition or has had surgery they may need physiotherapy to help them recover and stay active.</p><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h2 class="panel-title">Infant development</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>Flattened head syndrome can develop when a baby spends a lot of time on their back. Uneven neck muscles (torticollis) can lead a baby to tilt their head. Find out how occupational therapy and tummy time can prevent and help your child overcome these conditions.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=24&language=English">Positional plagiocephaly (flattened head syndrome)</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=972&language=English">Positional plagiocephaly: Treatment with a corrective helmet</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=947&language=English">Torticollis</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=296&language=English">Tummy time: Helping your baby</a></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h2 class="panel-title">Feeding your baby</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>Feeding problems can be stressful, especially if there is an underlying medical condition. Learn how an occupational therapist identifies feeding problems and can offer different feeding methods to help your baby eat and drink safely.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=968&language=English">Cleft lip and cleft palate: Spoon feeding and cup drinking</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1684&language=English">Feeding a baby with a heart condition</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2450&language=English">Feeding studies</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=719&language=English">Formula feeding when you cannot provide breastmilk for your baby</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1790&language=English">Nutrition and feeding consultants</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=31&language=English">Sensitive gag reflex: Transition to textured foods</a></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h2 class="panel-title">Congenital conditions</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>A different-shaped hand can present challenges to babies and parents alike. Nerve damage in the upper arm, which can occur during birth, can also affect everyday living skills. Discover how families adapt to these conditions and how they can be treated.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=849&language=English">Brachial plexus palsy</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1033&language=English">Brachial plexus operation</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=942&language=English">Congenital hand anomaly (hand difference)</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1025&language=English">Pollicization</a></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h2 class="panel-title">Rehabilitation and health conditions</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>Long-term health conditions and recovery from surgery can often affect a child’s ability to be physically active. Find out how simple exercises can ease muscle or joint pain, help your child stay active and improve your child’s strength and balance.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1544&language=English">Blood and marrow transplant: Exercise and movement after surgery</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1973&language=English">Cystic fibrosis: Physical activity and exercise</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1048&language=English">Crutches: How to use</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1004&language=English">Exercises for enthesitis and arthritis</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1013&language=English">Heart surgery: Physiotherapy after surgery</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=981&language=English">Incentive spirometry or bubbles: Encouraging deep breathing to clear the lungs</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=946&language=English">Toe walking, idiopathic</a></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h2 class="panel-title">Rehabilitation and brain conditions</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>Brain conditions can affect a child's speech, memory and movement, among many other things. Find out how treatments and therapies can help your child if they experience infantile seizures, have a brain tumour or are recovering from a head injury.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1406&language=English">Brain tumours: Occupational therapy</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1405&language=English">Brain tumours: Physiotherapy</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1407&language=English">Brain tumours: Speech therapy</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=766&language=English">Head injury and concussion</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1984&language=English">Head injury prevention in children</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=859&language=English">Infantile spasms</a></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h2 class="panel-title">Pain management</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>Pain is an everyday occurrence, but acute (sudden) and chronic (long-term) pain often call for different responses. Find out how different therapies can help your child cope with the pain associated with procedures, treatments or ongoing health conditions.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=3005&language=English">Pain management: Exercise and physiotherapy</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=3004&language=English">Pain management: Heat and cold</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=3006&language=English">Pain management: Massage and nerve stimulation</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=3003&language=English">Pain management: Physical treatments</a></li></ol></div>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/rehabilitation_landing_page.jpgrehabilitation,rehabrehabilitation There are many reasons your child might need rehabilitation therapy. Learn how occupational therapy and physiotherapy can help your child.Main

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