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Navigating the school environment with celiac diseaseNavigating the school environment with celiac diseaseNavigating the school environment with celiac diseaseNEnglishGastrointestinalSchool age child (5-8 years);Pre-teen (9-12 years);Teen (13-18 years);Preschooler (2-4 years)Small IntestineDigestive systemHealthy living and preventionCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2023-07-14T04:00:00Z11.400000000000049.80000000000001287.00000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Find tips for communicating and collaborating with educators and school staff to create an inclusive and safe learning environment for your child with celiac disease.</p><p>Whether your child is starting their very first day of kindergarten or entering their final year of high school, planning and preparing for and communicating your child's celiac disease diagnosis, gluten-free diet and related needs can help kick-start a successful school year.</p><p>Here are some tips to help plan for a safe and healthy school year.</p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>Clear communication and collaboration with educators and school staff is important to managing your child's celiac disease diagnosis and adhering to the strict gluten-free diet.</li><li>Communication about celiac disease and the strict gluten-free diet with your child, your child's educator and school staff should start before school and continue throughout the school year.</li></ul><h2>Before school starts</h2><ul><li>Have conversations with your child to confirm that they understand their diagnosis and need to maintain a strict gluten-free diet (e.g., they should know how to avoid gluten cross-contact and about the importance of proper <a href="/article?contentid=1981&language=english">hand hygiene</a>).</li><li>Talk with your child about situations where gluten exposure may occur (e.g., lunchroom, on nutrition breaks, art classes), who to talk to when your child is not feeling well at school and the importance of asking questions to clarify if something is gluten-free and safe to eat or touch.</li><li>Discuss privacy and confidentiality rights with your child and communicate their preferences regarding who to tell about their diagnosis.</li><li>Role play scenarios with your child on how they can confidently explain their condition to others, such as their peers. It might help to introduce the <a href="https://www.sickkids.ca/en/patients-visitors/transition-adult-care/#:~:text=MyHealth%203%20Sentence%20Summary%20is%2cneeds%20to%20health-care%20providers">MyHealth 3 Sentence Summary</a> to your child and have them practice using it wit you before using it in real-life situations.</li><li>Consider having early conversations about <a href="/article?contentid=303&language=english">bullying</a>. Discuss signs of bullying, where bullying can happen and how to handle difficult situations with bullies (e.g., speaking to a trusted adult or school official). Some schools have policies to address bullying. It may be helpful to review this policy with your child.</li><li>Brainstorm lunch and snack ideas with your child for the school year and ask what grocery items they would like to pack a healthy lunch.</li></ul><h2>At the start of the school year</h2><p>The key to maintaining a gluten-free diet at school is clear communication and working with everyone who plays a role in your child's life. Communication with teachers and school staff may be ongoing and may need to be revisited at the start of each school year. Here are some suggestions to communicate with your child's school:</p><ul><li>Fill our any necessary medical information from your child's school. Provide accurate and up-to-date emergency contact information, including names, relationships and the best way to contact your child's emergency contacts (e.g., cell phone, work phone).</li><li>Provide your child's teacher(s) with a letter outlining their diagnosis of celiac disease, what this means and the importance of following a strict gluten-free diet and avoiding gluten cross-contact. You may want to highlight some key terminology, such as 'celiac disease', 'gluten', 'gluten-free diet' and 'cross-contact', in your letter. Celiac Canada has created a <a href="https://www.celiac.ca/wp-content/uploads/2019/04/CD_Teachers.pdf">Celiac Disease Teacher's Info handout</a> with this information along with a <a href="https://www.celiac.ca/wp-content/uploads/2019/10/school-letter.pdf">Teacher Letter</a>, which can be printed and given to your child's teacher. You may also want to refer your child's teacher to AboutKidsHealth's <a href="/celiacdisease">Celiac disease learning hub</a> and suggest they watch the <a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Style%20Library/akh/animation/Module%201%20-%20Celiac%20Disease%20%20-%20Storyline%20output/story.html?hub=celiacdisease">Celiac Disease</a> and <a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Style%20Library/akh/animation/Celiac%20Disease%20Module%202%20-%20Gluten-free%20diet%20-%20Storyline%20output/story.html?hub=celiacdisease">Gluten-Free Diet</a> modules.</li><li>If possible, follow up with an in-person meeting with your child's educator to further discuss your child's diagnosis, strategies to avoid gluten and prevent gluten cross-contact and answer any questions that your child's educator may have.</li></ul><p>The following are some topics to discuss with your child's educator about how to create an inclusive environment:</p><h3>Helpful resources</h3><p>Share resources with teachers and other staff at school that explain what gluten is and where it is found in the food supply:</p><ul><li> <a href="/article?contentid=816&language=english">Celiac disease</a></li><li> <a href="/article?contentid=956&language=english">Celiac disease: The gluten-free diet</a></li><li> <a href="/article?contentid=957&language=english">Celiac disease: Tips to maintain the gluten-free diet</a></li><li> <a href="/celiacdisease">Celiac disease learning hub</a></li></ul><p>Also highlight specific school supplies and activities that contain gluten and may pose a risk if ingested. Offer gluten-free and safe alternatives to gluten-containing school supplies:</p><ul><li>Playdough → Gluten-free playdough </li><li>Paper mâché made from wheat flour → Paper mâché made from corn starch or rice flour </li><li>Pasta art → Use gluten-free options such as natural, unprocessed dry corn, quinoa, beans or lentils, rice or gluten-free pasta </li><li>Sensory table → Use non-food items such as pipe cleaners, pom-poms or shaving cream </li></ul><h3>How to minimize gluten cross-contact</h3><ul><li>Clean all surfaces in classrooms with school-approved cleaning solution.</li><li>Encourage proper <a href="/article?contentid=1981&language=english">hand hygiene</a> before and after eating.</li><ul><li>Although hand sanitizers are great for protecting against colds and viruses, hand sanitizers <strong>do not</strong> remove gluten and should not replace proper hand washing.</li></ul><li>Students should not share food or touch other students' lunches.</li></ul><h3>What to do in case of gluten exposure</h3><p>Discuss an action plan for accidental gluten exposure or when your child feels sick at school. You may want to share the following with your child's educator:</p><ul><li>Your child's common signs and symptoms of gluten exposure.</li><li>The accommodations your child may need in case of gluten exposure, such as unrestricted access to the bathroom.</li><li>How you would like to be contacted in the case of gluten exposure.</li></ul><h3>Making sure gluten-free food is available</h3><ul><li>Advocate to be informed about <strong>special school events</strong>, such as pizza days and field trips, well ahead of the scheduled event. This will allow your child and family to have time to plan and prepare to attend these events with gluten-free options if possible.</li><li>Ask your child's teacher(s) if you can leave them with <strong>pre-packaged, shelf-stable gluten-free options</strong> in case of a spontaneous food event, such as a classmate's birthday. Make sure the food items are labelled with your child's name.</li><li>If your child is provided a snack at a <strong>before-/after-school program</strong>, communicate their gluten-free diet to staff and develop a plan to ensure your child's safety.</li></ul><h2>During the school year</h2><ul><li>Engage with your child in various activities and conversation to help them learn how to self-advocate and manage their diagnosis of celiac disease in and outside of the learning environment:</li><ul><li>Teach your child how to recognize gluten-free logos, claims and ingredients.</li><li>Involve them in planning and preparing school lunches and snacks.</li><li>Prepare some gluten-free treats such as cupcakes or cookies to freeze for the school year and have available when special events occur at school.</li><li>Discuss tricky situations or challenges your child is currently experiencing and how you can both use problem solving to find a solution together.</li><li>Visit <a href="/article?contentid=4153&language=english">How to help your child communicate about celiac disease</a> for more tips and information on self-advocacy.</li></ul><li>Have check-ins with your child's teacher(s) to see what is working well and what can be improved. Discuss strategies with your child's teacher(s) to overcome potential classroom challenges.</li><li>Recognize signs and symptoms of when your child may be struggling with their diagnosis:</li><ul><li>Change in regular behaviour</li><li>Poor academic performance or a change in academic performance</li><li>Difficulty with concentration or attention</li><li>Withdrawing from other people</li><li>Experiencing mood swings, severe <a href="/article?contentid=18&language=english">anxiety</a>, fear or worry</li><li>Losing interest in hobbies or pleasurable activities</li><li>Changes in eating or sleeping patterns</li><li>Intentional consumption of gluten and presence of physical symptoms</li></ul></ul><p>If your child seems to be struggling, seek out mental health help from your school, medical or celiac team.</p><p>Planning ahead and communicating your child's needs can help you prepare for a new school year. Collaborating with your child's teachers and school staff can also help to create a positive and inclusive learning environment that allows your child to safely adhere to their gluten-free diet.</p>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/Navigating_the_school_environment_with_celiac_disease.jpgNavigating school with celiac disease February 9 is National Pizza Day. Learn how to prepare for school events such as pizza day when your child has celiac disease.Main
The normal heartThe normal heartThe normal heartTEnglishCardiologyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years);Adult (19+)HeartCardiovascular systemNAAdult (19+)NAhttps://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/Hearts_CHD/Normal_Heart_CHD.jpg2021-01-28T05:00:00Z6.4000000000000071.90000000000001262.00000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>The heart is a muscle that pumps blood through the body. Learn about each part of the heart including what each part looks like, its specific function and its location.<br></p><h2>What is the heart?</h2><p><a href="/body/interactive?module=heart">The heart</a> is a muscle just a bit bigger than the size of your fist. It is located between the lungs, almost in the middle of the chest. It is the body's core muscle and the very first organ to form in the body after conception.</p><h2> Key points </h2><ul><li> The heart is located between the lungs and pumps blood throughout the body's cardiovascular system.</li><li>The heart has four chambers. The upper two chambers are the right atrium and left atrium and the lower two chambers are the right ventricle and left ventricle. The right and left sides of the heart are divided by a wall called the septum.</li><li>You can feel your pulse each time the ventricle pumps by feeling your wrist or side of your neck.</li></ul><h2>What does the heart do?</h2><p>With each beat, the heart pumps blood through the body’s cardiovascular system. The cardiovascular system is made up of the heart and a system of blood vessels (the circulatory system) that help circulate blood. The blood provides oxygen and nutrients to all the organs and tissues in the body. It also delivers carbon dioxide to the lungs and the lungs then exhale to remove carbon dioxide from the body. At the same time, blood picks up waste products that are filtered out of the body by the kidneys.</p><h2>What are the parts of the heart?</h2> <figure class="asset-c-100"><span class="asset-image-title">Heart anatomy</span> <div class="asset-animation asset-cv-animation"> <iframe src="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Style%20Library/akh/animation/HeartAnatomy%20-%20Storyline%20output/story.aspx"></iframe> </div></figure> <p>The right and left sides of the heart are divided by a wall called the septum. The right side pumps blood to the lungs, where the blood picks up oxygen. The left side pumps blood to the rest of the body.</p><p>The heart is made up of four hollow chambers:</p><ul><li>The upper two chambers are the right atrium and left atrium. These are called "collecting chambers" because they collect the blood as it returns to the heart.</li><li>The lower two chambers are the right ventricle and left ventricle. These are called "pumping chambers" because they pump the blood out of the heart to where it needs to go.</li></ul><p>Blood flows from chamber to chamber through the following valves, which keep blood flowing forward and prevent it from leaking backward: </p><ul><li>The tricuspid valve lets blood flow from the right atrium to the right ventricle.</li><li>The pulmonary valve lets blood flow from the right ventricle to the pulmonary artery.</li><li>The mitral valve lets blood flow from the left atrium to the left ventricle.</li><li>The aortic valve lets blood flow from the left ventricle to the aorta.</li></ul><h3>How does the heart pump blood?</h3> <figure class="asset-c-80"> <span class="asset-image-title">Normal heart </span><span class="asset-image-title"></span><span class="asset-image-title">anatomy</span><img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/Hearts_CHD/Normal_Heart_CHD.jpg" alt="Normal heart showing placement of the atria, ventricles, aorta, superior vena cava, inferior vena cava, pulmonary artery and pulmonary veins" /><figcaption class="asset-image-caption">The</figcaption><figcaption class="asset-image-caption"></figcaption><figcaption class="asset-image-caption"> heart has two upper (receiving) and two lower (pumping) chambers. Blood flows into the upper chambers (the right atrium and the left atrium). The lower chambers (the right and left ventricles) pump blood out of the heart. The heart valves open and close to keep blood flowing in the correct direction. </figcaption> </figure> <p>After blood has travelled through the body, it comes back to the heart through the veins (vena cava) and enters the right atrium. The blood is bluish in colour because it is low in oxygen. When the heart relaxes, the blood flows through the tricuspid valve into the right ventricle.</p><p>The right ventricle contracts (squeezes) to send the blood through the pulmonary valve into the arteries in the lungs (pulmonary arteries). The blood travels to the lungs, where it gets fresh oxygen and turns bright red again. It returns to the left atrium through the pulmonary veins. Then it moves through the mitral valve to the left ventricle. The left ventricle pumps the blood high in oxygen out through the aortic valve into the aorta. The aorta delivers the blood to the body and the process begins again.</p><h3>What are the coronary arteries?</h3><p>The heart itself is a muscle, and it needs oxygen to work. The coronary arteries branch off from the aorta. They are the vessels that bring blood high in oxygen to the heart.</p><p>The main arteries are the right coronary artery and the left coronary artery.</p><ul><li>The right coronary artery brings blood to the ventricles, right atrium, and sinoatrial node.</li><li>The left coronary artery branches into the circumflex artery and the left anterior descending artery. The left coronary artery supplies the blood to the ventricles and left atrium.</li></ul><p>This blood flow is known as coronary circulation.</p><h2>What is a heartbeat?</h2><p>As the heart beats, it makes a “lub-dub” sound. This is the sound made by the heart valves as they open and close. With each heartbeat, blood pushes through the aortic valve into the aorta and is delivered to the body. The heart beats about 100,000 times a day.</p><h3>What is a pulse?</h3><p>You can feel a pulse, the rhythmic beating of the heart, each time the ventricle contracts by touching your index and middle finger (not your thumb) to your wrist or the side of your neck. To figure out what your heart rate is, keep your fingers on your pulse and count the beats for 10 seconds, then multiply by 6.</p><ul><li>A newborn's heart rate is about 130 to 160 beats per minute (BPM) at rest</li><li>A 6-month-old's heart rate is about 100 BPM</li><li>A toddler's heart rate is about 70 to 80 BPM</li><li>An adult's heart rate is about 60-80 BPM </li></ul><h2>How does the heart's electrical system work?</h2> <figure class="asset-c-80"> <span class="asset-image-title">The heart's electrical system</span><img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/Hearts_EP/EP_heart_Normal.jpg" alt="Normal heart showing placement of the SA node, AV node, His bundle and Purkinje fibers" /><figcaption class="asset-image-caption">1) An electrical signal starts in the sinoatrial (SA) node, which signals the atria to contract. 2) The electrical signal moves from the SA node to the atrioventricular (AV) node. 3) From the AV node, the signal travels to the His bundle and then to the Purkinje fibers. 4) As this electrical signal moves through the heart, it stimulates the heart muscle to beat in a specific order; first the atria contract, followed by the ventricles. </figcaption> </figure> <p>There is a small area of the right atrium called the sinoatrial (SA) node. The SA node is the body’s natural pacemaker since it controls the heartbeat.</p><p>With each heartbeat, an electrical impulse from the SA node causes the muscles of the atria to contract. This lets them pump blood to the ventricles. The electrical signal is then carried through the atrioventricular (AV) node into the ventricles, causing them to contract and pump blood out of the heart. It's similar to the motion involved when you clench and unclench your fist.</p><p>Interfering with this electrical impulse can cause <a href="/article?contentid=890&language=english">problems with the heart rhythm (arrhythmias)</a> or stop the heartbeat altogether (cardiac arrest).</p><p>In cardiology, the area of practice related to heart rhythms and the heart’s electrical system is referred to as electrophysiology. </p><h2>What is blood pressure?</h2> <figure> <span class="asset-image-title">Blood pressure cuff</span><img alt="Child wearing blood pressure cuff" src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/IMD_blood_pressure_cuff_EN.jpg" /> </figure> <p>Blood pressure is a measure of the pressure of the blood against the walls of the arteries. It is expressed as a top number and bottom number. Blood pressure indicates how well the heart is pumping.</p><p>To measure your child’s blood pressure, the nurse or doctor puts a blood pressure cuff on your child’s arm. The first number measured is the systolic pressure. This is the pressure as the heart pumps blood out. The second number is the diastolic pressure. This is the pressure as the heart relaxes and refills with blood. An average adult blood pressure is 120/80. That means 120 systolic and 80 diastolic.</p><p>Children's blood pressures vary with age and activities, such as exercise and sleep. Fever can also affect a child’s blood pressure. Some typical values are:</p><ul><li>75/50 for a newborn</li><li>96/65 for a toddler</li><li>100/60 for a preschooler</li><li>105/60 for a school-age child (6 to 8 years)</li><li>118/60 for a teenager</li></ul><p>Different factors can cause blood pressure to be too high or too low. Sometimes these factors are heart-related and sometimes they are not. Your child’s health-care provider can help you understand what an appropriate blood pressure value is for your child.</p> February is Heart Month. Learn about each part of the heart, including what each part looks like, its specific function and its location.Main
Precision Child Health (PCH)Precision Child Health (PCH)Precision Child Health (PCH)PEnglishOtherPrenatal;Child (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)NANANAAdult (19+) CaregiversNA2023-09-21T04:00:00Z14.400000000000031.1000000000000524.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Precision Child Health (PCH) is a movement in health care focused on delivering individualized care to every child by finding better ways to predict, prevent, diagnose, and treat disease. </p><h2>What is Precision Child Health?</h2><p>Precision Child Health is a movement that aims to understand each child’s health by integrating all the information they share about themselves (their genetic, biological, social, and environmental information, as well as their preferences and values) to build an understanding of the whole child—from their genetic code to their postal code. The collection of this detailed information enables health-care providers and scientists to understand how a child’s environment and experiences interact with and impact their genes and health. This allows for treatments and care plans to be designed to best meet the needs of each individual patient.</p><p>Through the use of cutting-edge technology and tools (e.g., artificial intelligence [AI], <a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=4046&language=English&hub=genetics">genomic sequencing</a>, 3D printing, etc.), PCH allows health-care providers to deliver individualized care. This approach is developed in partnership with patients, families, and communities. Every child and every family should be offered the opportunity to participate in PCH, including participation in research, data collection, and individualized care pathways. </p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>Every child is unique. Precision Child Health enables a better understanding of each child to provide more individualized care as well as find better ways to predict, prevent, diagnose and treat disease. </li><li>Every child should be able to participate in research that will enable them and their families to benefit from individualized care pathways and from knowledge gained through Precision Child Health.</li><li>Precision Child Health is built on a foundation of equity and developed in partnership with patients, families, and communities. </li></ul><h2>The goals of Precision Child Health</h2><p>​​​Through PCH, it is possible to diagnose faster, treat smarter, predict more accurately, and ultimately prevent childhood disease.</p><h3>Diagnose faster</h3><p>Using new technologies, like <a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=4046&language=English&hub=genetics">genome sequencing</a> and rapid diagnostic tests, PCH can shorten the time between the onset of disease and receiving a definitive medical diagnosis for your child. PCH can help achieve this goal by providing ways to evaluate, assess and implement new and cutting-edge diagnostic tools safely and effectively.</p><h3>Treat smarter</h3><p>Treating smarter means enabling the development of new and novel precision therapies, based on a deeper understanding of the child and their disease, and delivering them safely and effectively to children across Canada. This involves collaborating with other paediatric institutions as well as with industry and government partners locally, nationally, and internationally. This pooled effort will help create new therapies, surgical interventions, and medical devices, as well as improve access to such interventions for all children.</p><h3>Predict better</h3><p>PCH will shift the approach to care from one that is reactive to one that is proactive. Using new AI and machine learning technologies, health-care providers will be equipped with the tools to make better care decisions, reduce harmful health outcomes, <a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3984&language=English&hub=genetics">predict better medication choices</a>, prevent unnecessary tests, and improve the patient experience.</p><h2>How can my child participate in Precision Child Health initiatives?</h2><p>Speak with your child’s health-care provider to explore current opportunities. As more knowledge rapidly develops over time, your child may also benefit from future discoveries. </p>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/Precision_Child_Health_PCH.jpg Learn about Precision Child Health, including how it can help to better predict, prevent, diagnose and treat disease.Main
IronIronIronIEnglishNutritionChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)NADigestive systemHealthy living and preventionCaregivers Adult (19+) Educators Hospital healthcare providers Community healthcare providers Remote populations First nationsNAhttps://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/INM_NRC_track1-8-5_illustration_food_iron.jpg2023-09-11T04:00:00Z8.4000000000000060.7000000000000547.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Discover the role of iron in the body and how to get enough in your diet.</p><h2>What is iron and what does it do?</h2><p>Iron helps form the hemoglobin in red blood cells to carry oxygen from the lungs around the body. It plays an important role in brain development and whole-body growth. Growing children need an adequate and constant supply of iron from food, otherwise their iron stores become low. Babies have good iron stores (from nutrient transfer in pregnancy) up until about 6 months of age. Around this age, babies need iron-rich foods.</p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>Iron is a mineral that forms hemoglobin, which carries oxygen around the body. </li><li>Iron is found in both animal and plant sources of food. </li><li>Babies, children and adults all need iron to keep their bodies healthy. </li><li>Growing children especially need adequate supply of iron, otherwise their iron stores can become low. This can lead to iron deficiency anemia. </li><li>Pregnant people need to take a daily supplement of 16 mg to 20 mg elemental iron. </li></ul><h2>Sources of iron and how to get enough</h2><p>There are two forms of iron: heme iron (which is absorbed well by the body) and non-heme iron (which is not absorbed as readily). Heme iron is mostly found in meat, poultry and fish. Non-heme iron is mostly found in grain products, legumes, tofu and green leafy vegetables. Pairing these foods with a source of vitamin C, such as oranges or red peppers, can help with iron absorption.</p> <figure class="asset-c-80"><img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/INM_NRC_track1-8-5_illustration_food_iron.jpg" alt="Whole grain products and meats and legumes containing iron" /> </figure> <h2>How much do we need?</h2><h3>Iron recommendations*</h3><table class="akh-table"><thead><tr><th>Age</th><th>Amount iron (mg/day)</th></tr></thead><tbody><tr><td>Infants (Birth – 6 months)<br>Infants (6 months – 1 year)</td><td>0.27 mg<br>11 mg</td></tr><tr><td>Children (1 – 3 years)<br>Children (4 – 8 years)<br>Children (9 – 13 years)</td><td>7 mg<br>10 mg<br>8 mg</td></tr><tr><td>Adolescents (14 – 18 years)<br>During pregnancy<br>During lactation</td><td>11 mg – 15 mg<br>27 mg<br>10 mg</td></tr><tr><td>Adults (19 – 50 years)<br>Adults (50+ years)<br>During pregnancy<br>During lactation</td><td>8 mg – 18 mg<br>8 mg<br>27 mg<br>9 mg</td></tr></tbody></table><p> <em>*These recommendations are presented here simply as a guide to help you make informed food choices and are based on the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs).</em> </p><h3>How much iron can I find in a serving of food?</h3><table class="akh-table"><thead><tr><th>Examples of food sources</th><th>Amount iron (mg)</th></tr></thead><tbody><tr><td>2.5 oz beef (cooked)</td><td>3 mg<br></td></tr><tr><td>2.5 oz chicken breast (cooked)</td><td>1 mg</td></tr><tr><td>¼ cup white beans</td><td>2 mg</td></tr><tr><td>1 egg</td><td>1 mg</td></tr><tr><td>¼ cup cooked lentils </td><td>1.5 mg</td></tr><tr><td>1 cup raw spinach</td><td>1 mg</td></tr></tbody></table><h2>Supplements (general recommendations)</h2><ul><li>Iron supplements have two numbers on the label: the amount of chemical iron and the amount of elemental iron in the supplement. When choosing an iron supplement, look for the amount of elemental iron.</li><li>In addition to getting iron from a healthy diet, people who are pregnant should take a daily supplement containing 16 mg to 20 mg of elemental iron and 0.4 mg of folic acid.</li><li>Vegetarians and vegans need almost twice as much iron as meat eaters. This is because the iron in plant-based foods is not as readily absorbed as the iron in meat. They should make careful food choices to make sure they get enough iron each day. People who are vegetarian and who are of child-bearing age may need to take an iron supplement. Check with your health-care provider for individual advice.</li></ul><p> <a target="_blank" href="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/INM_NRC_track1-8-1_micronutrients_pdf.pdf">Print-Friendly Version</a><br></p> Babies, children and adults all need iron to keep their bodies healthy. Discover sources of iron and how to get enough.Main
Scald preventionScald preventionScald preventionSEnglishPreventionChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)NANAHealthy living and preventionCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2020-11-25T05:00:00Z5.3000000000000075.0000000000000292.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Hot liquids cause approximately 70% of burns in children. Learn how to keep your children safe from scalds and how to treat a burn.</p><p>Hot liquids are the major cause of burn injuries in young children. Burns that are caused by contact with a hot liquid are called scalds. They are preventable. A burn from hot water can lead to deep burns requiring surgery and to permanent scars.<br></p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul> <li>Hot liquids are the major cause of burn injuries in young children. Burns that are caused by contact with a hot liquid are called scalds.</li> <li>Scalds are preventable. Do not leave children alone around hot beverages or food preparation areas, including the stove. Turn handles of pots on the stove inwards.</li> <li>If your child has a scald injury, remove any clothes that are covering the injury. Then, use water that is either room temperature or a bit cooler than room temperature to cool the burn over a period of 20 minutes.</li> </ul><h2>Scald prevention</h2><ul><li>Keep young children away from food preparation areas.</li><li>Do not let children play in the kitchen.</li><li>When possible, use the back burners of the stove and keep pot handles turned in.</li><li>Use stovetop element guards.</li><li>Never hold a child when drinking a hot liquid or while cooking.</li><li>Place hot drinks out of reach of children.</li><li>Reduce the temperature of the water coming out of your taps to 49°C (120°F) or lower.</li><li>Always watch children during bath time. Never leave a child alone in a tub of hot water. Use an anti-scald tap device. The bathwater should be less than 38°C.<br></li><li>Keep appliances and their cords away from the reach of young children. Appliances include irons, kettles and curling irons.<br></li></ul> <span class="asset-image-title">Burn First Aid</span> <div class="asset-video"> <iframe src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/kwsiqf-1DzM?rel=0" frameborder="0"></iframe> </div><h2>Source</h2><p>Scalds and burns. Parachute. Retrieved from http://www.parachutecanada.org/injury-topics/item/scalds-and-burns</p>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/scald_prevention.jpgMain
TeethingTeethingTeethingTEnglishDentalBaby (1-12 months);Toddler (13-24 months);Preschooler (2-4 years)TeethMouthConditions and diseasesCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2023-11-20T05:00:00Z7.0000000000000071.20000000000001076.00000000000Health (A-Z) - ConditionsHealth A-Z<p>​Learn the signs and symptoms to look for when your baby is teething and how you can help to soothe your baby's gums.<br></p><h2>What is teething?</h2> <p>Teething is when your baby's first set of teeth ("baby teeth" or primary teeth) start to appear. Caring for your baby's teeth begins as soon as the first tooth peeks through your child's gums. Healthy teeth are an integral part of your baby's overall health. They will help your baby chew and eat properly, learn how to speak and they hold place for the future permanent teeth.​</p> <p>Teething can be a tough period both for babies, who feel the pain, and parents, who witness it. Your baby may cry and drool more than usual, may be agitated and cranky. They may sleep poorly while teething. However, most babies seem to get through teething without any symptoms. If your baby experience symptoms, there are steps you can take that will help both you and your child can get through this stage in good health and spirits.</p><div class="akh-series"><div class="row"><div class="col-md-12"> <figure> <p class="asset-image-title">Primary teeth</p> <img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/Teeth_primary_MED_ILL_EN.jpg" alt="The top and bottom teeth are numbered, and the incisors, canines and molars are identified" /> <figcaption class="“asset-image-caption”">The first set of teeth that babies develop is called primary teeth. The teeth usually erupt in the order as numbered above. They last until permanent (adult) teeth come in.</figcaption> </figure> <h2>What you can expect</h2><p>The first tooth usually appears at about six months. Every child develops at a different pace, so do not worry if your child's teeth appear as early as three months or as late as 12 months.</p><p>The two bottom front teeth (lower central incisors) are usually the first teeth to appear. These are followed by the two top front teeth (upper central incisors). Most children will have all 20 primary teeth by three years of age. Between the ages of five and 13, your child will lose the primary teeth to make room for the permanent teeth.<br></p></div></div></div><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>Healthy teeth are an important part of your baby's health.</li><li>Treat your baby's pain with acetaminophen or ibuprofen.</li><li>You can help soothe your baby's gums with a chilled (but not frozen) washcloth or teething ring made of rubber.</li><li>Sugary drinks such as juice and soda contribute to tooth decay. Limit your baby's intake of these drinks and never allow them to sleep with a bottle.</li></ul><h2>Signs and symptoms</h2> <p>You may not be able to see your baby's incoming teeth, but your infant will probably feel them and show signs of teething. Signs and symptoms of teething may include:</p> <ul> <li>swollen or red gums</li> <li>a desire to chew on solid objects</li> <li>drooling, which may begin about two months before the first tooth appears</li> <li>crankiness, irritability or bad temper</li> </ul> <p>Teething does not cause <a href="/article?contentid=30&language=English">fever</a> or <a href="/article?contentid=7&language=English">diarrhea</a>. If you notice your baby showing these symptoms, contact your doctor right away. In addition, do not assume that crankiness, irritability or bad temper are due to teething.</p><h2>Causes</h2> <p>Teeth pushing through the gums cause discomfort. Since your baby cannot express their soreness and tenderness in words, they may be more irritable and cranky as the teeth emerge.</p><h2>Tips on how you can help soothe your baby's gums</h2><p>When your baby seems uncomfortable, consider helping them with some of these simple tips:</p><h3>Rub your baby's gums</h3><p>Using a clean finger or a damp washcloth, massage your baby's gums. The cold sensation and pressure will help ease the discomfort.</p><h3>Offer your baby a teething ring</h3><p>A teething ring made of firm rubber will allow your baby to put pressure on their gums. Liquid-filled rings are not recommended, as they could break or hurt your baby under the chewing pressure.</p><p>Your child may also like chewing on a pacifier or a bottle, which also puts pressure on the gums. Make sure to fill the bottle with water, not milk or juice, as prolonged contact with the sugar in those liquids can lead to tooth decay called early childhood cavities.</p><h3>Keep it chilled, not frozen</h3><p>A cold washcloth or chilled teething ring will likely relieve your baby’s discomfort. If your baby is <a href="/Article?contentid=497&language=English">eating solid foods</a>, they will also enjoy chilled foods like applesauce or yogurt. However, frozen teething rings are not recommended, as the extreme cold could hurt rather than soothe your baby.</p><h3>Wipe the drool</h3><p>Constant drooling is a part of the teething process. It keeps your baby's mouth hydrated and lets the teeth break through without gum damage. However, too much drool can irritate your baby's skin. Keep your baby's chin dry by wiping the drool with a clean cloth.</p><h3>Monitor the pain</h3><p>If your baby is especially irritated or cranky, you may offer <a href="/Article?contentid=62&language=English">acetaminophen</a> or <a href="/Article?contentid=153&language=English">ibuprofen</a> to ease the pain.</p><h3>Avoid over-the-counter teething creams or gels</h3><p>Unless your doctor recommends a certain type of teething medication, avoid those that can be rubbed directly on the baby's gums. Your baby may swallow the medication that could numb their throat. This could interfere with the normal gag reflex. Often, the medication cream or gel will more likely be washed away by your baby's saliva and have no effect at all.</p><h2>Mouth care and cleaning</h2><h3>Start cleaning with the first tooth</h3><p>Start taking care of your baby's teeth as soon as they come out. Clean their teeth at least once a day as soon as <a href="https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NgnNHtbIwlY">the first tooth appears</a>. Bedtime is usually a good time to start the routine. Use a soft bristle toothbrush designed for babies. For more information, see our page on <a href="/article?contentid=1994&language=English">dental care</a>.​</p><h3>Avoid juices and sugary drinks</h3><p>Limit the amount of sugary beverages your baby drinks. Do not allow your baby to go to bed with a bottle filled with anything else but plain water​. Natural sugars in juice, and any type of milk including cow’s milk, formula and breast milk, will cause serious tooth decay, especially if these liquids pool in your baby's mouth while they are sleeping. Early childhood cavities are also associated with iron deficiency <a href="/article?contentid=841&language=English">anemia</a>.</p><h3>Brush twice a day when ready</h3><p>When your child is three or four years of age, you can teach them to brush their teeth for at least two minutes twice a day. Use a green pea-sized amount of toothpaste and encourage your child to spit out the toothpaste rather than swallow it. Use fluoride containing toothpaste when your child is old enough to spit.</p><h2>When to see a health-care provider</h2><p>Contact your baby's health-care provider if you notice a persistent fever. Teething does not cause fever. </p><p>Your child should have their first visit to a dentist at 12 months of age or when they get their first tooth.</p>teethingteethinghttps://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/teething.jpgMain
The impact of cancer on your familyThe impact of cancer on your familyThe impact of cancer on your familyTEnglishAdolescent;OncologyPre-teen (9-12 years);Teen (13-15 years);Late Teen (16-18 years)NANANAAdult (19+) CaregiversNA2019-09-03T04:00:00Z8.1000000000000065.0000000000000670.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Learn about the impact your child's cancer diagnosis can have on your family, and some strategies you can use to help your family cope during your child's treatment.</p><p>There are many types of families in modern society. However you choose to define your family, a cancer diagnosis represents a crisis for all members. Many families have said that normal life stops and the child with cancer becomes the focus of the family. This is normal and understandable.<br></p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>It is common for a family to be disrupted or to feel a sense of loss associated with cancer, even if treatment goes well.</li><li>Maintain communication within the family during your teenager's cancer treatment. Talk about how each family member feels and be open and honest about how cancer is affecting routines and relationships.</li><li>Make time for one another, even if it's just a few hours to do an activity together.</li><ul></ul></ul><p>When a teenager has cancer, it has a profound effect on the whole family. This effect may be more intense at certain times, such as when your teen is diagnosed, admitted to the hospital or feeling unwell and experiencing side effects from treatment.</p><p>You may find the nature of your relationships, family roles and responsibilities change. Your family may also need to rely more on others for help and support. Even when treatment goes well, it can be difficult to adjust to the disruption to the usual flow of family life.</p><p>Often a family will feel a sense of loss associated with cancer. These losses may include the loss of:</p><ul><li>goals and aspirations</li><li>certainty about the future</li><li>ordinary family life, relationships and patterns</li><li>a "normal" childhood for the teenager with cancer and their siblings </li><li>happiness</li></ul><h2>Start a discussion</h2><p>Talking together about how your teenager’s cancer and treatment is affecting different family members can help your family feel closer and better support each other. For some families, this can sometimes be very difficult. There are things that you can do to start this process and to get extra help when you need it.</p><p>Here are some suggestions to get you started.</p><ul><li>Focus on the strengths of your family. Remember, there may have been other times when you overcame difficulties. Discuss how your family coped and identify the strategies that each family member used before. How can those strategies be used now? </li><li>Discuss simple things that you can do for each other to support each other.</li><li>Focus on the positive aspects of your family and the individuals’ lives that you will work to maintain. What are your family goals and individual goals?</li><li>How will you as a family make the most of every day and the opportunities that you have?</li><li>Schedule brief times to connect and keep track of each other, even if only for a few minutes each day.</li><li>How will life change for your family as a whole and for each individual family member? </li><li>Are there family traditions that you will work towards continuing, or are there any new ones you would like to start now? </li></ul><p>Some families find it easier to talk about cancer than others. If your family is having difficulty, consider consulting a professional counsellor (such as a social worker or psychologist), who can help your family discuss your feelings. A member of your child’s health-care team can recommend or help you find a counsellor. </p><h2>Make time for one another</h2><p>Often families find spending time together helps them cope. It does not need to be for a long time—it could just be for a couple of hours—but try to find time to be in each other’s company. Try coming up with an activity that most people in your family can enjoy, like playing a game, going for ice cream, watching a movie or going for a walk.</p><h2>Let others in</h2><p>Often other people will want to help but may not know how. It can help to have a list of tasks beside the phone for when someone offers. Other parents offer the following advice: "Accept help! You never know what’s coming, and it’s good to have a network of available people to help you when you need it."</p><p>Sometimes, caring people around you (such as family and friends) may overwhelm you with their efforts to help. At times like that, it is OK to tell them how you are feeling. Thank them for their kindness, and encourage them to contact you again on a future day and time that is better for you and your child. This way, you have some time to cope with, and process, your current challenges.</p>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/The_impact_of_cancer_on_your_family_TTC_Cancer.jpgImpact of cancer on your family Learn about the impact your child's cancer diagnosis can have on your family, and some strategies that can help your family cope.Main
Tube feedingTube feedingTube feedingTEnglishGastrointestinal;OtherChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)Abdomen;Stomach;Small IntestineDigestive systemNon-drug treatmentAdult (19+) CaregiversNA2018-03-26T04:00:00ZLanding PageLearning Hub<p>Tube feeding is a method for providing nutrition to a child if they are unable to take food by mouth. Find out about the most common tube feeding options, how to use and take care of the equipment and how to handle common problems.<br></p><p>Tube feeding is a method for providing nutrition to a child if they are unable to take food by mouth. Find out about the most common tube feeding options, how to use and take care of the equipment and how to handle common problems.</p><div class="asset-video"> <iframe src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/videoseries?list=PLjJtOP3StIuWzHI-UZiOf61T2kHDvpmiQ" frameborder="0"></iframe> <br></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h2 class="panel-title">G and GJ tubes</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>Gastrostomy tubes (G tubes) are placed in the stomach and gastrojejunal tubes (GJ tubes) are places in the small intestine. Both help with feeding by allowing liquid feeds to be given directly into the stomach or small intestine.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h3>Making the decision to get a feeding tube</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2822&language=English">G/GJ tubes: Making the decision to get a feeding tube</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=3825&language=English">G/GJ tubes: Frequently asked questions</a></li></ol></li><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h3>ENFit</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=4098&language=English">ENFit: The new global standard for feeding tube supplies and accessories</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=4099&language=English">Caring for your child with an ENFit tube or supplies</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://youtu.be/_Ycfft_cTnM">Giving medications with an ENFit feeding tube (video)</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://youtu.be/IQ1x6rabafM">Giving medication with a non-ENFit syringe (video)</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://youtu.be/hDpwgz3GKNY">Giving feeds with an ENFit feeding tube (video)</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://youtu.be/WurJsuvpDKc">Cleaning an ENFit feeding tube (video)</a></li></ol></li><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h3>Types of G and GJ tubes</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2536&language=English">G/GJ tubes: Corflo PEG tube</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=3387&language=English">G/GJ tubes: Corflo PEG J tube</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2908&language=English">G/GJ tubes: Balloon G tubes</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2535&language=English">G/GJ tubes: Mic-Key low-profile GJ tube</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=3843&language=English">G/GJ tubes: Low-profile combination G/GJ tube</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=3886&language=English">Surgically inserted G tubes</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=3887&language=English">Surgically inserted J tubes</a></li></ol></li><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h3>Primary tube insertion</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=3818&language=English">Primary tube insertion by image guidance</a></li></ol></li><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h3>G and GJ tube management</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=3824&language=English">Equipment and supplies for feeding tube care</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=3039&language=English">G/GJ tubes: What to do if your child's feeding tube is blocked</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2910&language=English">G/GJ tubes: What to do if your child's feeding tube is pulled out</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=3041&language=English">G/GJ tubes: What to do if your child's feeding tube moves</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=3827&language=English">Venting a G tube to manage fullness and bloating</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=3398&language=English">Peritonitis related to G and GJ tubes</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=3036&language=English">G/GJ tubes: Permanent feeding tube removal</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=3826&language=English">G/GJ tubes: Troubleshooting tube feeding</a></li></ol></li><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h3>Stoma and skin care</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2906&language=English">G/GJ tubes: Preventing and managing infection</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=3018&language=English">G/GJ tubes: Sensitivity and irritation</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=3019&language=English">G/GJ tubes: Granulation tissue</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=3020&language=English">G/GJ tubes: Managing a leaking stoma</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2907&language=English">G/GJ tubes: Hypertonic salt water soaks</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2909&language=English">G/GJ tubes: Using silver nitrate to treat granulation tissue</a></li></ol></li><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h3>Transitioning to adult care</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=4023&language=English">Transitioning to adult care with a feeding tube</a></li></ol></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h2 class="panel-title">Nasogastric (NG) tubes</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>Nasogastric tubes (NG tubes) are inserted into a nostril and go down to the stomach. Liquid feeds are then able to go directly into the stomach through the tube.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=984&language=English">How to insert your child's NG tube</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2457&language=English">NG tube: Feeding your child</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2456&language=English">NG tube: Common problems</a></li></ol></div>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/tube_feeding_learning_hub.jpgtubefeedingtubefeeding Find out about the most common tube feeding options, how to use and take care of the equipment and how to handle common problems.Main

 

 

Viral gastroenteritis (stomach flu)Viral gastroenteritis (stomach flu)Viral gastroenteritis (stomach flu)VEnglishInfectious Diseases;GastrointestinalChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)Stomach;Small Intestine;Large Intestine/ColonImmune systemConditions and diseasesCaregivers Adult (19+)Abdominal pain;Diarrhea;Fever;Headache;Vomiting2023-08-27T04:00:00Z9.9000000000000049.0000000000000866.000000000000Health (A-Z) - ConditionsHealth A-Z<p>Viral gastroenteritis, often called "stomach flu," is an infection that causes inflammation of the stomach and intestines. Learn the symptoms and treatment of viral gastroenteritis.</p><h2>What is viral gastroenteritis?</h2><p>Gastroenteritis is the inflammation of the stomach and small and large intestines. Viral gastroenteritis means the inflammation is caused by infection from a virus. It often causes <a href="/Article?contentid=746&language=English">vomiting</a> (throwing up), <a href="/Article?contentid=7&language=English">diarrhea</a> or both.</p><p>Viral gastroenteritis is often called "stomach flu," but it is not caused by the influenza virus. Viruses that cause viral gastroenteritis include rotaviruses, adenoviruses, caliciviruses, astroviruses, and a group of Norwalk-like viruses.</p><h3>Viral gastroenteritis is NOT caused by any of the following, although the symptoms may be similar:</h3><ul><li>bacteria such as salmonella or E. coli </li><li>parasites such as Giardia </li><li>medications </li><li>other medical conditions </li></ul><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>Viral gastroenteritis is an infection of the stomach and intestines, caused by a virus.</li><li>The main symptoms include diarrhea and vomiting.</li><li>Diarrhea and vomiting can cause a loss of fluids, also called dehydration.</li><li>If dehydration is severe, patients may have to be given fluid intravenously (IV) at the hospital.</li><li>Viral gastroenteritis can spread by sharing food, water and utensils. Frequent hand washing can help prevent the spread of infection to others.</li><li>Viral gastroenteritis is usually not a serious illness. However, people who have weak immune systems are at risk for more serious infection.</li></ul><h2>What are the symptoms of viral gastroenteritis?</h2><p>Diarrhea and vomiting are the main symptoms of viral gastroenteritis.</p><p>In addition to diarrhea and vomiting, a child with viral gastroenteritis may have the following symptoms. </p><ul><li> <a href="/Article?contentid=30&language=English">Fever</a></li><li>Stomach cramps or a sore stomach</li><li> <a href="/Article?contentid=29&language=English">Headache</a></li><li>Sore throat</li><li>Decreased activity level</li><li>Increased sleepiness</li><li>Decreased appetite </li></ul><p>In general, the symptoms begin one to two days after catching the virus. They can last for one to 10 days.</p><h2>Viral gastroenteritis can be spread</h2><h3>Viral gastroenteritis can spread through the following methods:</h3><ul><li>sharing food, water or eating utensils such as forks and knives with someone who has the virus</li><li>not washing hands after touching items that may have the virus on their surface</li><li>not washing hands after diaper changes or toileting</li></ul><p>It is important to clean and disinfect surfaces and items that your child touches, including toys, and wash laundry thoroughly to remove the virus from your home. Washing with soap and water is the most effective way of cleaning surfaces and objects.</p><h2>Anyone can catch viral gastroenteritis</h2><p>People of all ages and backgrounds can get viral gastroenteritis. Toddlers, especially those in daycare, may get viral gastroenteritis more frequently since they are exposed to all viruses, share toys and often wash their hands less often.</p><h2>Treating viral gastroenteritis</h2><p>The best treatment for viral gastroenteritis in children and adults is to prevent <a href="/Article?contentid=776&language=English">dehydration</a>. Dehydration happens when more fluid leaves the body than enters it.</p><h3>Symptoms of dehydration include:</h3><ul><li>Dry, cracked lips and a dry or sticky mouth </li><li>Thirst </li><li>Low or no urine output; concentrated urine appears dark yellow </li><li>Not producing tears </li><li>Being fussy or cranky </li><li>Seeming bored or uninterested </li><li>Headache </li><li>Dizziness </li><li>Cramps </li><li>Chills </li><li>Fatigue </li></ul><h3>In severe cases, dehydration can cause:</h3><ul><li>Sunken eyes </li><li>Sunken fontanelle (soft spot) on the top of a baby's head </li><li>Nausea or vomiting </li><li>Irritability</li><li>Lethargy (little to no energy)</li></ul><p>If your child becomes severely dehydrated, they may need to be treated at the hospital. In the hospital, fluids can be replaced through an intravenous line (IV) if necessary. </p><h2>Viral gastroenteritis is rarely a serious illness</h2><p>For most people, viral gastroenteritis is not a serious illness. People who get viral gastroenteritis almost always recover completely without any long-term problems. How fast a child recovers from viral gastroenteritis partly depends on which virus is causing the illness.</p><p>Viral gastroenteritis can be a serious illness in people who are unable to drink enough fluids to replace what they lose through vomiting or diarrhea. Babies, young children, and people who are unable to care for themselves, such as the disabled or elderly, are at risk for dehydration from losing too much of the body's water.</p><p>People with immune system problems are at risk for dehydration because they may get more severe symptoms, including more vomiting and diarrhea. People with severe symptoms may need to stay in the hospital to treat or prevent dehydration.</p><h2>You can prevent viral gastroenteritis with good hand washing</h2> <h3>To avoid catching or spreading viral gastroenteritis, you should do the following things:</h3> <ul> <li>Wash hands well and often with soap and water. This is especially important at hospitals and other medical facilities. </li> <li>Do not visit anyone in hospital when you are ill with symptoms of viral gastroenteritis. Ask other family members and friends to do the same. </li> </ul><h2>If your child is in hospital, help stop viral gastroenteritis from spreading</h2><ul><li>Your child may be placed in a single room and will not be able to visit the playroom until they are feeling better. </li><li>Wash your hands often before and after touching your child and before leaving your child's room. Expect hand washing by hospital staff as well. </li><li>If you or anyone else who has visited becomes ill with symptoms of viral gastroenteritis, let your child's doctor or nurse know.</li><li>If your child has symptoms of viral gastroenteritis and they are in the hospital, all staff caring for your child should wear gloves and a gown. </li></ul><img alt="" src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/viral_gastroenteritis_flu.jpg" style="BORDER:0px solid;" />stomachflustomachfluhttps://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/viral_gastroenteritis_flu.jpg Stomach flu is an infection that causes inflammation of the stomach and intestines. Learn the symptoms and treatment of stomach flu.Main
Invasive group A streptococcal disease (iGAS)Invasive group A streptococcal disease (iGAS)Invasive group A streptococcal disease (iGAS)IEnglishInfectious DiseasesChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)NANAConditions and diseasesAdult (19+) CaregiversNA2024-02-01T05:00:00Z10.500000000000048.2000000000000794.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Invasive group A streptococcal disease (iGAS) is a serious infection that occurs when bacteria called group A beta-hemolytic streptococci (GAS) spread to different organs in the body.</p><h2>Who is at risk of getting an iGAS infection?</h2><p>Group A streptococcal (GAS) infections most commonly cause <a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=11&language=English">strep throat</a> in school-age children. It can also cause <a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=751&language=English">scarlet fever</a> or <a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=796&language=English">skin infections</a>. These are easily treated with antibiotics at home. In rare cases, some strains of the same bacteria can cause severe disease by producing toxins and invading other organs. Invasive GAS disease can occur in people who are at higher risk. This includes infants, children and senior adults, anyone with a weak immune system, and anyone with a recent respiratory virus, influenza or varicella (chicken pox) infection. However, there has been an unexplained increase in the number of healthy children with no previous risk factors who have been diagnosed with iGAS infections.</p><h2>Key points<br></h2><ul><li>A typical GAS infection causes common childhood illnesses, such as <a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=11&language=English">strep throat</a>, <a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=751&language=English">scarlet fever</a> or <a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=796&language=English">impetigo</a>, that can be treated at home with oral antibiotics.</li><li>In rare cases, GAS bacteria may invade and infect other organs, such as the bloodstream, muscles, bones, joints, lungs and the brain. Children with invasive disease can experience severe skin and muscle infection and damage (necrotizing fasciitis).</li><li>The bacteria produce toxins that can have life-threatening effects and require treatment with intravenous antibiotics and other medications to minimize damage to vital organs.</li><li>It is not known why some healthy children with no risk factors get more severe GAS infections than others.</li></ul><h2>My child was diagnosed with strep throat. Will they get iGAS?</h2><p>Children with strep throat do not appear to be at higher risk of developing iGAS. While it is the same bacteria that causes strep throat and iGAS, there are many different strains, or sub-types, of group A <em>Streptococcus</em>. Only certain strains cause invasive disease, and they may be different from the ones that cause common strep infections.</p><h2>How do I know if my child has iGAS?</h2><p>Children with iGAS have a fever and are ill. Trust your instincts. Parents or caregivers should seek urgent medical care if their child has:</p><ul><li>change in behaviour: Behaviour changes include being less alert, being confused or drowsy, not responding as usual, or having unusual movements or unusual speech.</li><li>change in breathing: Breathing changes include fast breathing, difficulty speaking and breathlessness.</li><li>dehydration: If your child is not drinking enough, has frequent vomiting or diarrhea, appears weak or is urinating less than every 8 hours.</li><li>change in skin tone or colour: Children with cold clammy skin, blue lips, gray skin colour or purple blotches.</li><li>a rapidly spreading rash with or without severe pain or swelling: This can be a sign of iGAS infection in skin and muscle.</li><li>rapid progression of their symptoms even if they were recently assessed by a health-care provider and even if they were already started on an oral antibiotic.</li><li>fever that has lasted for 5 days: Children with persistent fevers should be assessed by a health-care provider during their illness, whereas children with weakened immune systems or infants under 3 months of age should be seen at the onset of fever.</li></ul><p>Symptoms include:</p><ul><li>fever</li><li>change in behaviour</li><li>irritability or confusion</li><li>thirst, dry mouth, reduced urination</li><li>faster breathing</li><li>change in skin colour</li><li>rapidly spreading rash</li><li>severe pains in the arms, legs, neck or back</li><li>rapid progression of symptoms</li></ul><h2>How can I protect my child?</h2><p>If your child has been exposed to someone with a strep infection and develops similar symptoms (skin infection, sore throat, rash or fever), take them to their regular health-care provider to get a throat swab. Inform their health-care provider they have been exposed to someone with strep. If diagnosed with a strep infection, make sure your child stays home for the first 24 hours after starting antibiotics to reduce transmission to others and completes the prescribed course of antibiotic.</p><p>Ensure that your child’s <a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=1986&language=English">vaccinations</a> are up to date against all preventable infections, including varicella (chicken pox) and influenza.</p><p>Practice regular hand washing to reduce the spread of respiratory viral infections that might precede iGAS.</p><h2>My child has been diagnosed with iGAS. Is the rest of my family safe?</h2><p>Your local public health unit will investigate any child diagnosed with iGAS and provide counselling regarding the risk of exposure to household members. In some cases, the public health practitioner will recommend prophylaxis (preventative) oral antibiotics for people who had close contact with the ill child to reduce the risk of infection from exposure to the bacteria.<br></p><p>Toronto Public Health. (August 2010). Invasive Group A Streptococcal Disease Fact Sheet. Retrieved from <a href="https://www.toronto.ca/community-people/health-wellness-care/diseases-medications-vaccines/invasive-group-a-streptococcal-disease-fact-sheet/">https://www.toronto.ca/community-people/health-wellness-care/diseases-medications-vaccines/invasive-group-a-streptococcal-disease-fact-sheet/</a></p><p>Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (June 27, 2022). Group A Streptococcal Disease. Retrieved from <a href="https://www.cdc.gov/groupastrep/diseases-public/index.html">https://www.cdc.gov/groupastrep/diseases-public/index.html</a></p> <br><p>Healthcare Excellence Canada (December 20, 2022). SIGNS: Spot Severe Illness in Infants, Children and Adolescents. Retrieved from <a href="https://www.healthcareexcellence.ca/media/s3bbk5nv/20221216_signsmaterialsqr_en.pdf">https://www.healthcareexcellence.ca/media/s3bbk5nv/20221216_signsmaterialsqr_en.pdf</a></p><br>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/iStock-1389745306.jpgInvasive group A streptococcal disease Learn about this serious infection that occurs when group A beta-hemolytic streptococci spread to other organs.Main
Ear infection (otitis media) in childrenEar infection (otitis media) in childrenEar infection (otitis media) in childrenEEnglishOtolaryngologyBaby (1-12 months);Toddler (13-24 months);Preschooler (2-4 years);School age child (5-8 years);Pre-teen (9-12 years)EarsNAConditions and diseasesCaregivers Adult (19+)Earache;Feverhttps://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/Ear_anatomy_V2_MED_ILL_EN.jpg2023-08-06T04:00:00Z8.4000000000000060.90000000000001529.00000000000Health (A-Z) - ConditionsHealth A-Z<p>Otitis media is a middle ear infection caused by a backup of fluid behind the eardrum. Learn the causes, symptoms, prevention and treatment of otitis media. </p><h2>What is otitis media?</h2><p>Otitis media is another name for an infection of the middle ear. The middle ear is the space behind the eardrum. It can become infected by bacteria or viruses. </p> <figure class="asset-c-80"> <span class="asset-image-title">Ear anatomy</span> <img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/Ear_anatomy_V2_MED_ILL_EN.jpg" alt="Identification of each of the parts in the outer, middle, and inner ear" /> <figcaption class="asset-image-caption">The ear has three sections: the outer ear, the middle ear and the inner ear. Each section is made up of smaller parts that work together to help you hear.</figcaption> </figure><h2>Key points</h2> <ul> <li>Otitis media is an infection of the middle ear. It is common in children, especially between the ages of six months and two years.</li> <li>The infection can occur because of bacteria or viruses.</li> <li>Give pain and fever medicine as needed. Wait and monitor your child before starting any antibiotics if they are usually healthy and aged over six months.</li> <li>You can prevent repeat middle ear infections by washing your hands and your child's toys, following routine vaccination schedules and protecting your child from second-hand smoke.</li> <li>See your health-care provider if your child has started an antibiotic and their symptoms do not ease after taking the antibiotic for 48 hours. Go to your nearest Emergency Department if your child's pain gets worse or your child is lethargic or vomiting.</li> </ul> <h2>Symptoms of otitis media</h2> <p>If a child develops otitis media, it usually happens after they have first had an upper respiratory tract infection such as a <a href="/Article?contentid=12&language=English">cold</a>. In children, the signs and symptoms of otitis media include:</p> <ul> <li><a href="/Article?contentid=30&language=English">fever</a></li> <li><a href="/Article?contentid=750&language=English">earache</a></li> <li>pulling or rubbing the ear</li> <li>crying</li> <li>not sleeping well</li> <li>fluid draining from the ear<br></li> </ul> <p>In some children, the eardrum develops a small perforation (hole) because of the pressure in the ear. The ear then drains a cloudy or yellow fluid. The hole usually heals within a week or so. Repeated ear infections and perforations can sometimes lead to scarring of the eardrum and longer-term hearing problems.</p><h2>Causes of otitis media</h2><p>The Eustachian tube connects the ear to the back of the throat and helps ventilate (air) and drain the middle ear. Otitis media occurs when mucus or swollen tissues from upper respiratory infections block the Eustachian tube. The blockage has two main results.</p><ul><li>It prevents the tube from ventilating the middle ear. This leads to changes in air pressure and possible pain, much like what occurs in an airplane during take-off or landing.</li><li>It causes fluid to build up in the ear and trap any viruses or bacteria that are already there. The fluid build-up can become infected and put pressure on the eardrum, which makes it bulge. This can be painful.<br></li></ul> <figure class="asset-c-80"> <span class="asset-image-title">Otitis media</span> <img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/IMD_otitis_media_EN.jpg" alt="Eardrum bulging outward due to fluid buildup in middle ear from swelling and mucus blocks in Eustachian tube" /> <figcaption class="asset-image-caption">In otitis media, the Eustachian tube is blocked. Fluid and pressure then build up in the middle ear. This makes the eardrum bulge outward and causes pain.</figcaption> </figure> <h2>Who is most at risk for otitis media?</h2><p>Otitis media is most common in children between the ages of six months and two years, but it can occur throughout childhood. Most children will have at least one ear infection. Some children will have many of them.</p><p>Children are at higher risk for middle ear infections because their Eustachian tubes are shorter and more likely to be blocked by <a href="/Article?contentid=831&language=English">enlarged adenoids</a>. However, as a child gets older, their ear structures change, and they grow out of the tendency to have ear infections.</p><h2>How your child's doctor diagnoses otitis media</h2> <p>Your child's doctor will need to examine your child to properly diagnose otitis media. They will look for any fluid in your child's ear and any change in the eardrum. The physical exam will also include a check of your child's neck and throat to see if there are any <a href="/Article?contentid=777&language=English">swollen lymph nodes</a>.</p><h2>How to care for your child with otitis media</h2> <h3>Pain and fever relief</h3> <p>Give your child <a href="/Article?contentid=62&language=English">acetaminophen</a> or <a href="/Article?contentid=153&language=English">ibuprofen</a> to help with any earache. These medicines usually begin to work within an hour. If your child needs an antibiotic (see below), continue giving pain relief until the antibiotic takes effect. The pain medicine will not affect the antibiotic.</p> <h3>Antibiotics</h3> <p>Because many ear infections are caused by viruses and not bacteria, the ear infections will resolve on their own. In fact, even some ear infections caused by bacteria will resolve without antibiotics. If the otitis media seems mild and your child is older than six months, your health-care provider may suggest avoiding antibiotics for one or two days to see if the infection goes away on its own.</p> <p>Your child's health-care provider is more likely to prescribe antibiotics if:</p> <ul> <li>the otitis media looks worse</li> <li>your child has a lot of pain or a high fever<br></li><li>your child's eardrum has perforated (burst)<br></li> </ul> <p>Your child's health-care provider may also prescribe <a href="/Article?contentid=99&language=English">antibiotic ear drops</a> if your child's eardrum has burst and is draining fluid.</p> <p>Antibiotics will kill the bacteria that have caused the ear infection. Although your child should feel better in a few days, you must continue to give the antibiotic until it is finished. This will keep the ear infection from returning and reduce the chance of your child getting an infection that is harder to treat with antibiotics in the future.<br></p><p>Whether your child is prescribed antibiotics or not, it is important to treat any pain or fever that they experience.<br></p> <h3>Day care and school</h3> <p>Your child can go back to day care or school when the fever is gone and they feel better. Otitis media does not pass from one person to another.</p> <h3>Other everyday activities</h3> <p>Your child can go outside and does not need to have their ears covered. If the eardrum has perforated (burst), your child should avoid swimming until it has healed.</p> <h3>Flying</h3> <p>Flying in an airplane with an ear infection can make an earache worse and increase the chance that the eardrum will burst. However, it does not carry any other risks. Even still, you may decide to avoid flying until symptoms pass.</p> <p>If flying is unavoidable, bring pain medicine with you on the plane. During take-off and landing, have your child suck on a pacifier (soother) or drink fluids. Swallowing often will help your child balance the pressure in their ears.</p> <h2>Follow-up appointment</h2> <p>Once your child finishes the antibiotic, you may want to make another appointment with their health-care provider. The health-care provider will make sure that your child no longer has symptoms and will check if any damage to the eardrum has healed.</p> <p>If there is fluid behind the eardrum, it can last for weeks or months. The fluid will normally clear on its own, but your child's health-care provider may wish to monitor your child so they can check for any hearing loss. They may refer your child for a hearing test if needed.</p><h2>How to prevent otitis media</h2><ul><li>Viral upper respiratory infections, including colds, can lead to otitis media. If possible, reducing your child's exposure to those with symptoms of a virus may help reduce the number of viral infections that they experience.<br></li><li> <a href="/Article?contentid=1981&language=English">Wash hands</a> and your child's toys often.</li><li>Ensure that your child is up to date with their vaccinations. Schedule your child's vaccinations (shots) when they are due. Vaccinations such as the flu shot for <a href="/article?contentid=763&language=english">influenza</a> and the pneumococcal vaccine that is part of the routine vaccination schedule offer protection against acute otitis media.</li><li>Protect your child from second-hand tobacco smoke. Exposure to tobacco smoke can increase the number of infections.</li><li>If you can, offer your child only breast milk for at least the first three months. The antibodies in breast milk may reduce the rate of ear infections and reduce the risk of acute otitis media for your baby during the first six to 12 months of life.</li><li>If you bottle-feed, avoid propping the bottle. This causes the baby to suck excessively and generate extra pressure within the Eustachian tube.</li><li>If your child has had otitis media, try phasing out the use of a pacifier (soother). Using a pacifier may increase the risk of repeated ear infections.</li><li>Consider seeing your doctor if your toddler snores or breathes through their mouth. This can be a sign of large adenoids, which increase the risk of ear infections. Your health-care provider can refer your child to a specialist to check their adenoids if necessary.</li></ul><h2>When to see a health-care provider about otitis media</h2><p>Call your child's health-care provider if:</p><ul><li>your child's fever or pain is not better after taking an antibiotic for 48 hours</li><li>fluid is always draining from their ear</li><li>you are concerned about your child's hearing<br></li></ul><p>Take your child to the nearest Emergency Department if:</p><ul><li>your child's neck gets painful or stiff</li><li>your child seems lethargic (sleepy) or very irritable (cranky)</li><li>your child is <a href="/article?contentid=746&language=english">vomiting​</a> (throwing up) repeatedly and cannot keep down their medicines or enough fluids</li><li>your child has redness and swelling behind their ear</li><li>your child's ear seems to stick out</li><li>your child develops a rash, a puffy face or puffy lips while taking the antibiotic</li></ul><p>Your child may show physical changes when their condition is serious or when their condition gets worse. Parents and caregivers can learn how to <a href="https://www.healthcareexcellence.ca/media/s3bbk5nv/20221216_signsmaterialsqr_en.pdf">spot these signs</a> in order to seek help from a health-care provider.</p><h2>Resources</h2><p>ECHO Research resources for parents — <a href="https://www.echokt.ca/ear-infection/">Ear infection</a></p>earinfectionearinfectionEar infectionMain
Influenza (flu): An overviewInfluenza (flu): An overviewInfluenza (flu): An overviewIEnglishInfectious DiseasesChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)BodyImmune systemConditions and diseasesCaregivers Adult (19+)Cough;Fever;Headache;Sore throat2020-09-30T04:00:00Z7.1000000000000070.10000000000001335.00000000000Health (A-Z) - ConditionsHealth A-Z<p>Although the flu is very common, it can be dangerous for some people including young children, the elderly, and those with compromised immune systems or other underlying diseases. Learn more about the flu and how to protect against it.</p><h2>What is influenza?</h2><p>Influenza (flu) is a lung infection caused by specific influenza viruses. People can get the flu at any time of year, but it is more common in the fall and winter. <br></p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>Influenza (flu) is not the same as the common cold. </li><li>Flu is caused by the influenza virus. </li><li>Most people who get the flu do not get seriously ill and will have symptoms for two to seven days. </li><li>You can reduce your risk of getting the flu by getting a flu shot each year and washing your hands frequently. </li><li>If your child has the flu they should stay home and rest. If they do not start to feel better after a few days or if symptoms get worse, call your child’s primary care provider. </li></ul><h2>Common symptoms of the flu</h2><p>People who get the flu usually have some or all of the following symptoms:</p><ul><li> <a href="/article?contentid=30&language=english">fever</a></li><li>muscle aches</li><li> <a href="/article?contentid=29&language=english">headache</a></li><li> <a href="/article?contentid=748&language=english">sore throat</a></li><li> <a href="/article?contentid=774&language=english">cough</a></li><li>fatigue and weakness</li></ul><p>Most of these symptoms usually last for two to seven days. Rare but serious complications of the flu include bacterial pneumonia and influenza infection of the brain. </p><h2>The flu can be serious for some people</h2><p>Most people who have the flu will not become seriously ill. But the flu can be more serious for some people. Typically, those most at risk are in one of the following groups:</p><ul><li>Children under two years of age</li><li>People 65 years of age or older</li><li>People living in long-term care facilities such as a nursing home, a home for the aged or a chronic care hospital </li><li>People with chronic heart, lung or kidney disease</li><li>People with diabetes, cancer, immune system problems or sickle cell anaemia</li><li>Children and teenagers aged six months to 18 years who have been treated with <a href="/article?contentid=77&language=english">acetylsalicylic acid (ASA)</a> for long periods </li><li>People who have trouble clearing mucus from their nose and throat because of weakness or underlying illness</li></ul><p>These groups, and anyone who lives or works with people from these groups, should generally be immunized each year with the flu vaccine (flu shot). That way, people from these high-risk groups are less likely to be infected with the flu. </p><h2>How the flu spreads</h2><p>The flu spreads very easily from an infected person to others through coughing and sneezing. It is also spread by touching objects after someone with the flu has touched them. </p><h2>Treating the flu</h2><p>If you or your child have the flu, stay home and rest. Usually, treatment is focused on the symptoms the person is feeling. For example, if your child has a fever, you can give them acetaminophen or ibuprofen to reduce fever. </p><p>For information on how to safely use acetaminophen or ibuprofen tablets by mouth for children please see this <a href="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/How_to_use_acetaminophen_or_Ibuprofen_tablets.pdf">information sheet</a>.</p> <p>Do not give <a href="/article?contentid=77&language=english">acetylsalicylic acid (ASA)</a> to a child under 16 years of age. Do not give cough medicines to children under six years of age. Always read the label before giving any medicine.</p><p>In addition to fluids and pain medicine, other ways to treat flu symptoms include:</p><ul><li>applying heat on painful areas for short periods of time using a hot water bottle or heating pad to reduce muscle pain</li><li>taking a warm bath</li><li>gargling with a glass of warm water</li><li>using saline drops or spray and suction to clear a stuffy nose</li><li>keeping your home smoke free</li></ul><p>Call your child’s primary care provider if the above measures do not relieve your child's flu symptoms and your child feels worse or if you are worried.</p><h2>If your child has the flu in the hospital </h2><p>Your child will be placed in a single room and will not be able to visit the playroom until they are feeling better. Ask the child life specialist to bring toys and supplies to your child’s room.</p><p>Hospital staff will be wearing a mask, eye protection, gloves and gowns when they visit.</p><p>Wash your hands often, either with alcohol-based hand rubs or soap and water, before and after touching your child and before leaving your child's room. Hospital staff should wash their hands as well.</p><p>If you or anyone else who has visited becomes ill with symptoms of the flu, let your child's doctor or nurse know. </p><h2>Preventing the flu</h2><p>To help prevent the flu, it is important that you and your child get a flu shot every year.</p><p>You should also <a href="/article?contentid=1981&language=english">wash your hands</a> well. This can help prevent you from catching or spreading the flu. This is very important in hospitals, but it is true in other places as well. </p><p>Clean surfaces in your house regularly, especially ones you touch often. These include doorknobs, fridge doors, light switches, phones and computers.</p><p>If you have the flu, you should do the following things to avoid spreading it.</p><ul><li>Always cover your mouth and nose with a tissue when you cough or sneeze. Throw away the tissue, then wash your hands. These steps will help prevent spreading the flu and other respiratory viruses. </li><li>Do not visit the hospital when you are sick with symptoms of the flu. No one who is sick should visit a patient in the hospital, even if they are a relative. </li></ul><h3>The flu shot </h3><p> <strong>Does the flu shot really work?</strong></p><div class="asset-video">https://www.youtube.com/embed/MOUbk315E40</div><p>For more videos from SickKids experts in collaboration with Youngster, visit <a href="https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCoKMd2cYwegtZX19uHdNLQA">Youngster on YouTube</a>.</p><p>The influenza vaccine (flu shot) is made from pieces of killed or live but weakened flu viruses. It contains three or four different types of flu viruses. A person who receives the flu shot develops immunity for the types of flu in the vaccine. Immunity means the body builds up protection against the virus. </p><p>The body needs about two weeks after the shot to build up protection against the virus. This protection lasts for about six months.</p><p>The flu shot will not protect against other viruses, such as viruses that cause the common cold. </p><p>For tips on how to make vaccinations as easy and pain-free as possible, please read the articles, <a href="/article?contentid=989&language=english">Needle pokes: Reducing pain in infants aged up to 18 months</a> and <a href="/article?contentid=990&language=english">Needle pokes: Reducing pain in children aged 18 months or over</a>.<br></p><h3>A flu shot every year </h3><p>People need a new flu shot every year. The flu virus changes each year, so a different vaccine has to be used each year too. Doctors and scientists find out the types of flu virus that are circulating around the world. The vaccine is then made to protect against the types that are most likely to occur each year.</p><h3>Most people can get a flu shot </h3><p>The flu shot is free to people living in Ontario. Anyone older than six months of age should have the flu shot unless there is a reason not to. The best time to get the flu shot is in the fall, before the flu becomes more common. Ask your child's primary care provider if your child can get the flu shot. </p><h3>The flu shot and COVID-19</h3><p>It is more important than ever to get a flu shot during <a href="/article?contentid=3872&language=english&hub=COVID-19">COVID-19</a>. Getting the flu shot can help to reduce unnecessary testing for COVID-19, since symptoms of both illnesses are similar. It is also important to reduce your and your child’s chances of getting the flu in order to avoid trips to the doctor’s office or hospital. This will help to make sure that doctor’s offices and hospitals are not overwhelmed with flu cases while also treating COVID-19 cases. </p><p>The flu shot will not protect against COVID-19, therefore it is still important to wear a mask, perform hand hygiene and maintain a physical distance of 2 metres from those who are not in your social circle.</p><h2>When to seek medical attention</h2><p>Go see a doctor or to hospital if your baby is less than three months old and:</p><ul><li>has a fever</li><li>has fast or difficult breathing</li><li>is vomiting or not feeding</li></ul><p>Go see a doctor if your child:</p><ul><li>is more sleepy than usual</li><li>is more fussy than usual</li><li>is not drinking enough fluids or has not peed at least every six hours when awake</li><li>is vomiting</li><li>is having chest or stomach pain</li><li>is not feeling better after five days or gets better but then suddenly gets worse</li></ul><p>Call 911 or go to the nearest emergency department immediately if your child:</p><ul><li>is breathing quickly, or seems to be working hard to breathe</li><li>is very weak, dizzy, hard to wake up or does not respond well</li><li>is very fussy or cannot be comforted</li><li>is limping or refusing to walk</li><li>has bluish or dark-coloured lips or skin</li><li>has a stiff neck, severe headache or a seizure</li><li>has a very fast heart rate, even when the fever is down</li></ul><p>If you have any concerns, call your doctor or your local public health agency. In Ontario, you can also call TeleHealth Ontario at 1-866-797-0000.</p><p>If you or your child is in a high-risk group, call your doctor right away when you get flu symptoms. There are specific anti-viral medicines available to help treat flu. These medicines must be started early in the illness to be effective. Contact your child's doctor for more information. </p><img alt="" src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/influenza_overview.jpg" style="BORDER:0px solid;" />fluhttps://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/influenza_overview.jpg This year, it is more important than ever to get a flu shot. Learn about the flu shot and COVID-19, symptoms of flu and flu prevention. Main
Viral respiratory infectionViral respiratory infectionViral respiratory infectionVEnglishRespiratoryChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)Trachea;LungsTrachea;LungsConditions and diseasesCaregivers Adult (19+)Cough;Fever;Runny nose;Sneezing;Sore throat2023-08-30T04:00:00Z9.6000000000000051.60000000000001037.00000000000Health (A-Z) - ConditionsHealth A-Z<p>Viral respiratory infection is a general term for lung and airway infections. Read about different viruses that can cause viral respiratory infections and treatment options.</p><h2>What is a viral respiratory infection?</h2><p>Viral respiratory infections include colds, the flu, <a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/article?contentid=765&language=english">bronchiolitis</a> and some types of lung infections (e.g., <a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=784&language=English">pneumonia</a>).</p><p>Respiratory means something that affects the lungs and airways (breathing passages). Viral respiratory infections may cause coughing, sneezing, runny noses, sore throats or fever. </p><p>Viral means something that is caused by a virus. Viruses that cause viral respiratory infections include respiratory syncytial viruses (RSV), influenza viruses, enteroviruses, parainfluenza viruses, adenoviruses, coronaviruses and rhinoviruses.</p><p>Viral respiratory infections are not caused by any of the following things, although the symptoms may be similar:</p><ul><li>bacteria, such as group A <em>Streptococcus</em> (strep) or pertussis </li><li>medicines</li><li>other medical conditions such as allergies or asthma</li></ul> <figure class="asset-c-80"> <span class="asset-image-title">Respiratory system</span> <img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/Respiratory_system_MED_ILL_EN.jpg" alt="Location of the lungs, trachea, bronchus, bronchioles and diaphragm in a child, with close-up of the bronchioles and alveoli" /> </figure><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>Viral respiratory infection is a name for several types of infections of the lungs and airways.</li><li>Viral respiratory infections are caused by many different viruses.</li><li>Viral respiratory infections spread through contact with mucus from the mouth or nose.</li><li>Viral respiratory infections can be a serious illness for infants and older adults and for anyone with chronic illnesses.</li><li>Good hygiene practices, including handwashing, covering the mouth and nose when coughing and masking, can help prevent the spread of viral respiratory infections.</li></ul><h2>Symptoms of a viral respiratory infection</h2><p>A person with a viral respiratory infection may have the following symptoms:</p><ul><li> <a href="https://akhpub.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=774&language=English">coughing</a></li><li>sneezing </li><li>runny nose </li><li> <a href="https://akhpub.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=748&language=English">sore throat</a></li><li> <a href="https://akhpub.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=30&language=English">fever</a></li><li><a href="https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NPQJRr7R1SU">trouble breathing</a><br></li></ul><p>The person may also have a <a href="/Article?contentid=29&language=English">headache</a> or sore muscles, or they may feel very tired.</p><p>In general, the symptoms start one to two days after the person catches the virus. They may last for one to 10 days, depending on which virus is causing the illness. </p><h2>Anyone can get a viral respiratory infection</h2><p>People of all ages and backgrounds can get a viral respiratory infection.</p><h2>A viral respiratory infection can be a serious illness for some people</h2><p>For most people, a viral respiratory infection is not a serious illness. People who get a viral respiratory infection almost always get completely well. They do not have any long-term problems.</p><p>For some people, though, a viral respiratory infection can be a serious illness. People who are more at risk from a viral respiratory infection include the following:</p><ul><li>babies</li><li>young children</li><li>people with an immune system problem or a chronic illness</li><li>people who cannot care for themselves well, such as the disabled or elderly</li></ul><p>These people may develop more serious complications, such as <a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=784&language=English">pneumonia</a> or <a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=776&language=English">dehydration</a>. They may get more severe symptoms than healthy people. People with severe symptoms may need to stay in the hospital for treatment to help with their breathing.<br></p><h2>How a viral respiratory infection is spread</h2><p>Most viral respiratory infections are spread by touching:</p><ul><li>mucus from the nose or mouth of a person who has the virus</li><li>soiled tissues or surfaces a person with the virus has touched </li><li>the unwashed hands of a person with the virus<br></li></ul><h2>Treating a viral respiratory infection</h2><p>To treat a viral respiratory infection in children and adults:</p><ul><li> Make sure the person gets plenty of rest.</li><li> If a baby has congestion in the nose, consider using a saline nasal wash and an <a href="https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0gQqI2gz0Z4">aspirator to suck the mucus out of their nose</a>. These products are available over-the-counter and may help your baby breathe more easily while they sleep. </li><li> Give the person lots of clear fluids to drink, such as water and apple juice. This will help make sure they do not get <a href="https://akhpub.aboutkidshealth.ca/article?contentid=776&language=English">dehydrated</a>.</li></ul><p>A health-care provider may prescribe medicine to help the infected person breathe more easily. The health-care provider will probably not prescribe antibiotics. Because viral respiratory infections are caused by viruses, antibiotics will not help treat the virus.</p><h2>If your child has a viral respiratory infection in the hospital</h2><p>Your child may be placed in a single room and will not be able to leave the room until they are feeling better.</p><p>Hospital staff will be wearing a mask, eye protection, gloves and a gown when they visit. Always wash your hands before and after touching your child and before leaving your child's room. Hospital staff should wash their hands as well.</p><p>If you or anyone else who has visited becomes ill with symptoms of a viral respiratory infection, let your child's health-care team know.</p><h2>Viral respiratory infections can be prevented with good hygiene and sometimes shots</h2><p>Good handwashing can help people from catching or spreading a viral respiratory infection. This is very important in hospitals, but it is true in other places as well.</p><p>To avoid spreading a viral respiratory infection, you should also do the following things:</p><ul><li>Always cover your mouth and nose with a tissue when you cough or sneeze. Throw away the tissue. Then wash your hands.</li><li>Do not visit the hospital when you are ill with symptoms of a viral respiratory infection. Ask other family members and friends to do the same.</li><li>Wearing a mask when you are ill or when you are in contact with someone who is ill can help prevent spreading the virus.</li></ul><h3>RSV shots</h3><p>Some premature or sick babies are at high risk from <a href="https://akhpub.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=764&language=English">RSV</a>. They can receive a series of shots that can help make the symptoms of RSV infection shorter and less severe.</p><h3>Flu shots and COVID-19 shots</h3> <p>While there are many viruses your child may be exposed to that cannot be prevented with a vaccination, there are two shots available that can protect your child. Flu shots and COVID shots are an effective way of preventing severe infections caused by <a href="https://akhpub.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=763&language=English">influenza (flu)</a> and <a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3937&language=English">COVID-19</a>. These shots change every season to provide the most updated and best protection for you and your child.</p>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/viral_respiratory_infection.jpgMain

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