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AllergiesAllergiesAllergiesAEnglishAllergyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)BodyImmune systemConditions and diseasesCaregivers Adult (19+)Cough;Eye discomfort and redness;Runny nose;Rash;Wheezing2021-03-23T04:00:00Z8.1000000000000060.80000000000001477.00000000000Health (A-Z) - ConditionsHealth A-Z<p>This page explains what allergies are, types of allergens, the signs and symptoms of allergies, and also the causes. It also gives examples of common allergies and what to do if your child has an allergic reaction. </p><h2>What is an allergy?</h2><p>The immune system protects us by attacking harmful substances such as viruses and bacteria. An allergy is the immune system’s response to a substance called an allergen.</p><p>The allergen is not harmful for most people. However, when a child has an allergy, the immune system treats the allergen as an invader and over-reacts to it. This results in symptoms from mild discomfort to severe distress.</p><p>Allergic disorders, including food allergies, are common in childhood. Many children with allergies also have asthma.<br></p><h2>Types of allergens</h2><h3>Common food allergens</h3><div class="akh-series"><div class="row"><div class="col-md-12"> <figure><img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/Common_food_allergens_EQUIP_ILL_EN.jpg" alt="Illustration of eggs, nuts, shellfish, fish and milk" /> </figure> <p>The most common food allergens include:</p><ul><li> <a href="/Article?contentid=809&language=English">peanuts</a></li><li> <a href="/Article?contentid=812&language=English">tree nuts</a> such as hazelnuts, walnuts, almonds, and cashews</li><li> <a href="/Article?contentid=806&language=English">eggs</a></li><li> <a href="/Article?contentid=808&language=English">cow's milk</a></li><li> <a href="/Article?contentid=813&language=English">wheat</a></li><li> <a href="/Article?contentid=805&language=English">soy</a></li><li> <a href="/Article?contentid=807&language=English">fish</a></li><li> <a href="/Article?contentid=810&language=English">shellfish</a></li></ul></div></div></div><p>Food allergens can also be hidden in common party dishes such as cookies, cakes, candies or other foods. Always ask the cook or the host if dishes contain foods your child is allergic to.</p><p>Far more people have a food intolerance than a food allergy. Unlike a food allergy, a food intolerance does not involve an immune reaction. Rather, it produces unpleasant symptoms as food is digested. These symptoms appear over a few hours rather than as soon as the food is swallowed or inhaled.</p><h3>Common airborne allergens</h3><p>Dust mites are common airborne allergens. These tiny bugs live in warm, damp, dusty places in your home and survive by eating dead skin cells. Their waste is a major cause of allergies and asthma.</p><div class="akh-series"><div class="row"><div class="col-md-12"> <figure><img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/Common_airborne_allergens_EQUIP_ILL_EN.jpg" alt="Illustration of moulds, dust mites, pollens, pet dander and cockroaches" /> </figure> <p>Other common airborne allergens include:</p><ul><li>pollen from trees, weeds and other plants</li><li>mould</li><li>pet dander (dead skin cells from pets)</li><li>cockroaches</li></ul></div></div></div><h3>Other common allergens</h3><ul><li> <a href="/Article?contentid=800&language=English">Insect bites or stings</a></li><li>Medicines</li></ul><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>An allergy is the immune system’s over-reaction to a substance that is generally not harmful to most people.</li><li>If you suspect that your child has an allergy, an allergist can do tests to find out exactly what is causing the allergy and discuss with you how to manage these allergies.</li><li>To reduce your child’s exposure to airborne allergens, have a pet-free home and remove carpeting.</li><li>To manage a food allergy, make sure your child avoids all foods they are allergic to, learns how to read food labels and ask about the ingredients in served food.</li><li>If your child has a severe allergy, tell their teachers and other caregivers.</li><li>If you suspect your child is having an anaphylactic reaction, give epinephrine (if available) and call 911. </li></ul><h2>Signs and symptoms of allergies</h2><p>Allergic reactions will vary from child to child and from allergen to allergen. Where you live can also affect the type and severity of the allergy.</p><h3>Symptoms for food allergens and insect bites or stings</h3><p>Your child’s response to a food allergy or insect bite will depend on how sensitive they are to that food or bug. Symptoms can include:</p><ul><li>itchy mouth and throat when food is swallowed</li><li>skin rashes, such as <a href="/Article?contentid=789&language=English">hives</a> (raised, red, itchy bumps)</li><li>sneezing</li><li>itchy, runny or stuffy nose</li><li> <a href="/Article?contentid=782&language=English">conjunctivitis</a> (red, swollen eyes) or itchy, watery eyes</li></ul><h3>Symptoms for airborne allergens</h3><p>Common symptoms with airborne allergens may include:</p><ul><li>sneezing</li><li>itchy nose or throat</li><li>stuffy or runny nose</li><li>red, itchy and/or watery eyes</li><li>headaches or plugged ears</li></ul><h3>Symptoms of severe allergic reactions</h3><p>Anaphylaxis is the most severe type of allergic reaction. Even exposure to small amounts of allergens can trigger anaphylaxis in some allergic children.</p><p>The signs and symptoms of anaphylaxis may include sudden onset of:</p><ul><li><a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=789&language=English">hives</a>, itching, redness of the skin</li><li>swollen eyes, lips, tongue or face</li><li>difficulty breathing, tightness of the throat or difficulty swallowing</li><li>abdominal (belly) pain, nausea, <a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=746&language=English">vomiting</a> or sudden onset of <a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=7&language=English">diarrhea</a></li><li>coughing</li><li>stuffy and/or runny nose, watery eyes, sneezing</li><li><a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=779&language=English">fainting</a>, confusion, lightheadedness or dizziness</li><li>rapid or irregular heartbeats</li><li>cold, clammy, sweaty skin</li><li>voice changes</li></ul><p>Anaphylaxis is a medical emergency and requires immediate medical care. Give <a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/article?contentid=130&language=English">epinephrine</a> (if available) and call an ambulance.</p><h2>What causes an allergic reaction?</h2><p>Allergens may come in contact with the skin or be breathed in, eaten or injected.</p><p>When the body detects an allergen, it sends a signal to the immune system to produce antibodies called immunoglobulin E (IgE). Those antibodies cause certain cells in the body to release chemicals called histamines. Histamines travel through the bloodstream to fight the invading substance or allergen.</p><p>Your child’s allergic reaction depends on which part of their body has been exposed to the allergen. Most commonly, allergic reactions affect the eyes, inside of the nose, throat, lungs or skin.<br></p><p></p><p></p><div class="asset-video"><iframe src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/psCQwkPLAV0"></iframe> <br></div> <p></p><h2>What your child's doctor can do for allergies</h2><p>If you suspect your child has an allergy, they should see an allergist. This is a doctor who specializes in diagnosing and treating allergies.</p><p>To identify your child's allergy, the allergist will usually:</p><ul><li>examine your child</li><li>ask for your child’s allergy history</li><li>ask for a description of your child’s allergic symptoms</li></ul><p>Your child might then have skin tests, blood tests, a chest X-ray, a lung function test or an exercise tolerance test. The allergist will explain these tests to you.</p><p>When the tests are done, the allergist will use the results to make a diagnosis. You and your child will meet the allergist at a later date to discuss them.</p><h3>How to prepare for an allergy test</h3><p>Your child may need to stop using certain medications for a period of time before an allergy test. These medications may include antihistamines. Always ask your doctor if your child should stop taking medications before the visit.</p><h2>Taking care of your child with an allergy at home</h2><p>If your child has a severe allergy, your doctor might give you a prescription for an epinephrine auto-injector such as an EpiPen or Allerject. Your doctor can show you how and when to use the auto-injector. You or your child may need to carry one at all times.</p><p>As much as possible, try to prevent allergic reactions by reducing your child's contact with the allergen(s). The steps you take depend on the substance to which your child is allergic. Discuss this with your child's doctor.</p><h2>How to prevent allergic reactions</h2><h3>Food allergens</h3><p>Your child must avoid all foods they are allergic to. Some children may outgrow their allergies, but others may have to avoid the allergen for life.</p><p>Avoiding a food allergen can be difficult. As a result, many children unintentionally eat food they are allergic to.</p><p>If your child has a food allergy, teach them to be aware of the foods to avoid and all the possible names of those foods. You and your child should learn to read labels on food packaging and ask questions about served food. Your child should also know why it is important to look for an allergen in ingredients.</p><p>It is also important to tell all caregivers about your child’s allergy and any foods or drinks your child must avoid.</p><h3>Airborne allergens</h3><ul><li>Have a pet-free home. Or if you have a pet, keep it out of the child’s room and bathe it regularly.</li><li>Remove carpets and rugs from the home, especially from your child’s bedroom. Hard floor surfaces do not collect dust as much as carpets do. If you have carpeting, you should try to vacuum at least once a week.</li><li>Reduce the relative humidity in the home.</li><li>Wash bedding in hot water. This will help reduce dust mites.</li><li>Control contact with outdoor pollen by closing windows in peak seasons. Use an air conditioning system with a small-particle filter.</li><li>Get rid of items in the home that collect dust. These include heavy drapes or old, unclean furniture.</li><li>Clean your home often. Change your home furnace filter regularly as recommended.</li><li>Seal pillows and mattresses if your child is allergic to dust mites.</li><li>Keep bathrooms and other mould-prone areas clean and dry.</li></ul><h2>When to get medical help for an allergic reaction</h2><p>Call 911 or take your child to the nearest emergency department if they have anaphylaxis. Signs and symptoms of anaphylaxis may include:</p><ul><li> <a href="/Article?contentid=789&language=English">hives</a>, itching, redness of the skin</li><li>swollen eyes, lips, tongue or face</li><li>difficulty breathing, tightness of the throat or difficulty swallowing</li><li>abdominal (belly) pain, nausea, vomiting or sudden onset of diarrhea</li><li>coughing</li><li>stuffy and/or runny nose, watery eyes, sneezing</li><li> <a href="/Article?contentid=779&language=English">fainting</a>, confusion, lightheadedness or dizziness</li><li>rapid or irregular heartbeats</li><li>cold, clammy, sweaty skin</li><li>voice changes</li></ul><p>Your child should go to the nearest emergency department even if they have received epinephrine, as the symptoms can start again after the epinephrine is given.</p><h2>​Virtual care services for children<br></h2><p>Boomerang Health was opened by SickKids to provide communities in Ontario with greater access to community-based services for children and adolescents. For more information on virtual care services in Ontario to support a child with allergies, visit <a href="http://www.boomeranghealth.com/services/allergy/">Boomerang Health</a> powered by SickKids.<br></p><img alt="" src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/allergies.jpg" style="BORDER:0px solid;" />allergiesallergieshttps://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/allergies.jpg Read about what allergies are, types of allergens, the signs and symptoms of allergies and how to respond to an allergic reaction.Main
Cleft lip and cleft palate: Spoon feeding and cup drinkingCleft lip and cleft palate: Spoon feeding and cup drinkingCleft lip and cleft palate: Spoon feeding and cup drinkingCEnglishPlasticsBaby (1-12 months);Toddler (13-24 months)MouthMouthNon-drug treatmentCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2020-06-16T04:00:00Z7.2000000000000070.20000000000001257.00000000000Health (A-Z) - ProcedureHealth A-Z<p>Introduce spoon feeding and cup drinking to your child with cleft lip and/or cleft palate.</p><p>Feeding should be an enjoyable time for both you and your baby. First get your baby used to spoon feeding. Once your baby is familiar with spoon feeding, you can introduce drinking from a cup. Your baby needs to be completely weaned from bottle drinking and using a cup before they can have surgery to fix their cleft palate. The cup your baby drinks from needs to be leaky and free flowing in order for them to get the liquid out of the spout.<br></p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>Feeding should be an enjoyable time for both you and your baby. </li><li>When spoon feeding, first introduce iron-rich foods to your child.</li><li>After your baby becomes familiar with spoon feeding, you can introduce drinking formula or breastmilk from a free-flowing cup. </li><li>Before the operation to repair a cleft palate, your baby needs to be completely weaned from bottle drinking and effectively drinking from a cup.</li><li>Introduce these new skills slowly and consistently. </li></ul><h2>Spoon feeding</h2><p>Choose a time of day when you have time to spend helping your child get used to the spoon. Try to relax and stay calm while introducing spoon feeding to your child. </p><p>Here are a few tips to follow when feeding your baby with a spoon:</p><ul><li>Place your baby in an upright, supported sitting position. Your baby will need more support if they are not yet sitting independently. </li><li>Use a small, flat spoon rather than a larger, deep spoon to make it easier for the mouth and upper lip. </li><li>Offer small tastes of the food to get your baby's attention. Your baby will show interest by having bright eyes, opening their mouth or leaning their head towards the spoon. </li></ul><p>Your baby needs to feel in control of each bite while gradually learning how to move new food textures around the cleft palate.</p><p>Progress at your baby's pace. Give your child time to taste the food and play with it.</p><h3>An open cleft can allow food to enter the nasal cavity</h3><p>An open cleft can allow poorly swallowed food to enter the nasal cavity and come out of your baby's nose. Your baby will likely sneeze to clear the nose if this happens. This is normal for babies with a cleft palate, and it is important to remain calm. Gently wipe their face and stay positive to keep feeding enjoyable. Your baby needs to learn how to move a new food texture past the cleft to prevent this from happening.</p><p>If your baby loses a lot through their nose, try giving smaller bites each time and go more slowly. Most children will learn this skill well with time. It is important to know that food in the nose can be uncomfortable but is not dangerous. As long as your child is gaining weight and growing appropriately, this is not a concern. </p><h3>Common foods you can give your child</h3><p>First introduce iron-rich foods, such as cereals or purees, to your child. Ask your primary care provider about other <a href="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/INM_NRC_track2-2_intro_to_food_pdf.pdf">foods of different tastes and textures</a> to give your baby. </p><p>These are some common iron-rich food you can give your child:</p><ul><li>puréed, minced, diced or cooked:</li><ul><li>meat</li><li>fish</li><li>chicken</li><li>tofu</li></ul><li>mashed beans, peas or lentils<br></li><li>eggs<br></li><li>iron-fortified infant cereal</li></ul><h3>Introduce one food at a time<br></h3><p>When introducing foods that are common food allergens (peanuts, tree nuts, eggs, shellfish, fish, milk, soy and wheat), it is best to offer no more than one new food per day. You can also wait a few days before you introduce another common food allergen. This makes it easier to identify a food that may have caused a reaction. Once your child is able to handle a number of foods well, you can start to mix the different types of foods that you offer. </p><p>Some foods may be irritating to the nasal passages. Citrus fruits and tomatoes have an acidic quality that can be more uncomfortable. Once your child gains more control in eating with their cleft palate, eating these types of foods will be easier. </p><h3>Finger feeding is okay</h3><p>Although it is messy, you can give your baby opportunities to explore food with their fingers to become familiar with food textures through hand-to-mouth experiences. These experiences are especially helpful if your baby refuses food from a spoon. </p><h2>Cup drinking</h2><p>Before the operation to repair a cleft palate, your baby needs to be completely weaned from bottle drinking and needs to be drinking from a cup. This is because after the palate repair, the bottle nipple can rub against the stitches and break down the repair. </p> <figure> <span class="asset-image-title">Silicone-topped sippy cup</span> <img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/pink_sippy_cup.jpg" alt="Pink sippy cup with clear, silicone spout" /> </figure> <figure> <span class="asset-image-title">360-degree style cup</span> <img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/360_cup.jpg" alt="Green sippy cup with flat, round top instead of a spout" /> </figure> <figure> <span class="asset-image-title">Hard-plastic cup with snap-on lid</span> <img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/Disposable_sippy_cup.jpg" alt="Disposable, plastic sippy cup with hard-plastic spout" /> </figure> <p>There is no specific cup for a child with a cleft palate. Several types of cups are available, including cups with lids, spouts, specialized flow spouts and handles. A lid can help prevent too much spillage. The lids come with or without spouts. Spouts can be soft (made out of silicone) or hard (made out of plastic). </p><p>Whatever cup a child with a cleft palate uses:</p><ul><li>It must be leaky and free flowing, with no suction needed to get liquid out. </li><li>The spout must be less than 1 inch (or 2.5 cm) long.</li></ul><h3>Helping your child use a cup</h3><p>When offering the cup, sit your baby on your lap or in an infant seat or highchair. Gently tip the cup to allow a controllable amount of liquid into your baby's mouth. They will likely sputter, cough and dribble, but do not worry. This reaction is common for all babies when learning to drink from a cup. If this continues to happen, you may want to try thickening the liquid slightly so it flows more slowly. You can do this by mixing strained fruits or vegetables with the fluids you are offering your child.</p><p>Choose a particular meal or snack when you will consistently give liquid from a cup, then always offer the cup during this chosen meal.</p><h3>Weaning from the bottle to a cup</h3><p>The hardest times to wean a child are typically from the first bottle in the morning and the last bottle before the child goes to sleep. You should choose a meal time that is mid-morning or mid-afternoon because these are the easiest to maintain. Use a liquid your baby likes and is familiar with. For example, if your child is drinking formula from a bottle, then offer this formula from a cup.</p><p>If your child becomes upset or is pulling away from the cup at first, give a short break, then try again. Do not offer the bottle immediately after your child becomes upset when the cup is offered because they will quickly learn that if they refuse the cup, you will provide the bottle instead.</p><p>Once your child is comfortable using a cup and shows they can drink the same amount of fluid as they would from a bottle, you can begin replacing one bottle feeding with cup drinking. You can then work on a second meal time to offer the cup.</p><p>Introduce this new skill slowly. Be supportive, persistent and consistent while your child gradually learns this new skill.</p><p>Please contact your occupational therapist if you have any questions or concerns.</p><h2>References</h2><p>Caring for Kids. (January 2020). Feeding your baby in the first year. Canadian Paediatric Society (CPS). Retrieved from: <a href="https://www.caringforkids.cps.ca/handouts/feeding_your_baby_in_the_first_year">https://www.caringforkids.cps.ca/handouts/feeding_your_baby_in_the_first_year</a></p><p>American Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Association (ACPA). Family Resources. ACPA Family Services. Retrieved from: <a href="https://cleftline.org/family-resources/">https://cleftline.org/family-resources/</a></p>clpfeedingclpfeedinghttps://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/cleft_lip_and_palate_spoon_feeding.jpgEating with a cleft lip and palate Find tips for introducing spoon feeding and cup drinking to your child with cleft lip and/or cleft palate and making the experience enjoyable.Main
FaintingFaintingFaintingFEnglishNAToddler (13-24 months);Preschooler (2-4 years);School age child (5-8 years);Pre-teen (9-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)BodyCardiovascular systemConditions and diseasesCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2019-07-22T04:00:00Z7.5000000000000066.7000000000000501.000000000000Health (A-Z) - ConditionsHealth A-Z<p>Discover the signs and symptoms of fainting, what causes it and how to help your child if they have fainted.</p><p>Fainting, also called syncope, happens when a person suddenly loses consciousness and then rapidly returns to normal.</p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>Fainting is a sudden and temporary loss of consciousness with a rapid return to normal.</li><li>Your child may feel dizzy, nauseous, hot or cold right before they faint. Their face may also go pale.</li><li>The most common cause of fainting is a drop in blood pressure. Other, more serious, causes include an underlying heart condition, low blood sugar or a seizure.</li><li>See your child's doctor to discuss the possible cause of any fainting episode. Call 911 if your child has stopped breathing or does not “come around” shortly after fainting.​​</li></ul><h2>Signs and symptoms of fainting</h2> <p>Right before fainting, your child might:</p> <ul> <li>feel dizzy or light headed</li> <li>feel weak</li> <li>see dark spots</li> <li>hear muffled sounds</li> <li>feel nauseous (want to <a href="/Article?contentid=746&language=English">vomit​</a>)</li> <li>feel hot</li> <li>feel cold and clammy</li> <li>become pale</li> <li>start to sweat</li> </ul><h2>Causes of fainting</h2><p>Fainting can happen for a number of reasons. The most common cause of fainting is a temporary slowing of the heart rate and a drop in blood pressure. This type of fainting is called a “vagal” or “vasovagal” episode.</p><p>A child is more likely to have a drop in blood pressure if they:</p><ul><li>are <a href="/Article?contentid=776&language=English">dehydrated</a> (from excessive sweating, diarrhea or vomiting)</li><li>have not been eating</li><li>have been standing still for a long time</li><li>are unwell</li></ul><h2>Other common causes of fainting</h2><p>A child might also faint if they</p><ul><li>are frightened</li><li>are in severe pain</li><li>stand up too fast</li></ul><p>Fainting may be more likely in a closed setting or one that is hot and humid. It may also happen in response to a stimulus that is noxious (unpleasant or potentially harmful), such as a very bad smell or the sight of blood or a needle.</p><h2>Conditions that appear similar to fainting<br></h2><p>There are some conditions that make it appear that a child is fainting when something else is wrong. These mimics of fainting include:</p><ul><li>an underlying heart condition or heart rhythm disturbance</li><li>exposure to a medication, toxin or drug</li><li> <a href="/Article?contentid=1726&language=English">hypoglycemia</a> (low blood sugar)<br></li><li> <a href="/Article?contentid=781&language=English">anaphylaxis</a> (allergic reaction)</li><li> <a href="/article?contentid=2057&language=English">seizures</a></li><li>migraine <a href="/Article?contentid=29&language=English">headaches​</a></li><li>hyperventilation</li><li>panic attacks<br></li></ul><p>Fainting during exercise or exertion (carrying or pushing something heavy) can be a sign of an underlying condition and should be discussed with your child's doctor.</p><h2>How to help your child if they have fainted</h2> <ul> <li>Check to make sure your child is breathing. If necessary, call 911.</li> <li>Keep your child lying down or, if possible, sit them forward with their head between their knees.</li> <li>Loosen any tight clothing around your child's neck.</li> <li>Make an appointment with your child's doctor and explain exactly what happened.</li> </ul><h2>When to see a doctor</h2> <p>See your child's doctor to identify the cause of a fainting episode.</p> <p>Call 911 right away if your child:</p> <ul> <li>has stopped breathing</li> <li>does not quickly become alert after fainting<br></li> <li>has changes in their speech, vision or ability to move</li> </ul>faintingfaintinghttps://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/fainting.jpg Discover the signs and symptoms of fainting, what causes it and how to help your child if they have fainted.Main
Needle pokes: Reducing pain in children aged 18 months or overNeedle pokes: Reducing pain in children aged 18 months or overNeedle pokes: Reducing pain in children aged 18 months or overNEnglishPain/AnaesthesiaToddler (13-24 months);Preschooler (2-4 years);School age child (5-8 years);Pre-teen (9-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)BodyNervous systemNon-drug treatmentCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2018-12-18T05:00:00Z7.5000000000000071.9000000000000696.000000000000Health (A-Z) - ProcedureHealth A-Z<p>Find out how to reduce the pain of needle pokes in children aged 18 months or over.<br></p><p>Your child might need a needle poke to receive a vaccine, have blood work or receive fluids intravenously (through an IV) during a hospital visit. All these procedures are important for protecting or helping to treat your child, but they can cause pain. This can be stressful for both children and parents.</p><p>You can use a number of methods to help reduce the pain and anxiety associated with needle pokes. These include numbing cream, distractions and comfort positions.</p><div class="asset-video"> <iframe src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/TGGDLhmqH8I?rel=0" frameborder="0"></iframe> </div><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>Needle pokes (such as vaccines, blood work and IV starts) can cause pain, which can be stressful both for children and parents.</li><li>There are methods you can use to help reduce your child’s pain and distress during needle pokes.</li><li>Before the procedure you can use a topical anaesthetic and distract your child.</li><li>During the procedure, you can hold your child, rub your child's skin and stay calm.<br></li></ul><h2>During the needle poke</h2><h3>Hold your child</h3><p> <a href="/Article?contentid=3629&language=English">Holding your child</a> comfortably in your lap helps to calm them during their needle pokes and encourages them to stay still.</p><h3>Rub your child's skin</h3><p>Rub your child's arm before, during and after the needle poke. As you rub an area of the arm away from the injection site, the feeling of touch from your hand competes with the pain your child experiences from the needle. This will help reduce your child's perception of pain.</p><h3>Stay calm</h3><p>If you are feeling anxious before and during your child’s needle poke, your child is likely to pick up on it and feel anxious themselves. Even though you may be nervous about the procedure, try your best to remain calm. Use your normal speaking voice and take slow, deep breaths.</p><p>For more detailed information on these suggestions, especially for vaccinations, please download the fact sheet <a href="https://immunize.ca/sites/default/files/Resource%20and%20Product%20Uploads%20%28PDFs%29/Products%20and%20Resources/Pain%20Management/Parents/painreduction_under3_web_e.pdf" target="_blank"><em>Reduce the pain of vaccination in children under 3 years</em></a> or <a href="https://immunize.ca/sites/default/files/Resource%20and%20Product%20Uploads%20%28PDFs%29/Products%20and%20Resources/Pain%20Management/Parents/painreduction_kidsandteens_web_e.pdf" target="_blank"><em>Reduce the pain of vaccination in kids and teens</em>.</a><br></p><h2>Planning ahead</h2><h3>Talk to your doctor</h3><p>Discuss your plan to ease your child's pain with your child’s healthcare team so they can support you.</p><h3>Talk to your child</h3><p>If your child is aged four years or older, talk to them about the needle poke ahead of time in language they can easily understand.</p><ul><li>Tell your child what is going to happen, for example, “The doctor is going to use a needle to give you a vaccine in your arm."</li><li>Explain why your child needs the needle poke, for instance, “The vaccine will protect you from getting sick."</li><li>Describe how the needle poke will feel, for example, “It might feel like a little pinch."</li><li>Say what will be done to manage your child’s pain, for instance, "We’ll play a game so you don’t notice the needle poke much."</li></ul><h2>Before the needle poke</h2><h3>Numbing cream</h3><p>You can help reduce the pain of needle pokes by applying a topical anaesthetic (<a href="/Article?contentid=3627&language=English">numbing cream</a> or gel) to the area where your child will receive their vaccine. In Canada, numbing creams are available over the counter.</p><ul><li>Discuss this option with your child’s team in advance.</li><li>Make sure your child is not allergic to any ingredients in the numbing cream or gel.</li><li>Apply the numbing cream or gel 30 to 60 minutes before the needle poke, according to the specific product's instructions. Once it is applied, the cream lasts up to three hours.</li></ul><h3>Distract your child</h3><p>Use items such as favourite toys, mobile devices or bubbles to help <a href="/Article?contentid=3629&language=English">distract your child</a> during needle pokes. You can also sing, talk or tell jokes to distract them from any pain they might be experiencing.</p><p>Your healthcare team can also offer you items from a <a href="/Article?contentid=1258&language=English">comfort kit</a> to help distract your child. Ask your healthcare provider about the kit before your appointment.</p><h2>Further information</h2><p>​For more information about the Comfort Promise bundle of options to reduce the pain of needle pokes, please see the following pages:</p><p><a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=989&language=English">Needle pokes: Reducing pain in infants aged up to 18 months</a><br></p><p><a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=1258&language=English">Pain relief: Comfort kit</a><br></p><p><a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3627&language=English">Needle pokes: Reducing pain with numbing cream</a><br></p><p><a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3628&language=English">Needle pokes: Reducing pain with sucrose or breastfeeding</a></p><p><a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3629&language=English">Needle pokes: Reducing pain with comfort positions and distraction</a><br></p><img alt="" src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/pain_free_injections_children.jpg" style="BORDER:0px solid;" />https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/pain_free_injections_children.jpgStrategies when getting a needle Discover the CARD system, which offers strategies your child or teen can use to cope with the pain and fear associated with vaccination.Mainhttps://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/CARD_Vaccination_Poster.pdf
Poison ivyPoison ivyPoison ivyPEnglishDermatologyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)SkinSkinConditions and diseasesCaregivers Adult (19+)Rash2014-05-21T04:00:00Z6.1000000000000075.8000000000000801.000000000000Health (A-Z) - ConditionsHealth A-Z<p>Learn how to recognize a poison ivy plant, prevent rashes and how to treat the rash if your child is exposed.</p><p>Poison ivy is a plant that grows at sea level in moist shady regions east of the Mississippi River. It can cause a rash when it makes contact with the skin (contact dermatitis). The rash occurs when the skin reacts to substances in the oily sap (called urushiol) in the plant's roots, stems and leaves.<br></p><h2>What does the poison ivy plant look like?<br></h2><p>Poison ivy usually grows up large tree trunks as a shrub or as a vine.</p><ul><li>Each leaf has three leaflets that can be either shiny, smooth and hairless, or rough, hairy and velvety.</li><li>The leaves are reddish in the spring, green in the summer and yellow, orange or red in the fall.</li><li>The plant may have yellow-green flowers, or green or off-white berries.</li></ul> <figure class="asset-c-80"> <span class="asset-image-title">Poison ivy</span><img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/Poison_ivy_seasons_EQUIP_ILL_EN.png" alt="Poison ivy with green leaves in summer, green and red leaves in spring, and a mix of green, yellow and red leaves in fall" /></figure><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>Poison ivy is a plant that can cause a rash when it makes contact with the skin.<br></li><li>Each leaf has three leaflets that can be shiny, smooth and hairless, or rough, hairy and velvety.</li><li>The rash is caused by oily sap in the plant's roots, stems and leaves.<br></li><li>To prevent poison ivy rash, stay away from the plant and wear protective clothing. A helpful rule for avoiding poison ivy is "leaves of three, leave them be".</li><li>Wash exposed skin and clothing thoroughly. This may help to prevent a reaction.</li><li>The rash should go away after a few weeks. Mild rashes can be treated with antihistamines. Very severe rashes might require steroids.</li><li>See your doctor if your child develops a <a href="/article?contentid=30&language=English">fever</a> or if the area around the rash becomes redder or swollen or has a milky discharge.</li></ul><h2>Signs and symptoms of a poison ivy rash</h2><p>The symptoms of a poison ivy rash may include:</p><ul><li>redness</li><li>extreme itching</li><li> <a href="/Article?contentid=789&language=English">hives</a></li><li>swelling</li><li>small or large blisters, often forming a line or streak</li><li>crusting skin</li></ul><p>The typical rash can last from one to three weeks.<br></p><p>The rash usually occurs on skin surfaces that are exposed directly to poison ivy. People can also be exposed to poison ivy's oily sap through indirect contact, including:</p><ul><li>scratching or rubbing, which moves the sap to other skin areas</li><li>contact with clothing, a pet, tools, sports equipment or other things that may have come into contact with the plant.</li></ul><p>If poison ivy is burned, the sap can cling to smoke particles and become airborne. This can cause reactions involving the skin, the eyes or the <a href="https://pie.med.utoronto.ca/htbw/module.html?module=lung-child">lungs</a>.</p><h2>How to treat a poison ivy rash</h2><h3>Mild rash</h3><ul><li>Place cool cloths on your child's skin.</li><li>Have your child take cool showers or lukewarm baths.</li><li>Give your child an antihistamine.</li></ul><p>Try not to let your child scratch. This can cause infection and scarring and may spread the sap to other parts of the body. If the rash is very severe, your child may need to take steroid medication by mouth.</p><p>Reactions may vary from person to person. Some people may not react to poison ivy at all, while others may have a very severe reaction.</p><h3>Signs of a serious reaction to poison ivy<br></h3><p>Your child has a serious reaction if:</p><ul><li>nothing helps to ease the itch</li><li>the skin around the rash seems to be infected</li><li>they develop a <a href="/article?contentid=30&language=English">fever</a></li><li>the rash appears on their eyelids, lips, face or genitals</li><li>their face swells</li></ul><h2>How to prevent a poison ivy rash</h2> <p>The best way to prevent a rash is to avoid contact with the plant by learning to recognize it. A helpful rule for avoiding poison ivy is "leaves of three, leave them be".</p> <h3>What to do if your child cannot avoid an area where poison ivy may be present</h3> <ul> <li>Apply a product to their skin that helps prevent the skin from absorbing the plant's sap. These products are available over the counter and usually contain bentoquatam.</li> <li>Have your child wear clothing such as pants, long sleeves, boots and gloves when they are around poison ivy. Depending on your child's age, help them or remind them to remove exposed clothing carefully.</li> </ul> <p>Poison ivy sap can remain active for a long time. For this reason, use hot, soapy water to wash your child's clothing, shoes and anything else that may have made contact with the plant.</p> <p>If your child touches poison ivy, it is possible to prevent a rash by:</p> <ul> <li>washing their skin well with warm water and soap</li> <li>washing everything that may have sap on it.</li> </ul><h2>When to see a doctor</h2><p>See a doctor if your child:</p><ul><li>develops a <a href="/Article?contentid=801&language=English">skin infection</a> (increasing redness, swelling, pain or a milky discharge from the irritated areas)</li><li>is not responding to any of the treatments for a mild rash.</li></ul><p>Take your child to your nearest hospital emergency department right away if they are having trouble breathing or swallowing.</p><img alt="" src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/poison_ivy.jpg" style="BORDER:0px solid;" />poisonivypoisonivyhttps://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/poison_ivy.jpg Learn how to recognize a poison ivy plant, prevent rashes and how to treat the rash if your child is exposed. 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How to become more resilientHow to become more resilientHow to become more resilientHEnglishAdolescent;Psychiatry;PreventionTeen (13-18 years)NANAHealthy living and preventionTeen (13-18 years)NA2019-03-22T04:00:00Z7.7000000000000066.5000000000000631.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Find out what mindfulness is, how it can help you to build resilience and lower your stress levels, and different methods to practise mindfulness everyday.</p><h2>Learn about mindfulness</h2><p>Mindfulness involves paying attention, on purpose, with kindness. Think about it as the opposite of multi-tasking. Instead of switching between lots of things, you’re paying full attention to and being completely aware of what you’re doing from one moment to the next. Mindfulness can be seen as a way of life.<br></p><p>Mindfulness, including both formal and informal meditation, is linked to lower stress levels, more even moods, better memory and concentration and a stronger immune system. </p><div class="call-out"><div class="asset-video"> <iframe src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/QTsUEOUaWpY?rel=0" frameborder="0"></iframe> <span class="vid-title"> <strong>Everyday mindfulness</strong></span></div><p> <strong>How to use:</strong> This video explains what everyday mindfulness is, and how being aware of what is going on around you and inside of you can help make life more enjoyable and less stressful.</p></div><h3>Formal mindfulness</h3><p>This involves choosing something to pay attention to, for example your breath. Then, when you get distracted, you may notice where your attention went and bring it back to your breath (or whatever you had been focusing on before). </p><p>Distractions will happen; everybody gets distracted. The distractions might be thoughts, emotions or physical sensations in your body. </p><p>But noticing when you are distracted can be a good thing. It means you were paying attention! Gently and with kindness, you can then bring your attention back to your breath. </p><p>It is important not to be too hard on yourself. Mindfulness may sound simple but that doesn’t mean it is easy. Being kind to yourself is just as important as practising focusing your attention. </p><div class="call-out"><div class="asset-video vid-small"> <iframe src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/xcO8IIeV12M?rel=0" frameborder="0"></iframe><span class="vid-title">Mindfulness of thoughts</span><span class="vid-type">audio</span></div><p> <strong>How to use:</strong> This audio meditation helps you slow down the thoughts in your mind and meditate on them. Use this practice when you are feeling distracted with too many thoughts in your mind. You may stand, sit or lie down to follow along. Try to find a comfortable position that will not require you to move around.</p></div><h3>Informal mindfulness</h3><p>This involves paying total attention to activities you do in your everyday life, like eating or brushing your teeth. </p><p>Consider informal mindfulness an open awareness of the thoughts, feelings, memories or physical sensations that come up while you’re doing everyday things. It is important to do this with kindness and allow yourself to notice whatever surfaces without criticizing yourself.</p><p>Everybody has judgments throughout the day, but try to notice them and be kind to yourself when they are there. Remember, having various thoughts, feelings or sensations doesn’t mean you have to act on them.</p><h2>Take care of yourself</h2><p>Create a list of things that help you feel relaxed and be sure to do them regularly. These can be things like meditating, taking a bath, taking deep breaths, listening to relaxing music or getting a massage. It doesn’t matter what you do as long as it is something that you enjoy and that makes you feel calm.</p><h2>Remember how you have coped in the past</h2><p>When the going gets tough, remember the hurdles you have overcome or accomplishments you have already made. How did you do it? What skills and strategies helped you? Thinking back on how you have succeeded in the past can help you use the same skills in the future.</p><div class="call-out"><div class="asset-video"> <iframe src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/0QXmmP4psbA?rel=0" frameborder="0"></iframe> <span class="vid-title"> <strong>You are not your thoughts</strong></span></div><p> <strong>How to use:</strong> This video explains some of the things you can try when you feel overwhelmed by your thoughts. After the video, take a few moments to observe your thoughts with curiosity, paying attention to how each one makes you feel. Paying attention to your thoughts and sorting through them takes practice and patience.</p></div><div id="ymhp-animation" class="asset-animation asset-cv-animation"> <iframe src="https://teens.aboutkidshealth.ca/Style%20Library/AKH/animations/YMHP-UnhelpfulThoughts/MentalHealth-UnhelpfulThoughts.html"></iframe>  <br></div><h2>Practise daily gratitude</h2><p>When people are feeling stressed out or struggling with physical, emotional or social issues, it can be hard to be thankful.</p><p>But try to pick a time of day and think of three things that you have been thankful or grateful for from the previous 24 hours. Be as detailed and specific as you can. You can pick something seemingly small, like finding money in an old coat pocket, catching the bus just in time or having someone hold a door for you.<br></p><h2>Stay in touch with friends and take time to thank others</h2><p>If you haven’t spoken to someone in a while, contact them. Take the time to think of someone who has been helpful to you every day and let them know. This can be in an email, a text or a chat in person. Staying connected with friends and showing them gratitude can do a lot to support your own resilience.</p><p>Remember that resilience is a way of life. Practising these skills and strategies is something you do every day, not just when you are feeling stressed or having a hard time. When you practise them on neutral or good days, you will find it easier to use them on the hard days.</p><div class="call-out"><div class="asset-video"> <iframe src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/cFCiUlFKuO4?rel=0" frameborder="0"></iframe><span class="vid-title"><strong>Two wings to fly</strong></span></div><p> <strong>How to use:</strong> This video explains the value of balancing mindfulness and compassion. Use it to help you respond to change and other unwanted experiences. Mindfulness helps you find opportunities to understand your situation more clearly. Compassion helps you respond with kindness and less judgment. After you watch the video, think about how you can practise mindfulness and show compassion towards yourself and others.</p></div><p>For more information on mindfulness, check out the <a href="http://www.sickkids.ca/patient-family-resources/child-family-centred-care/spiritual-care/the-mindfulness-project/index.html">SickKids Mindfulness Project</a> website.</p>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/how_to_become_more_resilient.jpgYou are not your thoughts It can sometimes feel as if we are swimming in a sea of our own thoughts. Learn some strategies to try when thoughts become overwhelming.Teens
Safe outdoor mealsSafe outdoor mealsSafe outdoor mealsSEnglishPreventionChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)NANAHealthy living and preventionCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2014-06-11T04:00:00Z7.5000000000000067.9000000000000731.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Follow these tips for safe and tasty outdoor meals during the summer months.</p><p>On a hot summer day, there are few things nicer than a picnic or barbecue. Both offer a great opportunity to get outside, enjoy healthy foods in season and spend time with family and friends.<br></p><p>To make sure your dining experience is remembered for fun rather than food poisoning, follow these tips for tasty and safe summertime meals.</p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>Wash hands carefully before and after handling food.</li><li>Keep raw meat, seafood and poultry separate from other food.</li><li>Use a food thermometer to check the internal temperature of barbecued meat.</li> <li>For picnics, bring plenty of water and balance treats with whole grains, vegetables and fruit, and lean protein choices.</li><li>Wash vegetables and fruit before packing them and use cold packs or coolers to keep food and drinks cool.</li></ul><h2>Barbecues</h2> <p>Barbecuing is a fun and easy way to prepare, cook and eat as a family. It is a healthy cooking option, allowing for a variety of lean grilling choices.</p> <p>While many people associate barbecues with hamburgers and hot dogs, there are many more options to throw on the grill. Why not try chicken breasts, pork tenderloin, turkey breast, sirloin steak or vegetable kebabs? <a href="/Article?contentid=1965&language=English">Firm tofu</a> or fish can also work well on the grill. If you are grilling meat, trim the fat and use flavourful, homemade marinades to keep your choices lean, tender and delicious.</p> <h3>Tips for safe sizzling</h3> <ul> <li><a href="/article?contentid=1981&language=English">Wash hands</a> with warm water and soap for at least 20 seconds before and after handling food.</li> <li>Use separate serving dishes, cutting boards and utensils for raw and cooked meat. Use a clean plate when taking food off of the barbeque.</li> <li>Keep raw meat, poultry or seafood away from other foods.</li> <li>If barbecuing at home, wash counter tops and cooking utensils with hot soapy water to make sure that juices from raw meat do not contaminate other foods.</li> <li>Eat charred or blackened meat and fish only now and then.</li> <li>Marinate meat to reduce the number of potentially harmful compounds in blackened meat. If you use a sauce or marinade on raw meat, do not re-use the sauce with cooked meat.</li> <li>Cook ground meats fully to remove harmful bacteria. Colour is not a reliable sign that meat is safe to eat. Use a food thermometer to accurately check that the internal temperature is at least 71°C (160°F) for ground beef and at least 74°C (165°F) for ground chicken. Visit Health Canada for details of the <a target="_blank" href="http://www.healthycanadians.gc.ca/eating-nutrition/safety-salubrite/cook-temperatures-cuisson-tbl-eng.php">safe internal cooking temperatures</a> for other meats.</li> <li>Supervise children well. Barbecues reach extremely high temperatures and pose a <a href="/article?contentid=1116&language=English">burn</a> risk. Ensure your children are at a safe distance away.</li> </ul> <h2>Picnics</h2> <p>A trip to the park — or even your back yard — can be a fun way to spend time as a family. But just as important as the blanket and sunscreen are the food and drink you will pack. Eating well gives you and your kids energy to enjoy an active afternoon together.</p> <p>Some people might be tempted by the convenience of packaged snacks such as crackers or chips when planning an outdoor meal. However, there are ways to include fun, easy and healthy options without resorting to a hamper of convenience foods.</p> <h3>Preparing and storing picnic meals</h3> <ul> <li>Balance treats or "sometimes foods", such as chips or cookies, with whole grains, vegetables and fruit, and lean protein choices. Try pita sandwiches filled with turkey and vegetables, a bean or whole wheat pasta salad, vegetables and dip, or cut-up fruit.</li> <li>Do not forget to bring water to keep everyone hydrated. It is easy to become <a href="/Article?contentid=776&language=english">dehydrated</a> in the summer and park water stations are not always working or readily available.</li> <li>Always wash your hands or use hand sanitizer before eating.</li> <li>Always wash vegetables and fruit before you pack them.</li> <li>Keep raw meat away from other food to prevent cross-contamination. Do not open raw meat packages more than you need to.</li> <li>Use ice or cold packs to keep food that goes bad cold.</li> <li>If using a cooler, fill it up — a full cooler stays colder than one that is partly filled. Keep the cooler out of direct sunlight and avoid opening it too often. Consider using one cooler for food and another for drinks. The food cooler will not be opened as often as the drink cooler, which means the food will stay colder for longer.</li> </ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/safe_outdoor_meals.jpg Find tips for safe and tasty outdoor meals during the summer months to prepare for your next barbecue or picnic.Main
Self-care after leukemia treatmentSelf-care after leukemia treatmentSelf-care after leukemia treatmentSEnglishOncologyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)BodySkeletal systemConditions and diseases;Healthy living and preventionAdult (19+)NA2018-03-06T05:00:00Z10.400000000000051.8000000000000415.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p> Learn why it is important for a child who has had leukemia to be aware of their medical history and ways you can encourage them to be an active participant in their own health.</p><p>As your child gets older, they become more independent. As they mature, they need to be aware of their own medical history and the potential late effects caused by their leukemia treatment. This will be important, as they will need to continue follow-up care for the rest of their life. Becoming literate about their medical history is essential for their long-term health, as is learning the important steps needed to manage their health care. Your child can use ‘My Health Passport,’ a customized, wallet-size card that describes all of their medical information. For more information, visit the <a href="http://www.sickkids.ca/good2go/">Good 2 Go</a> website. </p><h2> Key points </h2> <ul><li>As your child grows up, they will need to know their medical history as they will require follow-up care for the rest of their life.</li> <li>Encourage your teen to make healthy lifestyle choices and meet with their doctor on their own.</li></ul><h2>How can you encourage responsibility for self-care?</h2> <p>Teens may find it challenging to make the best choices for their self-care. This may be particularly true for teens that are not knowledgeable about their medical history. They may not take some of their prescription drugs during follow-up when or how they should, or not observing any physical activity restrictions recommended by their health care team.</p> <p>Encourage your teen to make healthy lifestyle choices, such as:</p> <ul><li>good nutrition; following Canada’s Food Guide</li> <li>sun protection</li> <li>avoiding smoking</li> <li>avoiding alcohol and drugs</li> <li> regular exercise.</li></ul> <p>Talk to your child’s doctor or hospital dietitian for more suggestions. Involve your child early in decision-making and encourage them to express worries or concerns they may have about their health. </p> <p>As your child matures, it is important for them to be an active participant in their health. Encourage them to meet with their doctor on their own. As an adult, they may see many different specialists (cardiologists, endocrinologists). Your child needs to inform all specialists of their medical history.</p> <p>When needed, involve a health professional with expertise in understanding teen issues, such as a social worker, psychologist, or specialist in adolescent medicine. Some of these individuals may be affiliated with the hospital's oncology department. This is especially important if your child seems to be having troubling coping at school or you have seen a change in their behaviour, sleep habits, or appetite. </p>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/Self-care_after_leukemia_treatment.jpg Learn ways to encourage a child who has had leukemia to be aware of their medical history and to be an active participant in their own health.Main
Urinary tract infectionUrinary tract infectionUrinary tract infectionUEnglishUrologyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)UrethraUrethraConditions and diseasesCaregivers Adult (19+)Fever;Vomiting2021-01-18T05:00:00Z10.100000000000051.9000000000000996.000000000000Health (A-Z) - ConditionsHealth A-Z<p>Learn how a urinary tract infection affects the bladder and kidneys and how it can be treated. </p><h2>What is a urinary tract infection?</h2><p>A urinary tract infection (UTI) is an infection of the <a href="https://pie.med.utoronto.ca/htbw/module.html?module=kidney-child">bladder or the kidneys</a>.</p><ul><li>A bladder infection is called cystitis.</li><li>A kidney infection is called pyelonephritis.</li></ul><h2>Key points</h2> <ul> <li>UTIs occur when bacteria enter the bladder through the urethra.</li> <li>A urinary tract infection is diagnosed if there is a positive culture test.</li> <li>Antibiotics will treat the infection.</li> <li>If your child is aged under two years and has their first febrile UTI, they will need an ultrasound to look for kidney problems or severe urinary reflux.</li> <li>If your child has had one febrile UTI, they should be assessed for a possible UTI during an unexplained fever.</li> </ul><h2>Symptoms of a urinary tract infection</h2><p>Symptoms of a urinary tract infection may include:</p><ul><li> <a href="/article?contentid=30&language=english">fever</a></li><li>unexplained fussiness in a baby or young child</li><li>needing to urinate (pee) more often</li><li>pain or burning with urination</li><li>wetting during the day in a toilet-trained child</li><li> <a href="/article?contentid=746&language=english">vomiting</a> or abdominal (belly) pain</li><li>back pain</li><li>blood in the urine</li></ul><h2>Causes of urinary tract infections</h2><p>UTIs occur when bacteria from the skin enter the bladder through the urethra (the tube that allows urine to leave the body from the bladder).</p> <figure class="asset-c-80"> <span class="asset-image-title">Urinary system</span> <img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/IMD_urinary_system_V2_EN.png" alt="Location of kidney, ureter, bladder and urethra in a male and in a female" /> <figcaption class="asset-image-caption">The male and female urinary system are very similar, however the urethra in males is much longer than in females.</figcaption> </figure><h2>How urinary tract infections are diagnosed</h2><p>Your child’s doctor will diagnose a UTI through testing a sample of your child’s urine. Diagnosis involves three steps:</p><ul><li>testing the sample of urine with a dipstick</li><li>studying the sample under a microscope</li><li>growing a culture (bacteria) of the sample in a laboratory</li></ul><h3>Urine sample</h3><p>In toilet-trained children, the urine sample should be taken mid-stream. In children who are not toilet-trained, the urine sample can be collected by a “clean catch”, a catheter (tube) or, sometimes, a urine bag.</p><h3>Results of urine test</h3><p>The doctor will consider the results of the dipstick test and the culture test. If the urine sample has been collected properly, a “positive” culture confirms a urinary tract infection. A “negative” culture confirms that there is no infection.</p><p>The final results of the urine culture test are usually ready in two or three days. The results will show which specific bacteria caused the infection and guide which antibiotics will treat them.</p><p>If a child’s urine has been collected in a urine bag and there is a positive result from a dipstick test, your child’s doctor should collect another urine sample by clean catch or a catheter and send it for further testing.</p><h2>How to care for a child with a urinary tract infection</h2><h3>Antibiotics</h3><p>Depending on your child’s age, symptoms and medical history, they may require either oral <a href="/article?contentid=1120&language=english">antibiotics</a> (antibiotics by mouth) or admission to hospital for intravenous antibiotics (antibiotics given into the vein).</p><p>Your child’s doctor will first prescribe a broad-spectrum antibiotic (one that can treat most bacteria). Once the doctor knows the bacteria that have caused the urinary tract infection, they will prescribe a more specific antibiotic if necessary. Your child will only get better when they take the correct antibiotic for their infection.</p><p>Your child’s symptoms should improve within 48 hours of starting the correct antibiotic. Even so, continue to give the antibiotic to your child until it is finished. Finishing the antibiotic prevents the infection from returning and reduces the chance that your child will get an infection that is harder to treat with antibiotics in the future.</p><h3>Pain and fever relief</h3><p>Give your child <a href="/article?contentid=62&language=english">acetaminophen</a> or <a href="/article?contentid=153&language=english">ibuprofen</a> to help with any <a href="/pain">pain</a> or fever. These medicines usually begin to work within an hour and do not interfere with antibiotics. You may need to give them during the first few days of treatment until the antibiotic starts to take effect.</p><h3>Follow-up appointment</h3><p>After your child starts antibiotics, make an appointment to see your child’s regular doctor. They can check how well the antibiotic is working and prescribe a different one if your child is still sick.</p><h3>Other tests for children under two years</h3><p>If your child has their first urinary tract infection with fever (known as a febrile UTI) before they turn two, they should have an <a href="/article?contentid=1290&language=english">ultrasound</a> of their kidneys.</p><p>They may also need to have a test called a <a href="/article?contentid=1294&language=english">voiding cystourethrogram (VCUG)</a> to look for urinary reflux, a condition that causes the urine to flow backwards from the bladder to the ureters and kidneys. Whether they have this test depends on the results of the ultrasound and on whether they are young and have had more than one febrile UTI (a UTI with a fever).</p><h2>How to prevent a urinary tract infection</h2><p>Most UTIs in young children are unavoidable. In an older child, you can help prevent a UTI by following the steps below.</p><ul><li>Teach your daughter to wipe from front to back after peeing. This is important after a bowel movement, as it helps to prevent bacteria in the stool from entering the urinary tract.</li><li>Prevent your child from becoming constipated. <a href="/article?contentid=6&language=english">Constipation</a> means having bowel movements that are harder or less frequent than normal. It can sometimes prevent the bladder from emptying completely, leading to UTIs.</li><li>Encourage your child to drink plenty of liquids every day. Your child’s urine should be pale.</li><li>Encourage your child to pee every two or three hours and not hold the pee for long periods.</li><li>Some children with severe urinary reflux or other urinary tract abnormalities may need to take a low-dose antibiotic every day to prevent new infections.</li></ul><h2>When to see a doctor about a UTI</h2> <p>Call your child’s doctor during office hours if your child’s symptoms last more than 48 hours after starting an antibiotic.</p> <p>Take your child to the nearest emergency department, or call 911, if your child:</p> <ul> <li>starts acting very sick or seems lethargic (very sleepy)</li> <li>complains of severe abdominal or back pain</li> <li>is vomiting (throwing up) repeatedly and cannot keep down any fluids or medicines.</li> </ul><img alt="" src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/Urinary_tract_infection.jpg" style="BORDER:0px solid;" />utiutihttps://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/Urinary_tract_infection.jpg Learn how a urinary tract infection affects the bladder and kidneys, how it is diagnosed and how it can be treated.Main

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