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COVID-19 vaccine information for children (ages five to 11)COVID-19 vaccine information for children (ages five to 11)COVID-19 vaccine information for children (ages five to 11)CEnglishInfectious DiseasesChild (0-12 years)NANADrug treatmentAdult (19+) CaregiversNAhttps://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/iStock-1278968456.jpg2022-04-22T04:00:00ZFlat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Learn about the status of the COVID-19 vaccine for children five to 11 years of age and the benefits of getting the vaccine for children.</p><h2>What is the status of COVID-19 vaccines for children in Canada?</h2><p>In November 2021, Health Canada approved the use of the Pfizer vaccine for children five to 11 years of age.</p><p>In March 2022, Health Canada approved the use of the Moderna vaccine in children six to 11 years of age.</p><p>NOTE: For ages six months to four years, clinical trial results are expected in spring 2022. The full results are expected to be submitted to Health Canada sometime in 2022, after which the full Health Canada review process will take place.</p><p>Looking for general information on COVID-19 vaccines. Visit the page on <a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3937&language=English&hub=COVID-19">COVID-19 vaccines general information</a>.</p><p>Looking for information specific to youth age 12+? Visit the page on <a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=4000&language=English&hub=COVID-19">COVID-19 vaccine information for youth (ages 12+)</a>.</p> <br> <h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>Vaccines against COVID-19 have been shown to be safe and effective against the disease.</li><li>The Pfizer vaccine has been approved for use in children five to 11 years of age and the Moderna vaccine has been approved for children six to 11 years of age.</li><li>Canada’s National Advisory Committee on Immunization (NACI) advises that the Pfizer vaccine is preferred for this age group and that the Moderna vaccine may be offered as an alternative.</li><li>Children get a smaller dose of the vaccine. They will still need to get two doses.</li><li>Side effects in children are similar to those seen in adults and older children.</li></ul><h2>What evidence is there that the vaccine is safe and effective for children?</h2><p>Over 3,000 children aged five to 11 received the vaccine through the Pfizer clinical trial and no serious side effects have been detected in the ongoing study after many months of follow-up. The vaccine was shown to be 91 per cent effective against symptomatic COVID-19 with mild side effects like those seen in adults and older children. These side effects include arm tenderness, fatigue, headache, muscle pain, joint pain, chills and fever, which can also be seen with other vaccines recommended for children. Rare side-effects that have been seen in older teens and young adults are expected to be extremely rare in children. Read about the <a href="https://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMoa2116298">clinical trial results in the New England Journal of Medicine</a>.</p><p>In the Moderna trial in children aged six to 11, over 3,000 children received the vaccine and preliminary data did not report any safety concerns. Side-effects included injection site pain, headaches, tiredness, fever and muscle pain. The study showed that children had similar immune responses to adults aged 18 to 25 years old after receiving the vaccine, and an estimated efficacy against symptomatic COVID-19 of 88 per cent 14 days after the first dose. Read about the preliminary results from this study in the <a href="https://covid-vaccine.canada.ca/info/regulatory-decision-summary-detail.html?linkID=RDS00928">Health Canada Regulatory Decision Summary</a> and the <a href="https://www.canada.ca/content/dam/phac-aspc/documents/services/immunization/national-advisory-committee-on-immunization-naci/statement-recommendations-use-moderna-spikevax-covid-19-vaccine.pdf">National Advisory Committee on Immunization Recommendation on the use of Moderna Spikevax</a>.</p><h2>Why should children get vaccinated if they do not get sick from COVID-19?</h2><p>Although severe illness due to acute COVID-19 infection is less frequent in children compared to adults, children can still be hospitalized and even require ICU-level care due to COVID-19.</p><p>A proportion of children who contract COVID-19 may go on to develop multisystem inflammatory syndrome (MIS-C). While treatable and rare, approximately one in three children hospitalized with MIS-C will require ICU care. A study in the U.S. conducted in 2021 showed that the vaccine was highly effective at preventing the development of this serious condition in vaccinated youth (aged 12 to 18). The study showed that among the youth who were hospitalized with MIS-C, the vast majority were unvaccinated. This data bodes well for the prevention of MIS-C in vaccinated children aged five to 11 for which confirmatory studies are underway.</p><p>While long COVID rates are expected to be lower in children compared with adults, the full spectrum of manifestations of long COVID in children is still being determined.</p><h2>How can anyone be sure a vaccine developed so quickly is also safe?</h2><p>Work on coronavirus vaccines has been ongoing for more than 10 years, due in part to the SARS-CoV-1 outbreak in 2003. It was important to develop the COVID-19 vaccine quickly because of how many people were dying and getting sick, and because of the disruptions to everyday life as a result of the pandemic. Even though the vaccines were developed quickly, all the usual steps for the approval of vaccines occurred, including clinical trials with the appropriate number of participants. Because of the large amount of resources that were made available to develop a COVID-19 vaccine and the large number of COVID-19 cases the clinical trials were able to happen quickly. This made it easier to tell quickly whether or not the vaccines worked to prevent cases of COVID-19. The vaccine was rapidly shown to be effective in protecting against COVID-19.</p><h2>Do children under 12 need one vaccination or two? Is a different vaccine dose used in younger children?</h2><p>Children aged five to 11 receive a two-dose schedule of a smaller Pfizer vaccine dose than the one used in people 12 and older (10 µg instead of 30µg). The National Advisory Committee on Immunization recommends that the second dose should be given at least eight weeks after the first dose. Children who turn 12 before their second dose may receive an adult dose.</p><p>Children aged six to 11 receive a smaller Moderna vaccine dose (50µg instead of 100µg), four to eight weeks apart.</p><h2>My child is turning 12 years old in 2022. Now that a vaccine is approved for children under 12 years of age, should I wait to vaccinate my child when they are 12 years old and eligible for the adult dose?</h2><p>The first COVID-19 vaccine that is available for your child will be the best vaccine to get, as it will provide protection against COVID-19 to your child as soon as possible. Vaccine doses are based on age and the maturity of the immune system. The clinical trials showed the paediatric dose given to children aged five to 11 (a third of the dose given to people aged 12 and up), was effective and also resulted in fewer side-effects.</p><h2>If my child is turning five in 2022, do they have to wait until their birthday to get vaccinated?</h2><p>Yes. At this time, children must have turned five years of age to be eligible to receive the paediatric dose of the COVID-19 vaccine that is approved for children aged five to 11. Clinical trials for children under five are currently underway.</p><h2>What if my child’s weight is above average in their age group?</h2><p>Vaccine doses are based on age and the maturity of the immune system, not weight. The clinical trials showed the paediatric dose given to children aged five to 11 (a third of the dose given to people aged 12 and up), was effective and also resulted in fewer side-effects.</p><h2>How are COVID-19 cases trending among children?</h2><p>The virus causing COVID-19 continues to circulate and can lead to hospitalization in all age groups, especially in people who are not vaccinated. Vaccination helps protect children from developing severe illness and hospitalization from COVID-19 and its complications. Further, children who develop COVID-19 can pass the virus on to other people, including vulnerable adults such as grandparents or immunocompromised individuals.</p><h2>Can vaccination improve the physical and mental health of children?</h2><p> <a href="https://www.sickkids.ca/en/news/archive/2021/research-covid-19-pandemic-impact-child-youth-mental-physical-health/">SickKids-led research</a> has shown a serious, sustained negative impact on the mental health of Ontario children, youth and their families due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Before the pandemic, a study showed that about 60 per cent of participants engaged in school sports and/or other extracurricular activities. During the pandemic, only 27 per cent participated in sports and 16 per cent in extracurriculars. These activities are known to boost physical and mental health. Vaccination will help return children to their regular activities and thus help improve the mental health and psychosocial well-being of children.</p><h2>My child is afraid of needles. What can I do to help?</h2><p>Some children have a very strong reaction to needles. If your child is worried about getting a needle, you can ask for special ways to support their vaccination, such as a longer appointment time or a private space for the injection. The CARD system (Comfort, Ask, Relax, Distract) may also help. It provides groups of strategies to reduce the pain, stress and worries associated with vaccinations to make the experience a more positive one. More information can be found at <a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/card">AboutKidsHealth.ca/card</a>. For children worried about pain, there are numbing creams and patches available at many pharmacies to help minimize needle discomfort.</p><h2>What can I do for my child who is sensory-sensitive?</h2><p>Sensory-sensitive vaccination clinics use some of the CARD strategies listed above to offer a calmer environment for each child, giving them as much time as they need and their own room to get the vaccine. Some clinics also offer sensory-sensitive appointments, offering dimmed lights, less noise and a slower pace, as well as privacy.</p><h2>Can the COVID-19 vaccine affect puberty or fertility in children?</h2><p>There is no evidence and no scientific reason to believe that the COVID-19 vaccine can affect puberty and fertility in children. Clinical trials of those who have been vaccinated in the general population have shown that the vaccine is very safe.</p><h2>What are the vaccine’s side-effects in children under 12?</h2><p>Clinical trial data show that the Pfizer vaccine is well-tolerated in children aged five to 11 years old, with side-effects generally comparable to side-effects your child may have experienced after other childhood vaccinations. These may include feeling tired, chills, muscle aches and pains, and a sore or red arm. The majority of children had very mild side-effects or none at all. Typically these side-effects will go away after a few days and there are no long-term side-effects reported.</p><h2>What about reports of vaccine side-effects like myocarditis and pericarditis in younger people?</h2><p>Myocarditis (inflammation of the heart muscle) and pericarditis (inflammation of the heart’s outer lining) are rare and mostly seen in older adolescents and young adults. Both are extremely rare in relation to the COVID-19 vaccine. There were no reports of myocarditis or pericarditis in the Pfizer clinical trial for children five to 11 years old. More than 10 million children in Canada and the U.S. have received the vaccine with very few reports of these conditions, which are generally mild and benign. Myocarditis and pericarditis actually occur far more often after COVID-19 infection than after being vaccinated against COVID-19. Myocarditis and pericarditis occurring after COVID-19 vaccination is a generally mild and benign condition. There are multiple surveillance mechanisms in place in order to monitor any potential post-vaccination risk of these conditions over time.</p><p>The National Advisory Committee on Immunization (NACI) recommends that the Pfizer vaccine should be preferred over the Moderna vaccine for children aged five to 11. Although the risk of myocarditis or pericarditis with the Moderna in children 6 to 11 years of age is currently unknown, the risk was found to be higher in older individuals than with the Pfizer vaccine.</p><p>Additional information about <a href="https://uwaterloo.ca/pharmacy/sites/ca.pharmacy/files/uploads/files/myocarditis_and_pericarditis_after_covid-19_vaccines.pdf">myocarditis and pericarditis after COVID-19 vaccination</a> is available in this article from the University of Waterloo.</p><h2>Is vaccination safe for children with food allergies?</h2><p>Yes. There is no reason a child with a food allergy of any kind should not be vaccinated. Children with a history of allergy to foods, oral drugs, insect venom or environmental allergies can receive COVID-19 vaccines without any special precautions. If you are concerned about the possibility of an allergic reaction to any of the <a href="https://www.canada.ca/en/health-canada/services/drugs-health-products/covid19-industry/drugs-vaccines-treatments/vaccines/pfizer-biontech.html#a4">vaccine ingredients</a>, please consult your child’s primary health-care provider.</p><h2>Does the vaccine work against the Omicron variant?</h2><p>The Omicron variant is known to be much more transmissible than previous strains of COVID-19, but vaccination still protects against serious illness and hospitalization. The more people who are vaccinated against COVID-19, the more we can protect ourselves and prevent new variants from emerging and spreading in the community.</p><h2>Is the Omicron variant of COVID-19 causing more severe illness than previous strains?</h2><p>Studies are ongoing with respect to the severity of COVID-19 in children and youth due to the Omicron variant. However, most children and youth who have COVID-19 experience mild illness and do not require hospitalization. Those who are hospitalized typically require support for fever, dehydration and breathing difficulties. The increase in hospitalizations of COVID-positive patients is likely the result of widespread community transmission of COVID-19 due to the Omicron variant. While rare, some children and youth can get seriously ill after contracting COVID-19 and this is something we are monitoring closely.</p><h2>How effective is one dose of the vaccine against COVID-19?</h2><p>The COVID-19 vaccine is currently a two-dose series for children aged five to 11. While one dose provides partial protection in young individuals, it takes both doses to be considered fully vaccinated and optimize the protection provided by vaccination.</p><h2>Does the rapid spread of the Omicron variant mean children should receive their two vaccine doses at an interval shorter than the eight weeks recommended when it was approved in Canada?</h2><p>The National Advisory Committee on Immunization (NACI) currently recommends an eight-week interval, but parents may choose to vaccinate their children at a shorter interval (minimum 21 days) if they provide informed consent. If you are considering vaccinating your child at a shorter interval because of an underlying health condition or other reason, please discuss the matter with your child’s primary health-care provider. See <a href="https://www.canada.ca/content/dam/phac-aspc/documents/services/immunization/national-advisory-committee-on-immunization-naci/updated-recommendations-use-covid-19-vaccines-children-5-11-years-age.pdf">NACI’s updated recommendations on the use of COVID-19 vaccines in children 5 to 11 years of age</a>.</p><h2>Is there advice you would give to families with children who are immunocompromised or have disabilities and medical complexity?</h2><p>Vaccination remains the best layer of protection against COVID-19 for everyone. It is important your child receives the vaccinations for which they are eligible. In Ontario, certain immunocompromised populations, including children aged five to 11, are eligible for a primary series of three doses. Read more about <a href="https://www.health.gov.on.ca/en/pro/programs/publichealth/coronavirus/docs/vaccine/COVID-19_vaccine_third_dose_recommendations.pdf">Ontario’s third-dose recommendations</a>. You can also talk to your child’s doctor or book an appointment with the <a href="https://www.sickkids.ca/en/care-services/support-services/covid-19-vaccine-consult/">SickKids COVID-19 Vaccine Consult Service</a>.</p><h2>What is the current evidence for vaccination for COVID-19 in children with disabilities and medical complexity?</h2><p>Current evidence suggests that children with disabilities and medical complexity may be at an increased risk for severe illness or complications from COVID-19 based on their underlying condition making vaccination and prevention of COVID-19 especially important. The Pfizer COVID-19 vaccine is safe and effective for children with a wide variety of different medical conditions and complexities. Unexpected or severe side-effects to the vaccine are very rare. If you have specific questions about your child’s medical condition and the COVID-19 vaccine, talk with your child’s doctor or book an appointment with the <a href="https://www.sickkids.ca/en/care-services/support-services/covid-19-vaccine-consult/">SickKids COVID-19 Vaccine Consult Service</a>.</p><h2>What special considerations are there when vaccinating children with disabilities and medical complexity? Where can family caregivers find additional resources?</h2><p>Families should consider different strategies that have worked well with previous immunizations and create a plan to set their child up for success. Some questions to consider when scheduling your child’s vaccination appointment include:</p><ul><li>Does my child require a calmer environment? (i.e., privacy, quiet)</li><li>If applicable, is the vaccination clinic wheelchair accessible?</li><li>Which distraction techniques are typically most effective for my child (i.e., deep breathing, counting, watching a favourite video, stress balls)</li><li>What position will be most comfortable for my child during their vaccination (i.e., comfort holding, sitting with a caregiver, lying down)</li></ul><p>If family caregivers have questions related to vaccinating children with disabilities and medical complexity, you should first reach out to your child’s primary care physician. For additional questions after speaking with your child’s physician, you can book an appointment with the <a href="https://www.sickkids.ca/en/care-services/support-services/covid-19-vaccine-consult/">SickKids COVID-19 Vaccine Consult Service</a>.</p><h2>Why do immunocompromised children benefit from additional vaccine doses?</h2><p>Similar to adults and with any other vaccine, the immune response to COVID-19 vaccines in children who are immunocompromised is not as strong as in people who are not immunocompromised. Therefore, they require additional vaccine doses to achieve appropriate protection. As immunocompromised people are at higher risk of complications and severe outcomes when infected with COVID-19, they are eligible for a higher number of doses and are strongly recommended to receive them all to maximize protection from COVID-19.</p><h2>Due to an underlying health condition, my child is at increased risk from side effects following any treatment or vaccination. What options are available to address this specific concern for my child?</h2><p>If you have specific concerns of this nature, it’s always best to speak with your primary health-care provider. Another option is to make an appointment with the <a href="https://www.sickkids.ca/en/care-services/support-services/covid-19-vaccine-consult">SickKids COVID-19 Vaccine Consult Service</a> to speak with a SickKids nurse. Additionally, if your child requires additional support or specialized care when receiving the COVID-19 vaccine, please email vaccine.consults@sickkids.ca and include the following information in your message: </p><ul><li>Name</li><li>Date of birth</li><li>Telephone number</li><li>Describe the considerations or accommodations that need to be in place for the patient</li></ul><h2>Should I be concerned that if my child takes an mRNA vaccine it could impact their eligibility for future specialized treatments for their condition?</h2><p>No. The vaccine will have no impact on future specialized treatments.<br></p><h2>I cannot decide if vaccinating my child is the right thing to do. Who can I talk to?</h2><p>Contact your child’s primary care provider or the SickKids COVID-19 Vaccine Consult Service, a by-appointment phone service for Ontario residents that provides a safe, judgment-free space to have an open conversation about the COVID-19 vaccine with a paediatric registered nurse. Book an appointment online at <a href="https://www.sickkids.ca/en/care-services/support-services/covid-19-vaccine-consult/">sickkids.ca/vaccineconsult</a> or by calling 1-888-304-6558.</p><p>For general information on COVID-19, please visit the <a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/covid-19">COVID-19 learning hub</a>.</p><h2>Information on how to prepare and support your child with their COVID-19 vaccine</h2><p>CARD System Learning Hub<br><a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/card">https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/card</a></p><p>Needle pokes: Reducing pain in children aged 18 months or over<br><a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=990&language=English">https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=990&language=English</a></p><p>Needle pokes: Reducing pain with comfort positions and distraction<br><a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3629&language=English">https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3629&language=English</a></p><p>Needle pokes: Reducing pain with numbing cream<br><a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3627&language=English">https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3627&language=English</a></p><p>Pain relief: Comfort kit<br><a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=1258&language=English">https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=1258&language=English</a></p><h2>References</h2><p>Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2021, February 26). COVID-19 Vaccination. Retrieved from <a href="https://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/covid-19/index.html">https://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/covid-19/index.html</a></p><p>Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2021, March 8). Science Brief: Background Rationale and Evidence for Public Health Recommendations for Fully Vaccinated People. Retrieved from <a href="https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/more/fully-vaccinated-people.html">https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/more/fully-vaccinated-people.html</a></p><p>Government of Ontario – Ministry of Health. (2020, March 31). COVID-19 vaccines for Ontario. Retrieved from <a href="https://covid-19.ontario.ca/covid-19-vaccines-ontario">https://covid-19.ontario.ca/covid-19-vaccines-ontario</a></p><p>Health Canada. (2021, October 18). Health Canada receives submission from Pfizer-BioNTech to authorize the use of Comirnaty COVID-19 vaccine in children 5 to 11 years of age. Retrieved from <a href="https://www.canada.ca/en/health-canada/news/2021/10/health-canada-receives-submission-from-pfizer-biontech-to-authorize-the-use-of-comirnaty-covid-19-vaccine-in-children-5-to-11-years-of-age.html">https://www.canada.ca/en/health-canada/news/2021/10/health-canada-receives-submission-from-pfizer-biontech-to-authorize-the-use-of-comirnaty-covid-19-vaccine-in-children-5-to-11-years-of-age.html</a></p><p>ImmunizeBC. (2021, March 12). COVID-19 Vaccine Frequently Asked Questions. Retrieved from <a href="https://immunizebc.ca/covid-19-vaccine-frequently-asked-questions">https://immunizebc.ca/covid-19-vaccine-frequently-asked-questions</a></p><p>ImmunizeCanada. (2021, February 18). COVID-19 Info. Retrieved from <a href="https://immunize.ca/covid-19-info">https://immunize.ca/covid-19-info</a></p><p>National Advisory Committee on Immunization. (2021, May 5). Recommendations on the use of COVID-19 vaccines. Retrieved from <a href="https://www.canada.ca/content/dam/phac-aspc/documents/services/immunization/national-advisory-committee-on-immunization-naci/recommendations-use-covid-19-vaccines/recommendations-use-covid-19-vaccines-en.pdf">https://www.canada.ca/content/dam/phac-aspc/documents/services/immunization/national-advisory-committee-on-immunization-naci/recommendations-use-covid-19-vaccines/recommendations-use-covid-19-vaccines-en.pdf</a></p><p>Pfizer. (2021, September 20). Pfizer and BioNTech Announce Positive Topline Results from Pivotal Trial of COVID-19 Vaccine in Children 5 to 11 Years. Retrieved from <a href="https://www.pfizer.com/news/press-release/press-release-detail/pfizer-and-biontech-announce-positive-topline-results">https://www.pfizer.com/news/press-release/press-release-detail/pfizer-and-biontech-announce-positive-topline-results</a></p><p>Pfizer. (2021, September 28). Pfizer and BioNTech Submit Initial Data to U.S. FDA From Pivotal Trial of COVID-19 Vaccine in Children 5 to <12 Years of Age. Retrieved from <a href="https://www.pfizer.com/news/press-release/press-release-detail/pfizer-and-biontech-submit-initial-data-us-fda-pivota">https://www.pfizer.com/news/press-release/press-release-detail/pfizer-and-biontech-submit-initial-data-us-fda-pivota</a>l</p><p>Public Health Agency of Canada. (2021, September 28). Advisory Committee Statement (ACS) National Advisory Committee on Immunization (NACI): Recommendations on the use of COVID-19 vaccines. Retrieved from <a href="https://www.canada.ca/content/dam/phac-aspc/documents/services/immunization/national-advisory-committee-on-immunization-naci/recommendations-use-covid-19-vaccines/recommendations-use-covid-19-vaccines-en.pdf">https://www.canada.ca/content/dam/phac-aspc/documents/services/immunization/national-advisory-committee-on-immunization-naci/recommendations-use-covid-19-vaccines/recommendations-use-covid-19-vaccines-en.pdf</a></p><p>Walter, E.B., Talaat, K.R., Sabharwal, C., Gurtman, A., Lockhart, S., Paulsen, G.C.,…Gruber, W.C., for the C4591007 Clinical Trial Group. (2021). Evaluation of the BNT162b2 Covid-19 Vaccine in Children 5 to 11 Years of Age. <em>New England Journal of Medicine</em>. <a href="https://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMoa2116298">https://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMoa2116298</a></p><p>World Health Organization. (2021, February 19). COVID-19 vaccines. Retrieved from <a href="https://www.who.int/emergencies/diseases/novel-coronavirus-2019/covid-19-vaccines">https://www.who.int/emergencies/diseases/novel-coronavirus-2019/covid-19-vaccines</a><br></p>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/iStock-1278968456.jpgCOVID-19 vaccine info for children (ages 5 to 11)Main
COVID-19 vaccine information for youth (ages 12+)COVID-19 vaccine information for youth (ages 12+)COVID-19 vaccine information for youth (ages 12+)CEnglishInfectious DiseasesTeen (13-18 years);Pre-teen (9-12 years)NANADrug treatmentAdult (19+) CaregiversNAhttps://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/iStock-1302135365.jpg2022-04-22T04:00:00ZFlat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Learn about the status of COVID-19 vaccines for youth 12 to 17 years of age and the benefits of getting the vaccine for youth.<br></p><h2>What is the status of COVID-19 vaccines for youth in Canada?</h2><p>In May 2021, Health Canada approved the use of the Pfizer vaccine for all individuals older than 12 years of age.</p><p>Here are a few helpful resources about COVID-19 vaccines and youth.</p><ul><li> <a href="https://kidshealthfirst.ca/">COVID-19 Vaccines for Ontario Youth</a></li><li> <a href="https://www.toronto.ca/wp-content/uploads/2021/05/97d6-COVID-19-Vaccine-Fact-Sheet-Youth.pdf">COVID-19 Vaccine Fact Sheet for Youth Age 12 to 17</a></li><li> <a href="https://www.toronto.ca/wp-content/uploads/2021/05/908c-CovidTeenVaxConsentInfographF.pdf">Does my 12+ Child Require Informed Consent to Receive Their Vaccine?</a></li></ul><p>Looking for general information on COVID-19 vaccines. Visit the page on <a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3937&language=English&hub=COVID-19">COVID-19 vaccines general information</a>.</p><p>Looking for information specific to children aged five to 11? Visit the page on <a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=4001&language=English&hub=COVID-19">COVID-19 vaccine information for children (ages five to 11)</a>.</p><br> <h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>Vaccines against COVID-19 have been shown to be safe and effective against the disease.</li><li>Two of the vaccines, Pfizer and Moderna, are approved for people 12 years of age and older.</li><li>The vaccine has been shown to prevent severe illness and hospitalization in youth aged 12 to 17.</li><li>Vaccinating youth aged 12 to 17 will help to prevent the transmission of the SARS-CoV-2 virus.</li></ul><h2>Do you recommend that youth get the vaccine against COVID-19?</h2><p>Although they are less at risk than older people, some youth may still develop severe COVID-19, or may require hospitalization because of COVID-19. The vaccine has been shown to prevent severe illness and hospitalization in youth. Moreover, vaccinating youth will become important to reduce the transmission of the virus since they represent a large proportion of the population.</p><h2>Why do youth need the COVID-19 vaccine since they don’t get that sick if they become infected?</h2><p>While adults are at higher risk of complications from COVID-19, youth can still get infected and develop severe complications. Vaccination against COVID-19 prevents youth from being infected and may also prevent them from developing severe and long-term complications. Vaccination can also prevent youth from transmitting SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19.</p><h2>Can vaccination help prevent the occurrence of MIS-C?</h2><p>Multisystem inflammatory syndrome (MIS-C) is a hyperinflammatory condition that is observed in some children and youth following COVID-19 infection. A study in the U.S. conducted in 2021 showed that the vaccine was highly effective at preventing the development of this serious condition in vaccinated youth (aged 12 to 18). The study showed that among the youth who were hospitalized with MIS-C, the vast majority were unvaccinated.</p><h2>Can vaccination improve the physical and mental health of youth?</h2><p>Getting vaccinated can help keep youth safe and healthy, return to their pre-pandemic activities, as well as limit the spread of COVID-19 to others in the community.</p><p> <a href="https://www.sickkids.ca/en/news/archive/2021/research-covid-19-pandemic-impact-child-youth-mental-physical-health/">SickKids-led research</a> has shown a serious, sustained negative impact on the mental health of Ontario children, youth and their families due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Before the pandemic, a study showed that 58 per cent of participants engaged in school sports and/or other extracurricular activities. During the pandemic, only 27 per cent participated in sports and 16 per cent in extracurriculars. These activities are known to boost physical and mental health. Vaccination will help return children to their regular activities and thus help improve the mental health and psychosocial wellbeing of children.</p><h2>Is the risk of myocarditis or pericarditis greater from the vaccine or from COVID-19 for youth?</h2><p>In Canada, the National Advisory Committee on Immunization (NACI) recommends vaccination for youth and young adults who are eligible, as the benefits of vaccination to prevent COVID-19 and associated complications outweigh very rare cases of myocarditis/pericarditis following COVID-19 mRNA vaccination.</p><p>Additional information about <a href="https://uwaterloo.ca/pharmacy/sites/ca.pharmacy/files/uploads/files/myocarditis_and_pericarditis_after_covid-19_vaccines.pdf">myocarditis and pericarditis after COVID-19 vaccination</a> is available in this article from the University of Waterloo.</p><h2>Can the COVID-19 vaccine affect puberty and fertility in youth?</h2><p>No. There is no evidence that the COVID-19 vaccine can affect puberty and fertility in youth. Ongoing studies and surveillance of those who have been vaccinated in the general population have shown that the mRNA vaccines are very safe in youth aged 12 to 17.</p><p>For general information on COVID-19, please visit the <a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/covid-19">COVID-19 learning hub</a>.</p><h2>Is vaccination safe for youth with food allergies?</h2><p>Yes. There is no reason a youth with a food allergy of any kind should not be vaccinated. Children with a history of allergy to foods, oral drugs, insect venom or environmental allergies can receive COVID-19 vaccines without any special precautions. If you are concerned about the possibility of an allergic reaction to any of the <a href="https://www.canada.ca/en/health-canada/services/drugs-health-products/covid19-industry/drugs-vaccines-treatments/vaccines/pfizer-biontech.html#a4">vaccine ingredients</a>, please consult your child’s primary health-care provider.</p><h2>Does the vaccine work against the Omicron variant?</h2><p>The Omicron variant is known to be much more transmissible than previous strains of COVID-19. Early data out of South Africa and the United Kingdom suggests that vaccination still protects against serious illness due to Omicron. The more people who are vaccinated against COVID-19, the more we can protect ourselves and prevent new variants from emerging and spreading in the community.</p><h2>Is the Omicron variant of COVID-19 causing more severe illness than previous strains?</h2><p>Studies are ongoing with respect to the severity of COVID-19 in children and youth due to the Omicron variant. However, most children and youth who have COVID-19 experience mild illness and do not require hospitalization. Those who are hospitalized typically require support for fever, dehydration and breathing difficulties. The increase in hospitalizations of COVID-positive patients is likely the result of widespread community transmission of COVID-19 due to the Omicron variant. While rare, some children and youth can get seriously ill after contracting COVID-19 and this is something we are monitoring closely.</p><h2>When will youth be eligible for a third (booster) dose of the vaccine?</h2><p>In Ontario, youth (ages 12 to 17) are eligible for a third (booster) dose as of Feb. 18, 2022 as long as six months (168 days) have passed since their second dose.</p><h2>Can youth who are immunocompromised receive their fourth (booster) dose yet?</h2><p>Yes, anyone who meets the<a href="https://www.health.gov.on.ca/en/pro/programs/publichealth/coronavirus/docs/vaccine/COVID-19_vaccine_third_dose_recommendations.pdf"> Ministry of Health criteria</a> for being moderately to severely immunocompromised, including youth aged 12 to 17, are eligible for a three-dose primary series and a fourth dose (booster) six months (168 days) after they complete a three-dose primary series.<br></p><h2>Why do immunocompromised youth benefit from additional vaccine doses?</h2><p>Similar to adults and with any other vaccine, the immune response to COVID-19 vaccines in youth who are immunocompromised is not as strong as in people who are not immunocompromised. Therefore, they require additional vaccine doses to achieve appropriate protection. As immunocompromised people are at higher risk of complications and severe outcomes when infected with COVID-19, they are eligible for a higher number of doses and are strongly recommended to receive them all to maximize protection from COVID-19.</p><h2>Due to an underlying health condition, my child is at increased risk from side effects following any treatment or vaccination. What options are available to address this specific concern for my child?</h2><p>If you have specific concerns of this nature, it’s always best to speak with your primary health-care provider. Another option is to make an appointment with the <a href="https://www.sickkids.ca/en/care-services/support-services/covid-19-vaccine-consult">SickKids COVID-19 Vaccine Consult Service</a> to speak with a SickKids nurse. Additionally, if your child requires additional support or specialized care when receiving the COVID-19 vaccine, please email vaccine.consults@sickkids.ca and include the following information in your message: </p><ul><li>Name</li><li>Date of birth</li><li>Telephone number</li><li>Describe the considerations or accommodations that need to be in place for the patient</li></ul><h2>Should I be concerned that if my child takes an mRNA vaccine it could impact their eligibility for future specialized treatments for their condition?</h2><p>No. The vaccine will have no impact on future specialized treatments.</p><h2>Information on how to prepare and support your child with their COVID-19 vaccine</h2><p>CARD System Learning Hub<br><a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/card">https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/card</a></p><p>Needle pokes: Reducing pain in children aged 18 months or over<br><a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=990&language=English">https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=990&language=English</a></p><p>Needle pokes: Reducing pain with comfort positions and distraction<br><a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3629&language=English">https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3629&language=English</a></p><p>Needle pokes: Reducing pain with numbing cream<br><a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3627&language=English">https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3627&language=English</a></p><p>Pain relief: Comfort kit<br><a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=1258&language=English">https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=1258&language=English</a></p><h2>References</h2><p>Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2021, February 26). COVID-19 Vaccination. Retrieved from <a href="https://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/covid-19/index.html">https://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/covid-19/index.html</a></p><p>Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2021, March 8). Science Brief: Background Rationale and Evidence for Public Health Recommendations for Fully Vaccinated People. Retrieved from <a href="https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/more/fully-vaccinated-people.html">https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/more/fully-vaccinated-people.html</a></p><p>Government of Ontario – Ministry of Health. (2020, March 31). COVID-19 vaccines for Ontario. Retrieved from <a href="https://covid-19.ontario.ca/covid-19-vaccines-ontario">https://covid-19.ontario.ca/covid-19-vaccines-ontario</a></p><p>Health Canada. (2021, October 18). Health Canada receives submission from Pfizer-BioNTech to authorize the use of Comirnaty COVID-19 vaccine in children 5 to 11 years of age. Retrieved from <a href="https://www.canada.ca/en/health-canada/news/2021/10/health-canada-receives-submission-from-pfizer-biontech-to-authorize-the-use-of-comirnaty-covid-19-vaccine-in-children-5-to-11-years-of-age.html">https://www.canada.ca/en/health-canada/news/2021/10/health-canada-receives-submission-from-pfizer-biontech-to-authorize-the-use-of-comirnaty-covid-19-vaccine-in-children-5-to-11-years-of-age.html</a></p><p>ImmunizeBC. (2021, March 12). COVID-19 Vaccine Frequently Asked Questions. Retrieved from <a href="https://immunizebc.ca/covid-19-vaccine-frequently-asked-questions">https://immunizebc.ca/covid-19-vaccine-frequently-asked-questions</a></p><p>ImmunizeCanada. (2021, February 18). COVID-19 Info. Retrieved from <a href="https://immunize.ca/covid-19-info">https://immunize.ca/covid-19-info</a></p><p>National Advisory Committee on Immunization. (2021, May 5). Recommendations on the use of COVID-19 vaccines. Retrieved from <a href="https://www.canada.ca/content/dam/phac-aspc/documents/services/immunization/national-advisory-committee-on-immunization-naci/recommendations-use-covid-19-vaccines/recommendations-use-covid-19-vaccines-en.pdf">https://www.canada.ca/content/dam/phac-aspc/documents/services/immunization/national-advisory-committee-on-immunization-naci/recommendations-use-covid-19-vaccines/recommendations-use-covid-19-vaccines-en.pdf</a></p><p>Pfizer. (2021, September 20). Pfizer and BioNTech Announce Positive Topline Results from Pivotal Trial of COVID-19 Vaccine in Children 5 to 11 Years. Retrieved from <a href="https://www.pfizer.com/news/press-release/press-release-detail/pfizer-and-biontech-announce-positive-topline-results">https://www.pfizer.com/news/press-release/press-release-detail/pfizer-and-biontech-announce-positive-topline-results</a></p><p>Pfizer. (2021, September 28). Pfizer and BioNTech Submit Initial Data to U.S. FDA From Pivotal Trial of COVID-19 Vaccine in Children 5 to <12 Years of Age. Retrieved from <a href="https://www.pfizer.com/news/press-release/press-release-detail/pfizer-and-biontech-submit-initial-data-us-fda-pivota">https://www.pfizer.com/news/press-release/press-release-detail/pfizer-and-biontech-submit-initial-data-us-fda-pivota</a>l</p><p>Public Health Agency of Canada. (2021, September 28). Advisory Committee Statement (ACS) National Advisory Committee on Immunization (NACI): Recommendations on the use of COVID-19 vaccines. Retrieved from <a href="https://www.canada.ca/content/dam/phac-aspc/documents/services/immunization/national-advisory-committee-on-immunization-naci/recommendations-use-covid-19-vaccines/recommendations-use-covid-19-vaccines-en.pdf">https://www.canada.ca/content/dam/phac-aspc/documents/services/immunization/national-advisory-committee-on-immunization-naci/recommendations-use-covid-19-vaccines/recommendations-use-covid-19-vaccines-en.pdf</a></p><p>Walter, E.B., Talaat, K.R., Sabharwal, C., Gurtman, A., Lockhart, S., Paulsen, G.C.,…Gruber, W.C., for the C4591007 Clinical Trial Group. (2021). Evaluation of the BNT162b2 Covid-19 Vaccine in Children 5 to 11 Years of Age. <em>New England Journal of Medicine</em>. <a href="https://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMoa2116298">https://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMoa2116298</a></p><p>World Health Organization. (2021, February 19). COVID-19 vaccines. Retrieved from <a href="https://www.who.int/emergencies/diseases/novel-coronavirus-2019/covid-19-vaccines">https://www.who.int/emergencies/diseases/novel-coronavirus-2019/covid-19-vaccines</a></p>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/iStock-1302135365.jpgCOVID-19 vaccine information for youth (ages 12+)Main
COVID-19 vaccines general informationCOVID-19 vaccines general informationCOVID-19 vaccines general informationCEnglishInfectious DiseasesChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)NANADrug treatmentCaregivers Adult (19+)NAhttps://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/COVID-19_Vaccine.jpg2022-03-22T04:00:00Z10.900000000000049.10000000000001996.00000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Learn which COVID-19 vaccines are available in Canada, and find information about vaccine development, and vaccine safety and effectiveness.</p><h2>COVID-19 vaccines approved for use in Canada</h2><p>As of March 2022, six vaccines against COVID-19 are approved for clinical use by Health Canada.</p><p>Two mRNA vaccines:</p><ul><li> <strong>Pfizer-BioNTech</strong> Comirnaty</li><li> <strong>Moderna</strong> Spikevax</li></ul><p>Two adenoviral vector vaccines:</p><ul><li> <strong>AstraZeneca</strong> Vaxzevria</li><li> <strong>Janssen</strong> (Johnson and Johnson)</li></ul><p>One protein-based vaccine:</p><ul><li><strong>Novavax</strong> Nuvaxovid</li></ul><p>One plant-based virus like particle:</p><ul><li><strong>Medicago</strong> Covifenz</li></ul><p>Looking for information specific to children aged five to 11? Visit the page on <a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=4001&language=English&hub=COVID-19">COVID-19 vaccine information for children (ages five to 11)</a>.</p><p>Looking for information specific to youth age 12+? Visit the page on <a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=4000&language=English&hub=COVID-19">COVID-19 vaccine information for youth (ages 12+)</a>.</p> <br> <h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>Vaccines against COVID-19 have been shown to be safe and effective against the disease.</li><li>Six COVID-19 vaccines are approved for use by Health Canada.</li><li>Two of the vaccines, Pfizer and Moderna, are approved for people 12 years of age and older.</li><li>The Pfizer vaccine has been approved for use in children five to 11 years of age and the Moderna vaccine has been approved for use in children six to 11 years of age. Note: Pfizer is preferred for this age group by Canada’s National Advisory Committee on Immunization (NACI).</li><li>Currently studies are underway looking at the safety of the vaccines and how well they work in children under five years of age.</li><li>Parents who are vaccinated against COVID-19 may help protect their children and others against the disease.</li></ul><h2>How do mRNA vaccines work?</h2><p>The vaccines work by teaching your immune cells to recognize a small piece of the SARS-CoV-2 virus called a spike protein. The SARS-CoV-2 virus is the virus that causes COVID-19.</p><p>Pfizer uses messenger RNA (mRNA)in their vaccines. The mRNA is a small piece of genetic code from the SARS-CoV-2 virus that tells the body to make the spike protein of the coronavirus. The production of the spike protein is recognized by immunity helpers, which will assemble an army of B cells. The B cells produce the antibodies that create immunity against the virus. After the vaccine causes this immune response, the body rapidly gets rid of the spike protein and the mRNA, the antibodies and immune memory remain.</p> <figure class="asset-c-80"><img alt="The mRNA vaccines contain a small piece of genetic code from the SARS-CoV-2 virus that will tell the body make the spike protein of the coronavirus. The production of the spike protein causes the immune system to produce antibodies that create immunity against the virus." src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/Covid_vaccine_mRNA.jpg" /><figcaption class="asset-image-caption">Vaccines teach your immune system to recognize the coronavirus by presenting the spike protein to immunity helpers. The mRNA vaccines contain a small piece of genetic code from the SARS-CoV-2 virus that will tell the body to make the spike protein of the coronavirus. The immunity helpers will then assemble an army of B cells, which will produce antibodies against this spike protein. B cells also remember how to create these antibodies and they will mature to become memory B cells. They are now prepared to repeat the immune response in the future.<br>After vaccination, if your body encounters the coronavirus, the memory B cells recognize the spike protein on the virus and they will increase the antibody production. The antibodies will bind to the spike protein on the virus, blocking the virus from spreading.</figcaption></figure> <h2>Are mRNA COVID-19 vaccines safe and are there any side effects?</h2><p>Two mRNA vaccines have been approved by Health Canada: The Pfizer vaccine and the Moderna vaccine. They have met the requirements for approval by Health Canada as they have been studied in clinical trials on a large number of people and were shown to be safe. In the studies, the number of people who got the vaccine and had unexpected severe side effects was similar to the number of people who received a placebo (substance or treatment that contains no active ingredients).</p><p>People who receive a COVID-19 vaccine may experience side effects, such as fatigue, headache, muscle pain, joint pain, chills and fever. These are side effects that are commonly seen after any vaccination. Allergic reactions have only rarely occurred after COVID-19 vaccination.</p><h2>What about the risk of myocarditis and pericarditis?</h2><p>A small number of cases of myocarditis (inflammation of the heart muscle) and/or pericarditis (inflammation of the sac that envelopes the heart) following immunization with COVID-19 vaccines have been reported in Canada and internationally. These cases are very rare and are most frequently reported after the second dose of an mRNA vaccine. Most cases were mild and resolved with symptomatic treatment within a few days. As part of safety surveillance systems, Public Health Ontario is closely monitoring cases of myocarditis/pericarditis following COVID-19 vaccination.</p><p>Additional information about <a href="https://uwaterloo.ca/pharmacy/sites/ca.pharmacy/files/uploads/files/myocarditis_and_pericarditis_after_covid-19_vaccines.pdf">myocarditis and pericarditis after COVID-19 vaccination</a> is available in this article from the University of Waterloo.</p><h2>Is there any chance that the COVID-19 vaccine can give me the virus?</h2><p>No. There is no way you can get COVID-19 from any of the vaccines. None of the vaccines contain the SARS-CoV-2 virus, which causes COVID-19.</p><h2>After vaccination, how long does it take to be protected from COVID-19?</h2><p>After you get the vaccine, immunity usually starts to develop after 14 days. For vaccines that need two-doses, a maximum immune response occurs seven to 14 days after the second dose of the vaccine. Studies are still ongoing and data is being collected on how long the protection will last.</p><h2>How can anyone be sure a vaccine developed so quickly is also safe?</h2><p>Work on coronavirus vaccines has been ongoing for more than 10 years, due in part to the SARS-CoV-1 outbreak in 2003. It was important to develop the COVID-19 vaccine quickly because of how many people were dying and getting sick, and because of the disruptions to everyday life as a result of the pandemic. Even though the vaccines were developed quickly, all the usual steps for the approval of vaccines occurred, including clinical trials with the appropriate number of participants. Because of the significant amount of resources that were made available to develop a COVID-19 vaccine and the large number of COVID-19 cases the clinical trials were able to happen quickly. This made it easier to tell quickly whether or not the vaccines worked to prevent cases of COVID-19. The vaccine was rapidly shown to be effective in protecting against COVID-19.</p><h2>What is the difference between natural immunity and immunity from the COVID-19 vaccine?</h2><p>Natural immunity refers to the immune responses that are developed following exposure to an infection. When contracting an infection, most individuals will develop antibodies that are key to recognizing and fighting the same infection, if encountered again. Natural immunity can decrease with time, and the antibodies may not last in your immune system for a very long time. Developing natural immunity also implies that you need to contract the infection, meaning that you could experience very serious health complications as a result.</p><p>Immunity against COVID-19 can also be achieved by getting vaccinated. The difference, in this case, is that the vaccine instructs your immune system on how to develop the antibodies that protect against COVID-19 without having to contract the infection and get sick. Because additional vaccine doses are given to help build the immune responses, the antibodies continue to circulate in the body for a longer period than when contracting the infection a single time.</p><h2>Why should anyone get vaccinated if the Omicron variant is widespread and everyone will be infected with the virus eventually?</h2><p>Vaccination helps prevent severe disease and hospitalization due to COVID-19. Children and youth who previously had COVID-19 have some protection, but this protection will be much stronger if they're also vaccinated.</p><p>Another reason for vaccination combined with other public health measures is to get the virus under control. Omicron may be less severe, but its high transmissibility means many more people will be affected. This puts our health and our health-care system at risk. The more resources we have to direct toward caring for patients with COVID-19, the more challenging it is to provide life-changing surgeries and procedures for patients who don't have COVID-19 who are also in need of care.</p> <h2>Can I get other immunizations, such as the influenza (flu) vaccine, at the same time as the COVID-19 vaccine?</h2><p>According to the National Advisory Committee on Immunizations, in people aged 12 years old and older, COVID-19 vaccines may be given at the same time as, or anytime before or after, other vaccines, including the influenza (flu) vaccine. For children five to 11, the recommendation is to wait 14 days before receiving other vaccines, such as the flu vaccine. This is a precaution to monitor any side effects from the COVID-19 vaccine or another vaccine. If a vaccine is needed urgently, please follow the advice of your child’s health-care provider.</p><h2>If I am fully vaccinated against COVID-19, will this protect my child?</h2><p>There is more and more evidence that suggests fully vaccinated people are less likely to develop asymptomatic COVID-19 and potentially less likely to transmit the infection to others. This may be true for vaccinated parents and the risk of transmission to their child. However, more studies are needed to confirm this. Individual vaccination for everyone who is eligible offers the best possible protection against COVID-19 infection.</p><h2>If my child develops COVID-19 and I am fully vaccinated, will I have protection against the disease?</h2><p>It has been shown that people who are fully vaccinated are at lower risk of getting COVID-19 and are at lower risk of getting severe disease, including admission to the hospital and intensive care unit. If you are fully vaccinated and your child is later diagnosed with COVID-19, you are at a lower risk of developing the disease.</p><h2>How is the Omicron variant different from other strains we have seen before and how widespread is it?</h2><p>Omicron is a variant of COVID-19 that is much more transmissible than previous strains, which is causing the rapid rise in case numbers and a corresponding number of hospitalizations. In adults, there is evidence that vaccines remain effective at preventing hospitalization and severe disease from Omicron, especially in people who are fully vaccinated and have had a third dose. The Omicron strain, because of its high transmissibility, has become the dominant form of COVID-19 in Ontario and much of the world.</p><h2>If my child or I already had COVID-19, should we still get the vaccine?</h2><p>Yes. It is recommended that anyone who has had COVID-19 should still get the vaccine, but only after they have recovered from their illness. The clinical trials included people who previously had COVID-19, and the vaccine was found to be safe for them. Because it is not known how long antibodies against COVID-19 last after infection and it is possible to get the infection again (sometimes more severely), the vaccine is recommended as it can be helpful in boosting a person's existing immunity to COVID-19.</p><h2>How long should I wait after being infected with COVID-19 to get the vaccine?</h2><p>There is no specific amount of time required to wait between infection and vaccination. As long as you no longer have symptoms, completed the self-isolation period as per your local public health guidelines and are fully recovered from the virus, vaccination is recommended.</p><h2>Will getting the COVID-19 vaccine help my child go back to school and other regular activities?</h2><p>All children and youth benefit from routine educational, physical and other extracurricular activities. It is expected that when enough people are vaccinated against COVID-19, the risk of infection for your child, and the general population, will go down. Until the population is protected, it is important to continue to follow the advice of public health authorities to reduce the risk of getting and transmitting COVID-19.</p><h2>With the resurgence in COVID-19 cases and resulting restrictions, anxiety is mounting for my family. Where can I find mental health resources for caregivers and children?</h2><p>The COVID-19 pandemic and renewed restrictions are impacting the well-being of caregivers and their children. Please visit the <a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3883&language=English">COVID-19: Well-being and mental health resources</a> page to help you and your family through these difficult times. You can also speak to your primary care provider about accessing mental health services in your community.</p><h2>Eligibility requirements</h2><p>To find information about current eligibility requirements for each province and territory, click on the links below.</p><p> <strong>Alberta</strong><br><a href="https://www.alberta.ca/covid19-vaccine.aspx">COVID-19 vaccine program</a></p><p> <strong>British Columbia</strong><br><a href="https://www2.gov.bc.ca/gov/content/covid-19/vaccine/register">How to get vaccinated for COVID-19</a></p><p> <strong>Manitoba</strong><br><a href="https://www.gov.mb.ca/covid19/vaccine/young-people.html">COVID-19 Immunization for Young People</a></p><p> <strong>New Brunswick</strong><br><a href="https://www2.gnb.ca/content/gnb/en/corporate/promo/covid-19/nb-vaccine.html">COVID-19 vaccines</a></p><p> <strong>Newfoundland and Labrador</strong><br><a href="https://www.gov.nl.ca/covid-19/vaccine/gettheshot/">Get the Shot</a></p><p> <strong>Northwest Territories</strong><br><a href="https://www.nthssa.ca/en/services/coronavirus-disease-covid-19-updates/covid-vaccine">COVID Vaccine</a></p><p> <strong>Nova Scotia</strong><br><a href="https://novascotia.ca/coronavirus/vaccine/">Coronavirus (COVID-19): vaccine</a></p><p> <strong>Nunavut</strong><br><a href="https://www.gov.nu.ca/health/information/covid-19-vaccination">COVID-19 Vaccination</a></p><p> <strong>Ontario</strong><br><a href="https://covid-19.ontario.ca/ontarios-covid-19-vaccination-plan">Ontario’s COVID-19 vaccination plan</a></p><p> <strong>Prince Edward Island</strong><br><a href="https://www.princeedwardisland.ca/en/information/health-and-wellness/getting-the-covid-19-vaccine">Getting the COVID-19 Vaccine</a></p><p> <strong>Quebec</strong><br><a href="https://www.quebec.ca/en/health/health-issues/a-z/2019-coronavirus/progress-of-the-covid-19-vaccination/">COVID-19 vaccination campaign</a></p><p> <strong>Saskatchewan</strong><br><a href="https://www.saskatchewan.ca/government/health-care-administration-and-provider-resources/treatment-procedures-and-guidelines/emerging-public-health-issues/2019-novel-coronavirus/covid-19-vaccine/vaccine-booking">Appointments for COVID-19 Vaccine</a></p><p> <strong>Yukon</strong><br><a href="https://yukon.ca/en/vaccine-questions">Vaccine questions</a></p><p>For general information on COVID-19, please visit the <a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/covid-19">COVID-19 learning hub</a>.</p><h2>Information on how to prepare and support your child with their COVID-19 vaccine</h2><p>CARD System Learning Hub<br><a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/card">https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/card</a></p><p>Needle pokes: Reducing pain in children aged 18 months or over<br><a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=990&language=English">https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=990&language=English</a></p><p>Needle pokes: Reducing pain with comfort positions and distraction<br><a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3629&language=English">https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3629&language=English</a></p><p>Needle pokes: Reducing pain with numbing cream<br><a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3627&language=English">https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3627&language=English</a></p><p>Pain relief: Comfort kit<br><a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=1258&language=English">https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=1258&language=English</a></p><h2>References</h2><p>Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2021, February 26). COVID-19 Vaccination. Retrieved from <a href="https://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/covid-19/index.html">https://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/covid-19/index.html</a></p><p>Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2021, March 8). Science Brief: Background Rationale and Evidence for Public Health Recommendations for Fully Vaccinated People. Retrieved from <a href="https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/more/fully-vaccinated-people.html">https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/more/fully-vaccinated-people.html</a></p><p>Government of Ontario – Ministry of Health. (2020, March 31). COVID-19 vaccines for Ontario. Retrieved from <a href="https://covid-19.ontario.ca/covid-19-vaccines-ontario">https://covid-19.ontario.ca/covid-19-vaccines-ontario</a></p><p>Health Canada. (2021, October 18). Health Canada receives submission from Pfizer-BioNTech to authorize the use of Comirnaty COVID-19 vaccine in children 5 to 11 years of age. Retrieved from <a href="https://www.canada.ca/en/health-canada/news/2021/10/health-canada-receives-submission-from-pfizer-biontech-to-authorize-the-use-of-comirnaty-covid-19-vaccine-in-children-5-to-11-years-of-age.html">https://www.canada.ca/en/health-canada/news/2021/10/health-canada-receives-submission-from-pfizer-biontech-to-authorize-the-use-of-comirnaty-covid-19-vaccine-in-children-5-to-11-years-of-age.html</a></p><p>ImmunizeBC. (2021, March 12). COVID-19 Vaccine Frequently Asked Questions. Retrieved from <a href="https://immunizebc.ca/covid-19-vaccine-frequently-asked-questions">https://immunizebc.ca/covid-19-vaccine-frequently-asked-questions</a></p><p>ImmunizeCanada. (2021, February 18). COVID-19 Info. Retrieved from <a href="https://immunize.ca/covid-19-info">https://immunize.ca/covid-19-info</a></p><p>National Advisory Committee on Immunization. (2021, May 5). Recommendations on the use of COVID-19 vaccines. Retrieved from <a href="https://www.canada.ca/content/dam/phac-aspc/documents/services/immunization/national-advisory-committee-on-immunization-naci/recommendations-use-covid-19-vaccines/recommendations-use-covid-19-vaccines-en.pdf">https://www.canada.ca/content/dam/phac-aspc/documents/services/immunization/national-advisory-committee-on-immunization-naci/recommendations-use-covid-19-vaccines/recommendations-use-covid-19-vaccines-en.pdf</a></p><p>Pfizer. (2021, September 20). Pfizer and BioNTech Announce Positive Topline Results from Pivotal Trial of COVID-19 Vaccine in Children 5 to 11 Years. Retrieved from <a href="https://www.pfizer.com/news/press-release/press-release-detail/pfizer-and-biontech-announce-positive-topline-results">https://www.pfizer.com/news/press-release/press-release-detail/pfizer-and-biontech-announce-positive-topline-results</a></p><p>Pfizer. (2021, September 28). Pfizer and BioNTech Submit Initial Data to U.S. FDA From Pivotal Trial of COVID-19 Vaccine in Children 5 to <12 Years of Age. Retrieved from <a href="https://www.pfizer.com/news/press-release/press-release-detail/pfizer-and-biontech-submit-initial-data-us-fda-pivota">https://www.pfizer.com/news/press-release/press-release-detail/pfizer-and-biontech-submit-initial-data-us-fda-pivota</a>l</p><p>Public Health Agency of Canada. (2021, September 28). Advisory Committee Statement (ACS) National Advisory Committee on Immunization (NACI): Recommendations on the use of COVID-19 vaccines. Retrieved from <a href="https://www.canada.ca/content/dam/phac-aspc/documents/services/immunization/national-advisory-committee-on-immunization-naci/recommendations-use-covid-19-vaccines/recommendations-use-covid-19-vaccines-en.pdf">https://www.canada.ca/content/dam/phac-aspc/documents/services/immunization/national-advisory-committee-on-immunization-naci/recommendations-use-covid-19-vaccines/recommendations-use-covid-19-vaccines-en.pdf</a></p><p>Walter, E.B., Talaat, K.R., Sabharwal, C., Gurtman, A., Lockhart, S., Paulsen, G.C.,…Gruber, W.C., for the C4591007 Clinical Trial Group. (2021). Evaluation of the BNT162b2 Covid-19 Vaccine in Children 5 to 11 Years of Age. <em>New England Journal of Medicine</em>. <a href="https://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMoa2116298">https://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMoa2116298</a></p><p>World Health Organization. (2021, February 19). COVID-19 vaccines. Retrieved from <a href="https://www.who.int/emergencies/diseases/novel-coronavirus-2019/covid-19-vaccines">https://www.who.int/emergencies/diseases/novel-coronavirus-2019/covid-19-vaccines</a></p>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/COVID-19_Vaccine.jpgCOVID-19 vaccines general information Learn which COVID-19 vaccines are available in Canada, and find information on vaccine development, and safety and effectiveness in children.Main
COVID-19COVID-19COVID-19CEnglishInfectious DiseasesChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)NAImmune systemConditions and diseasesAdult (19+) CaregiversNA2020-03-26T04:00:00Z000Landing PageLearning Hub<p>Learn about COVID-19 and how to talk to and support your family. Also find resources such as videos and audio meditations to help you cope.</p><a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=4001&language=English&hub=COVID-19"><figure class="asset-small"><img alt="Read COVID-19 vaccine information for children ages five to 11" src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/COVID_Vaccine_info_5_11_download%20thumbnail.jpg" /> </figure> </a> <p>This learning hub includes resources on COVID-19 and how to help you and your child cope. Find general information on COVID-19 and articles and resources about vaccines and testing. Read the article to find more information about COVID-19 vaccines for children (ages five to 11).<br></p><div class="asset-video"> <iframe src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/videoseries?list=PLfAK35c0XomtY0ixQrG3EjdwiCw8vOCUw"></iframe> </div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h2 class="panel-title">COVID-19 information</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>Find information about COVID-19 from AboutKidsHealth.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=3872&language=English">Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) </a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=3907&language=English">Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C)</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://www.canada.ca/en/public-health/services/diseases/coronavirus-disease-covid-19.html">Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) (Public Health Agency of Canada)</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=3863&language=English">COVID-19: Information for parents of immunocompromised children and children with chronic medical conditions</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=3870&language=English&hub=COVID-19">COVID-19: Information for parents of children with congenital heart disease</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=3875&language=English">COVID-19 and chronic pain in children and teens</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://covid19healthliteracyproject.com/#languages">COVID-19 fact sheets in 34 different languages (Harvard Health Publishing)</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://www.publichealthontario.ca/en/diseases-and-conditions/infectious-diseases/respiratory-diseases/novel-coronavirus/public-resources">COVID-19 public resources (Public Health Ontario)</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://www.pcmch.on.ca/covid-19-resources-for-children-youth-and-families/">COVID-19 resources for children, youth, and families (Provincial Council for Maternal and Child Health)</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://www.caringforkids.cps.ca/handouts/the-2019-novel-coronavirus-covid-19">The 2019 Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) (Caring for Kids)</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://www.ontario.ca/page/2019-novel-coronavirus">The 2019 Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) (Ontario Ministry of Health)</a></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h2 class="panel-title">COVID-19 vaccines</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>Find information about the COVID-19 vaccines that are available in Canada and about their safety and effectiveness.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=3937&language=English">COVID-19 vaccines general information</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=4001&language=English">COVID-19 vaccine information for children (ages five to 11)</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=4000&language=English">COVID-19 vaccine information for youth (ages 12+)</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://youtube.com/playlist?list=PLfAK35c0XomtY0ixQrG3EjdwiCw8vOCUw">SickKids COVID-19 vaccine consult service: Commonly asked questions (video playlist)</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VJ4tKxYISRk">Youth COVID-19 vaccination: What to expect (video)</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/CARD_Vaccination_Handout.pdf">CARD handout: Coping with pain and fear around vaccination for teens</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/CARD_Vaccination_Poster.pdf">CARD poster: Coping with pain and fear around vaccination for teens</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://www.canada.ca/en/health-canada/services/drugs-health-products/covid19-industry/drugs-vaccines-treatments/vaccines.html">Vaccines for COVID-19: Authorized vaccines</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://covid-19.ontario.ca/covid-19-vaccines-ontario">COVID-19 vaccines for Ontario</a></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h2 class="panel-title">COVID-19 testing<br></h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>Find information that will help you and your child prepare or either a saliva test or a nasopharyngeal swab.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://covid-19.ontario.ca/self-assessment/">Take this self-assessment if you were exposed to COVID-19 or have symptoms</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://covid-19.ontario.ca/covid-19-test-and-testing-location-information">Ontario COVID-19 test and testing location information</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/COVID-19%20Testing%20How%20to%20prepare%20and%20comfort%20your%20child.pdf">COVID-19 Testing: How to prepare and comfort your child</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://youtu.be/Ru-vFZdImes">Saliva testing (video)</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://youtu.be/nO1L-oYo9TA">Nasopharyngeal (NP) swab (video)</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=3908&language=English">After your child’s COVID-19 test</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://youtu.be/8d9SPC7T6KM">After your child's COVID-19 test - Virtual discharge (video)</a></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h2 class="panel-title">Talking to your child about COVID-19<br></h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>Helpful resources that provide information about how to explain and talk to your child about COVID-19. </p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=3866&language=English">How to talk to your child about COVID-19</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="http://hollandbloorview.ca/services/family-workshops-resources/family-resource-centre/explaining-covid-19-kids">Explaining COVID-19 and Coronavirus to children (Holland Bloorview)</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://www.cps.ca/en/blog-blogue/how-can-we-talk-to-kids-about-covid-19">How can we talk to kids about COVID-19? Be “realistically reassuring” (Canadian Pediatric Society)</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://www.pbs.org/parents/thrive/how-to-talk-to-your-kids-about-coronavirus#.XmuZ3QV_gax.twitter">How to Talk to Your Kids About Coronavirus (PBS)</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=3869&language=English">Supporting your child with a neurodevelopmental disorder through the COVID-19 crisis</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://cmho.org/talking-to-your-anxious-child-about-covid-19/">Talking to your anxious child about COVID-19 (Children's Mental Health Ontario)</a></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h2 class="panel-title">Coping</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>Information on how to help your child cope with stress during the COVID-19 crisis and how to help them deal with separation from family and friend. </p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=3868&language=English">Coping with separation from and socialization with family and friends during COVID-19</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=3882&language=English">COVID-19: Frequently asked questions</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=3883&language=English">COVID-19: Well-being and mental health resources</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=3888&language=English">Stressed adults and anxious young children: Supporting infants, toddlers and preschoolers through COVID-19</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=3867&language=English">Is my child or adolescent feeling stressed about COVID-19?</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/Anxiety%20Individual%20handout_Eng%2004_03_2020_v2.pdf">CARD: Coping with your own fears and anxiety</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/Anxiety%20caregiver%20handout_Eng%2004_03_2020.pdf">CARD: Helping your child cope with anxiety</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://www.caringforkids.cps.ca/handouts/disaster">Helping children and teens cope with stressful public events (Caring for Kids)</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://www.cps.ca/en/blog-blogue/how-to-help-youth-tackle-the-blues-during-covid-19">How to help youth tackle the blues during COVID-19 and #physicaldistancing (Canadian Pediatric Society)</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://afirm.fpg.unc.edu/supporting-individuals-autism-through-uncertain-times">Supporting individuals with autism through uncertain times (Autism Focused Intervention Resources & Modules)</a></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h2 class="panel-title">Mental health</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>Taking care of your mental health during difficult and stressful times is important. Learn more about anxiety and depression.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=18&language=English">Anxiety: Overview</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://teens.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3810&language=English">Anxiety and anxiety disorders</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/Anxiety%20Individual%20handout_Eng%2004_03_2020_v2.pdf">CARD: Coping with your own fears and anxiety</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/Anxiety%20caregiver%20handout_Eng%2004_03_2020.pdf">CARD: Helping your child cope with anxiety</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=19&language=English">Depression: Overview</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://www.camh.ca/en/health-info/mental-health-and-covid-19">Mental health and the COVID-19 pandemic (CAMH)</a></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h2 class="panel-title">Parenting<br></h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>Find some helpful information on parenting during the COVID-19 crisis. </p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://youtu.be/jwwwF9KQ7CQ">Parenting during COVID-19 and beyond (podcast)</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=3935&language=English">Keeping your child active during the COVID-19 pandemic</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://www.caringforkids.cps.ca/handouts/health_information_on_the_internet">A parent’s guide to health information on the Internet (Caring for Kids)</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://www.cps.ca/en/blog-blogue/covid-youth-and-substance-use-critical-messages-for-youth-and-families">COVID, youth, and substance use: Critical messages for youth and families (Canadian Pediatric Society)</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://www.cps.ca/en/blog-blogue/parenting-during-covid-19-a-new-frontier">Parenting during COVID-19: A new frontier (Canadian Pediatric Society)</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://www.sickkids.ca/en/news/archive/2021/updated-covid19-school-operation-guidance-document-released/">SickKids - Updated guidance for school operation during the pandemic</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://hollandbloorview.ca/sites/default/files/2020-07/HB-BackToSchool-Recommendations.pdf">Return to school recommendations for children with special needs (Holland Bloorview)</a></li><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h3>Learning</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=651&language=English&hub=COVID-19">Reading milestones</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1903&language=English&hub=COVID-19">Reading: How to help early and struggling readers</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=3871&language=English&hub=COVID-19">Writing milestones</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1881&language=English&hub=COVID-19">Visual-motor skills: How to foster in children</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=722&language=English&hub=COVID-19">Mathematics milestones</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=721&language=English&hub=COVID-19">Mathematics: How to help your pre-school and school-aged child</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=649&language=English&hub=COVID-19">Spatial reasoning skills: How to foster in children</a></li></ol></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h2 class="panel-title">Well-being</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>Find out how physical activity, a healthy sleep routine, screen time limits and balanced nutrition can boost your child's mental health and support them to achieve better academic success and help them through difficult times. </p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h3>Handwashing</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1981&language=English">Hand hygiene</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://www.caringforkids.cps.ca/handouts/handwashing">Handwashing for parents and children (Caring for Kids)</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://www.youtube.com/watch?time_continue=9&v=7PKwE1jIuws&feature=emb_title">Protect don’t infect (CHEO)</a></li></ol></li><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h3>Sleep</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=645&language=English">Sleep: Benefits and recommended amounts</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://teens.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3632&language=English">Sleep and your mental health: Overview</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://teens.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3633&language=English">Sleep and mental health: Sorting out your sleep routine</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=646&language=English">How to help your child get a good night's sleep</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=647&language=English">How to help your teen get a good night's sleep</a></li></ol></li><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h3>Physical activity</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://teens.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3783&language=English">Physical activity and mental health: Overview</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://teens.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3784&language=English">Physical activity and mental health: Types of physical activity</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=641&language=English">Physical activity: Benefits of exercise for health and wellbeing</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=642&language=English">Physical activity: Guidelines for children and teens</a></li></ol></li><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h3>Nutrition</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://teens.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3773&language=English">Nutrition and mental health: The basics of a healthy diet</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=639&language=English">How a balanced diet and healthy eating habits can help your child's mental health</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://teens.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3774&language=English">Nutrition and mental health: Developing positive eating habits</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1464&language=English&hub=COVID-19">Meal ideas for school-aged children, tweens and teens</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=638&language=English">Healthy eating for teens</a></li></ol></li><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h3>Screen time and social media</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=643&language=English">Screen time: Overview</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://teens.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3775&language=English">Screen time for teens: Overview</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=644&language=English">How to help your child set healthy screen time limits</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://teens.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3776&language=English">Setting limits and staying safe with screen time</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=3894&language=English">Supporting healthy and responsible screen use during COVID-19</a></li></ol></li><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h3>Stress and resilience</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://teens.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3777&language=English">Stress and health</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://teens.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3778&language=English">How to become more resilient</a></li></ol></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h2 class="panel-title">Tools, videos and resources for you and your child</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>Find helpful resources including handouts, videos and other resources about COVID-19.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/Anxiety%20Individual%20handout_Eng%2004_03_2020_v2.pdf">CARD: Coping with your own fears and anxiety</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/Anxiety%20caregiver%20handout_Eng%2004_03_2020.pdf">CARD: Helping your child cope with anxiety</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fBkA2ZTUnyI&feature=youtu.be">Dr. Cheddar chats with Dr. Ronni from SickKids (video)</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://youtu.be/nO1L-oYo9TA">Nasopharyngeal (NP) swab (video)</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=r51gYrDzpHQ">Physical distancing (video)</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://www.youtube.com/watch?time_continue=9&v=7PKwE1jIuws&feature=emb_title">Protect don’t infect (CHEO)</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://www.brainson.org/shows/2020/03/10/understanding-coronavirus-and-how-germs-spread-for-kids?fbclid=IwAR21Y_n6fsy33QD2s07In2Q892xQoI5OEFMMZ5vcMyVoLdkH8tv4yZjaZsc">Understanding coronavirus and how germs spread (Brains On!)</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://kidshelpphone.ca/get-info/were-here-for-you-during-covid-19-novel-coronavirus/">We’re here for you during COVID-19 (novel coronavirus) (Kids Help Phone)</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sNinywG7BtY">What is personal protective equipment (PPE) (video)</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://youtu.be/gqeyRuvF9WU">Your virtual video visit overview</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=3889&language=English">Virtual care at SickKids</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=3910&language=English">Virtual care: How to accurately measure your child’s height and weight at home</a></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h2 class="panel-title">Videos to support sleep and mindfulness</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>Find videos that will help you prepare for sleep and for when you need a moment of peace, to understand your situation more clearly and coping with stressful thoughts and experiences.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h3>Sleep video</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://youtu.be/2fbaoqkY0Qk">Sleep: A bed time story</a></li></ol></li><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h3>Mindfulness videos</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://youtu.be/nQdM_Cku9pA">A moment of peace</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://youtu.be/cFCiUlFKuO4">Two wings to fly</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://youtu.be/jaNAwy3XsfI">Being with all of your experiences</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://youtu.be/0QXmmP4psbA">You are not your thoughts</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://youtu.be/Ty93GRPplJo">Dealing with difficult moments</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://youtu.be/QTsUEOUaWpY">Everyday mindfulness</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://youtu.be/GgBVIZAEQqU">STOP for mindfulness</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KYcLfBf-T9c">Stress and thinking: The mind/body connection</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://youtu.be/EWzDHN7Jdg8">Dealing with flares: Controlling the controllables</a></li></ol></li></ol></div> <br> <div class="asset-video"> <iframe src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/videoseries?list=PLjJtOP3StIuUqAzahUMBvvRg2bbViWhH7"></iframe> </div><p>See "Tools, videos and resources for you and your child" in the menu above for more videos or visit the <a href="https://www.youtube.com/user/Aboutkidshealth">AboutKidHealth YouTube channel</a></p> <br>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/iStock-1157093074.jpgCOVID-19,COVID19COVID-19COVID-19 learning hub Learn about COVID-19 and how to talk to and support your family. Also find resources such as videos and audio meditations to help you cope.Main

 

 

AllergiesAllergiesAllergiesAEnglishAllergyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)BodyImmune systemConditions and diseasesCaregivers Adult (19+)Cough;Eye discomfort and redness;Runny nose;Rash;Wheezing2021-03-23T04:00:00Z8.1000000000000060.80000000000001477.00000000000Health (A-Z) - ConditionsHealth A-Z<p>This page explains what allergies are, types of allergens, the signs and symptoms of allergies, and also the causes. It also gives examples of common allergies and what to do if your child has an allergic reaction. </p><h2>What is an allergy?</h2><p>The immune system protects us by attacking harmful substances such as viruses and bacteria. An allergy is the immune system’s response to a substance called an allergen.</p><p>The allergen is not harmful for most people. However, when a child has an allergy, the immune system treats the allergen as an invader and over-reacts to it. This results in symptoms from mild discomfort to severe distress.</p><p>Allergic disorders, including food allergies, are common in childhood. Many children with allergies also have asthma.<br></p><h2>Types of allergens</h2><h3>Common food allergens</h3><div class="akh-series"><div class="row"><div class="col-md-12"> <figure><img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/Common_food_allergens_EQUIP_ILL_EN.jpg" alt="Illustration of eggs, nuts, shellfish, fish and milk" /> </figure> <p>The most common food allergens include:</p><ul><li> <a href="/Article?contentid=809&language=English">peanuts</a></li><li> <a href="/Article?contentid=812&language=English">tree nuts</a> such as hazelnuts, walnuts, almonds, and cashews</li><li> <a href="/Article?contentid=806&language=English">eggs</a></li><li> <a href="/Article?contentid=808&language=English">cow's milk</a></li><li> <a href="/Article?contentid=813&language=English">wheat</a></li><li> <a href="/Article?contentid=805&language=English">soy</a></li><li> <a href="/Article?contentid=807&language=English">fish</a></li><li> <a href="/Article?contentid=810&language=English">shellfish</a></li></ul></div></div></div><p>Food allergens can also be hidden in common party dishes such as cookies, cakes, candies or other foods. Always ask the cook or the host if dishes contain foods your child is allergic to.</p><p>Far more people have a food intolerance than a food allergy. Unlike a food allergy, a food intolerance does not involve an immune reaction. Rather, it produces unpleasant symptoms as food is digested. These symptoms appear over a few hours rather than as soon as the food is swallowed or inhaled.</p><h3>Common airborne allergens</h3><p>Dust mites are common airborne allergens. These tiny bugs live in warm, damp, dusty places in your home and survive by eating dead skin cells. Their waste is a major cause of allergies and asthma.</p><div class="akh-series"><div class="row"><div class="col-md-12"> <figure><img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/Common_airborne_allergens_EQUIP_ILL_EN.jpg" alt="Illustration of moulds, dust mites, pollens, pet dander and cockroaches" /> </figure> <p>Other common airborne allergens include:</p><ul><li>pollen from trees, weeds and other plants</li><li>mould</li><li>pet dander (dead skin cells from pets)</li><li>cockroaches</li></ul></div></div></div><h3>Other common allergens</h3><ul><li> <a href="/Article?contentid=800&language=English">Insect bites or stings</a></li><li>Medicines</li></ul><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>An allergy is the immune system’s over-reaction to a substance that is generally not harmful to most people.</li><li>If you suspect that your child has an allergy, an allergist can do tests to find out exactly what is causing the allergy and discuss with you how to manage these allergies.</li><li>To reduce your child’s exposure to airborne allergens, have a pet-free home and remove carpeting.</li><li>To manage a food allergy, make sure your child avoids all foods they are allergic to, learns how to read food labels and ask about the ingredients in served food.</li><li>If your child has a severe allergy, tell their teachers and other caregivers.</li><li>If you suspect your child is having an anaphylactic reaction, give epinephrine (if available) and call 911. </li></ul><h2>Signs and symptoms of allergies</h2><p>Allergic reactions will vary from child to child and from allergen to allergen. Where you live can also affect the type and severity of the allergy.</p><h3>Symptoms for food allergens and insect bites or stings</h3><p>Your child’s response to a food allergy or insect bite will depend on how sensitive they are to that food or bug. Symptoms can include:</p><ul><li>itchy mouth and throat when food is swallowed</li><li>skin rashes, such as <a href="/Article?contentid=789&language=English">hives</a> (raised, red, itchy bumps)</li><li>sneezing</li><li>itchy, runny or stuffy nose</li><li> <a href="/Article?contentid=782&language=English">conjunctivitis</a> (red, swollen eyes) or itchy, watery eyes</li></ul><h3>Symptoms for airborne allergens</h3><p>Common symptoms with airborne allergens may include:</p><ul><li>sneezing</li><li>itchy nose or throat</li><li>stuffy or runny nose</li><li>red, itchy and/or watery eyes</li><li>headaches or plugged ears</li></ul><h3>Symptoms of severe allergic reactions</h3><p>Anaphylaxis is the most severe type of allergic reaction. Even exposure to small amounts of allergens can trigger anaphylaxis in some allergic children.</p><p>The signs and symptoms of anaphylaxis may include sudden onset of:</p><ul><li><a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=789&language=English">hives</a>, itching, redness of the skin</li><li>swollen eyes, lips, tongue or face</li><li>difficulty breathing, tightness of the throat or difficulty swallowing</li><li>abdominal (belly) pain, nausea, <a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=746&language=English">vomiting</a> or sudden onset of <a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=7&language=English">diarrhea</a></li><li>coughing</li><li>stuffy and/or runny nose, watery eyes, sneezing</li><li><a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=779&language=English">fainting</a>, confusion, lightheadedness or dizziness</li><li>rapid or irregular heartbeats</li><li>cold, clammy, sweaty skin</li><li>voice changes</li></ul><p>Anaphylaxis is a medical emergency and requires immediate medical care. Give <a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/article?contentid=130&language=English">epinephrine</a> (if available) and call an ambulance.</p><h2>What causes an allergic reaction?</h2><p>Allergens may come in contact with the skin or be breathed in, eaten or injected.</p><p>When the body detects an allergen, it sends a signal to the immune system to produce antibodies called immunoglobulin E (IgE). Those antibodies cause certain cells in the body to release chemicals called histamines. Histamines travel through the bloodstream to fight the invading substance or allergen.</p><p>Your child’s allergic reaction depends on which part of their body has been exposed to the allergen. Most commonly, allergic reactions affect the eyes, inside of the nose, throat, lungs or skin.<br></p><p></p><p></p><div class="asset-video"><iframe src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/psCQwkPLAV0"></iframe> <br></div> <p></p><h2>What your child's doctor can do for allergies</h2><p>If you suspect your child has an allergy, they should see an allergist. This is a doctor who specializes in diagnosing and treating allergies.</p><p>To identify your child's allergy, the allergist will usually:</p><ul><li>examine your child</li><li>ask for your child’s allergy history</li><li>ask for a description of your child’s allergic symptoms</li></ul><p>Your child might then have skin tests, blood tests, a chest X-ray, a lung function test or an exercise tolerance test. The allergist will explain these tests to you.</p><p>When the tests are done, the allergist will use the results to make a diagnosis. You and your child will meet the allergist at a later date to discuss them.</p><h3>How to prepare for an allergy test</h3><p>Your child may need to stop using certain medications for a period of time before an allergy test. These medications may include antihistamines. Always ask your doctor if your child should stop taking medications before the visit.</p><h2>Taking care of your child with an allergy at home</h2><p>If your child has a severe allergy, your doctor might give you a prescription for an epinephrine auto-injector such as an EpiPen or Allerject. Your doctor can show you how and when to use the auto-injector. You or your child may need to carry one at all times.</p><p>As much as possible, try to prevent allergic reactions by reducing your child's contact with the allergen(s). The steps you take depend on the substance to which your child is allergic. Discuss this with your child's doctor.</p><h2>How to prevent allergic reactions</h2><h3>Food allergens</h3><p>Your child must avoid all foods they are allergic to. Some children may outgrow their allergies, but others may have to avoid the allergen for life.</p><p>Avoiding a food allergen can be difficult. As a result, many children unintentionally eat food they are allergic to.</p><p>If your child has a food allergy, teach them to be aware of the foods to avoid and all the possible names of those foods. You and your child should learn to read labels on food packaging and ask questions about served food. Your child should also know why it is important to look for an allergen in ingredients.</p><p>It is also important to tell all caregivers about your child’s allergy and any foods or drinks your child must avoid.</p><h3>Airborne allergens</h3><ul><li>Have a pet-free home. Or if you have a pet, keep it out of the child’s room and bathe it regularly.</li><li>Remove carpets and rugs from the home, especially from your child’s bedroom. Hard floor surfaces do not collect dust as much as carpets do. If you have carpeting, you should try to vacuum at least once a week.</li><li>Reduce the relative humidity in the home.</li><li>Wash bedding in hot water. This will help reduce dust mites.</li><li>Control contact with outdoor pollen by closing windows in peak seasons. Use an air conditioning system with a small-particle filter.</li><li>Get rid of items in the home that collect dust. These include heavy drapes or old, unclean furniture.</li><li>Clean your home often. Change your home furnace filter regularly as recommended.</li><li>Seal pillows and mattresses if your child is allergic to dust mites.</li><li>Keep bathrooms and other mould-prone areas clean and dry.</li></ul><h2>When to get medical help for an allergic reaction</h2><p>Call 911 or take your child to the nearest emergency department if they have anaphylaxis. Signs and symptoms of anaphylaxis may include:</p><ul><li> <a href="/Article?contentid=789&language=English">hives</a>, itching, redness of the skin</li><li>swollen eyes, lips, tongue or face</li><li>difficulty breathing, tightness of the throat or difficulty swallowing</li><li>abdominal (belly) pain, nausea, vomiting or sudden onset of diarrhea</li><li>coughing</li><li>stuffy and/or runny nose, watery eyes, sneezing</li><li> <a href="/Article?contentid=779&language=English">fainting</a>, confusion, lightheadedness or dizziness</li><li>rapid or irregular heartbeats</li><li>cold, clammy, sweaty skin</li><li>voice changes</li></ul><p>Your child should go to the nearest emergency department even if they have received epinephrine, as the symptoms can start again after the epinephrine is given.</p><h2>​Virtual care services for children<br></h2><p>Boomerang Health was opened by SickKids to provide communities in Ontario with greater access to community-based services for children and adolescents. For more information on virtual care services in Ontario to support a child with allergies, visit <a href="http://www.boomeranghealth.com/services/allergy/">Boomerang Health</a> powered by SickKids.<br></p><img alt="" src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/allergies.jpg" style="BORDER:0px solid;" />allergiesallergieshttps://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/allergies.jpg Read about what allergies are, types of allergens, the signs and symptoms of allergies and how to respond to an allergic reaction.Main
Celiac diseaseCeliac diseaseCeliac diseaseCEnglishGastrointestinalBaby (1-12 months);Toddler (13-24 months);Preschooler (2-4 years);School age child (5-8 years);Pre-teen (9-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)Small IntestineSmall intestineConditions and diseasesCaregivers Adult (19+)NAhttps://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/IMD_celiac_disease_EN.jpg2021-03-15T04:00:00Z9.2000000000000056.60000000000001802.00000000000Health (A-Z) - ConditionsHealth A-Z<p>Celiac disease is a lifelong condition. Learn about the symptoms of celiac disease, how celiac disease is diagnosed, how it is treated and how gluten affects people with celiac disease.</p><p>To learn about celiac disease through an interactive eLearning module, click the <strong>play</strong> button below.</p> <a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Style%20Library/akh/animation/Module%201%20-%20Celiac%20Disease%20%20-%20Storyline%20output/story.html" target="_blank"><figure class="asset-c-80"><img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/Celiac-Disease-Module.jpg" alt="open celiac module" /></figure></a> <h2>What is celiac disease?</h2><p>Celiac disease can affect people of all ages anywhere in the world. In people with celiac disease, any contact with gluten (a family of food proteins) triggers a reaction from the body’s defense (immune) system. This immune response to gluten causes damage to the gut (small intestine) lining. This is why celiac disease is called an autoimmune disease.</p><p>A healthy small intestine is lined with tiny finger-like projections, called villi, that stick up from the surface. Villi increase the area available to absorb nutrients from food. When children with celiac disease are exposed to gluten, the resulting immune reaction damages villi, which become flat. As a result:</p><ul><li>This may affect the absorption of nutrients. This is called malabsorption.</li><li>A lack of nutrients may affect growth and development.</li><li>It also may cause symptoms of celiac disease, such as <a href="/Article?contentid=7&language=English"> diarrhea</a>, constipation and stomach pain.</li></ul> <figure class="asset-c-100"><span class="asset-image-title">Celiac disease: Villi damage</span><img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/IMD_celiac_disease_EN.jpg" alt="Inside view of small intestine, comparing behaviours of nutrients in intestine with healthy villi to one with celiac disease" /><figcaption class="asset-image-caption">A healthy small intestine is lined with finger-like projections (villi) which help the intestine to absorb nutrients. With celiac disease, the villi become damaged and flattened. This may affect the absorption of nutrients.</figcaption></figure> <h2>What is gluten?</h2><p>Gluten is the common name of a family of proteins found in grains that cause the intestinal damage in celiac disease. Gliadin and glutenin are the two main gluten proteins.</p><p>Gluten is found in:</p><ul><li>all forms of wheat (including durum, semolina, spelt, kamut, einkorn and farro)</li><li>wheat hybrids (including triticale which is a mix of wheat and rye)</li><li>rye</li><li>barley </li></ul><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>Celiac disease is an autoimmune condition in which any contact with gluten (a family of food proteins) triggers a reaction from the body’s defense (immune) system.</li><li>Gluten is found in rye, barley, triticale and all forms of wheat.</li><li>In celiac disease, the lining of the small intestine is damaged by the immune system reaction. This means that it will be harder for your child’s body to get nutrients from foods.</li><li>Common symptoms of celiac disease include diarrhea, constipation, tiredness, headaches and poor growth. Some people experience no symptoms at all.</li><li>The only treatment for celiac disease is following a strict gluten-free diet for life. Your child should never start a gluten-free diet before your doctor confirms the diagnosis.</li></ul><h2>Signs and symptoms of celiac disease</h2><p>Some people with celiac disease may have no symptoms at all.</p><p>However, many people with celiac disease experience a range of symptoms. When a person with celiac disease is exposed to gluten, they may have trouble with their gastrointestinal system, malabsorption-related issues and other symptoms. Below are some common symptoms of celiac disease. Some people may only have one of these symptoms, while others may experience multiple symptoms.</p> <a href="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/Poster_celiac_symptoms_ENG.pdf"><figure class="asset-small"><img alt="Download celiac symptoms poster PDF" src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/celiac_symptoms_PDFdownload.jpg" /> </figure> </a> <h3>Gastrointestinal system symptoms</h3><p>When a person with celiac disease is exposed to gluten, they may experience one or more of the following gastrointestinal symptoms:</p><ul><li>tummy pain and/or cramps</li><li><a href="/article?contentid=7&language=english">diarrhea</a></li><li> <a href="/article?contentid=6&language=english">constipation</a></li><li> <a href="/article?contentid=822&language=english">excessive gas</a></li><li>nausea</li><li> <a href="/Article?contentid=746&language=English">vomiting</a></li><li>bloating of the abdomen (tummy)</li><li>abdominal distension (expansion)</li><li>decrease in appetite</li></ul><h3>Malabsorption-related symptoms</h3><p>They may also experience one or more symptoms that are not related to the gastrointestinal system but are due to nutrient malabsorption. These may include:</p><ul><li>tiredness (fatigue)</li><li> <a href="/Article?contentid=841&language=English">anemia</a> (low blood haemoglobin from iron malabsorption)</li><li> <a href="/Article?contentid=1453&language=English">vitamin or mineral </a>deficiencies (e.g. iron, vitamins <a href="/Article?contentid=1447&language=English">D</a> and <a href="/Article?contentid=1446&language=English">B12</a>.)</li><li>poor growth (not as tall as expected)</li><li>weight loss or poor weight gain</li><li>delayed puberty</li></ul><h3>Brain</h3><p>A person with celiac disease may experience one or more symptoms affecting their mental health including:</p><ul><li> <a href="/Article?contentid=29&language=English">headaches</a> or migraines</li><li>difficulty concentrating</li><li> <a href="/Article?contentid=19&language=English">depression</a></li><li> <a href="/Article?contentid=18&language=English">anxiety</a></li><li>mood swings and irritability</li></ul><h3>Skin</h3><p>People with celiac disease may also experience skin conditions including:</p><ul><li>skin rash (dermatitis herpetiformis)</li><li>brittle nails</li></ul><h3>Mouth</h3><p>Symptoms of celiac disease that affect the mouth include:</p><ul><li>mouth sores</li><li>tooth enamel defects</li></ul><h3>Reproductive</h3><p>Both males and females with celiac disease may experience issues related to reproduction including:</p><ul><li>infertility (difficulty conceiving children, in both men and women)</li><li>miscarriage</li><li>menstrual irregularities</li></ul><h3>Body</h3><p>Other celiac disease symptoms that could affect parts of the body include:</p><ul><li>low bone density, including osteopenia (mild) or <a href="/Article?contentid=948&language=English">osteoporosis </a> (more serious bone density problem)</li><li>joint pain</li><li>tiredness (fatigue)</li><li>liver and biliary tract disorders</li></ul><h2>Causes, risk factors and prevalence of celiac disease</h2><p>Celiac disease affects about 1 in 100 Canadians (roughly 350,000 people). It occurs in people all over the world, at any age and from all backgrounds. People develop celiac disease because of a combination of a genetic susceptibility and environmental factors. </p><p>People with a relative with celiac disease or who have certain genetic conditions (such as <a href="/Article?contentid=9&language=English">Down syndrome</a> or <a href="/Article?contentid=869&language=English">Turner syndrome</a>) are at higher risk of developing celiac disease.</p><p>People who already have one autoimmune condition, such as <a href="/Article?contentid=1719&language=English">type 1 diabetes</a>, are at higher risk for developing other autoimmune conditions, such as celiac disease.</p><h2>How celiac disease is diagnosed</h2><h3>Blood tests</h3><p>Doctors can order <a href="/article?contentid=36&language=english">blood tests</a> to screen for celiac disease. These blood tests look for immune proteins (called auto-antibodies) that the body has made in response to gluten in people with celiac disease.</p><p>The possible blood tests include:</p><ul><li>Anti-tissue transglutaminase (TTG) antibodies</li><li>Anti-deamidated gliadin peptide (DGP) antibodies</li><li>Anti-endomysial antibodies (EMA)</li></ul><p>Your doctor does not need to order all of these blood tests to screen for celiac disease. </p><p>Depending on the results, your doctor or health-care provider will talk to you about further testing to confirm celiac disease. </p><h3>Upper endoscopy</h3><p>An <a href="/Article?contentid=2472&language=English">upper endoscopy</a> may help confirm the diagnosis. An upper endoscopy is a procedure that allows doctors to see the upper part of your child’s gastrointestinal system (from the mouth to the top part of the small intestine). Never start your child on a gluten-free diet before you know for sure whether an upper endoscopy is needed to confirm the diagnosis of celiac disease.</p> <figure class="asset-c-80"><span class="asset-image-title">Upper endoscopy</span><img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/IMD_endoscope_EN.jpg" alt="The esophagus, stomach and duodenum are identified with endoscope inserted through the mouth and esophagus into the stomach" /><figcaption class="asset-image-caption">During an upper endoscopy, a thin flexible tube with a camera on the end is inserted into the mouth and down the esophagus to look at the esophagus, stomach, and duodenum (top part of the small intestine).</figcaption> </figure> <h3>Biopsy of the small intestine</h3><p>During an upper endoscopy, small pieces of tissue (biopsies) of the small intestine are taken; they will be examined under a microscope. If your child has celiac disease, the biopsy will show that the villi are damaged and flattened in the sample from the small intestine.</p><p>Never start your child on a gluten-free diet without first getting a confirmed diagnosis of celiac disease. If a biopsy is done after your child starts a gluten-free diet, your child’s villi may look normal because they will have had a chance to heal since the immune response will have stopped. The biopsy may give a false negative result, which means that the result is negative even though your child has celiac disease.</p><p>Talk to your child’s doctor for more information about screening for celiac disease.</p><h2>Treatment of celiac disease</h2><p>Celiac disease is a life-long condition. There is no cure or medication for celiac disease. The only treatment is a strict gluten-free diet for life. The diet will help with the symptoms and will keep your child healthy.</p><p>Even if your child has no symptoms, once diagnosed your child must follow a strict gluten-free diet for life for treatment of the disease. This means they must remove all sources of gluten from their diet. There are some obvious sources of gluten such as breads, pasta and baked goods. There are also many foods where gluten is hidden, such as soups, salad dressings and ice creams.</p><p>Some non-food products may also contain gluten, such as hand creams, medications or arts and crafts supplies like playdough. It is important for your child to limit skin contact with <a href="/Article?contentid=956&language=English">gluten-containing products</a> as it is possible for people with celiac disease to transfer gluten from their skin to their mouth and gut when they are in contact with gluten, which is not safe. Contact with gluten can also trigger skin reactions in some people with celiac disease.</p><h3>Starting treatment: The gluten-free diet</h3><p>Once gluten is removed from your child’s diet, the small intestine will start to heal. Your child should start to feel better and symptoms should improve after about six months of being strictly gluten-free. </p><h3>Maintaining treatment: Sticking to a gluten-free diet for life</h3><p>Do not stop the gluten-free diet if your child’s symptoms improve. Your child is feeling better because the gluten-free diet is working. If your child stops the gluten-free diet, the villi in the small intestine will become damaged and flattened again, even if they have no symptoms. Any previous symptoms will also return if your child does not follow a strict gluten-free diet. </p><p>If your child’s symptoms of celiac disease do not improve after six months, contact your child's doctor.</p><p>These <a href="/Article?contentid=957&language=English">tips and resources</a> can help you and your child stick to a strict gluten-free diet.</p><h3>What happens without a gluten-free diet?</h3><p>Gluten is toxic to people with celiac disease because it triggers an immune reaction even if your child shows no symptoms.</p><p>If your child continues to be exposed to gluten, celiac disease may lead to future health problems including:</p><ul><li>low bone density (osteopenia or osteoporosis)</li><li>some small bowel cancers</li><li>other autoimmune diseases (for example thyroid problems)</li><li> <a href="/Article?contentid=1453&language=English">vitamins and mineral</a> deficiencies because of malabsorption</li><li> <a href="/prematurebabies?topic=prematurebabiesabout">premature delivery</a> if pregnant</li></ul><p>If your child follows a strict gluten-free diet for life, their chances of getting these conditions become the same as the general healthy population.</p><p>Children with celiac disease that is not treated are at special risk. Malnutrition during childhood can have significant effects on growth and development. This is why it is so important for your child to remain on a strict gluten-free diet at all times.</p><h2>Monitoring your child’s symptoms</h2><p>After the diagnosis, no other upper endoscopy is usually needed. Your child will have more blood tests that check anti-TTG antibody levels. As your child continues a strict gluten-free diet, their antibody levels should lower to normal levels. This may take up to 2 years. High antibody levels tell the doctor that your child was probably exposed to gluten.</p><p>Your child’s doctor will also make sure that your child is growing well. If your child had symptoms at the time of diagnosis, they should improve while on a strict gluten-free diet.</p><h2>When to see a doctor</h2> <p>See your child’s doctor if:</p> <ul> <li>your child’s symptoms remain after more than six months of following a strict gluten-free diet</li> <li>your child’s symptoms worsen</li> </ul> <p>Your child’s doctor may refer you to a dietitian. A dietitian can give you more advice about celiac disease, how to plan a gluten-free diet, and how to get a balance of nutrients while following a gluten-free diet.<br></p> May is Celiac Awareness Month. Learn about the symptoms, diagnosis and treatment, and how gluten affects people with celiac disease. Main
Helping your child cope with a brain tumourHelping your child cope with a brain tumourHelping your child cope with a brain tumourHEnglishNeurologyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)BrainNervous systemNAAdult (19+)NA2022-01-10T05:00:00Z8.8000000000000058.3000000000000645.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Find advice to help you with the extremely difficult task of helping your child cope and adjust to a brain tumour diagnosis. </p><p>You, your child(ren), and other family members may cope differently with the impact of a brain tumour diagnosis and treatment. Try to foster an open and supportive space for expression of feelings, thoughts, and questions. While diagnosis and treatment may impact your daily lives, working to maintain some structure can help with adjustment to this experience. Keep in mind that you may also need to adopt new routines to accommodate for changes.</p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>Before adopting any coping strategies, consider your family's value systems and communication styles.</li><li>There are different coping strategies you can use for your child(ren), friends, and family.</li></ul><h2>Coping strategies for your child</h2><p>Before adopting any particular coping strategies, consider your family's value systems and communication styles. Here are some suggestions that may help your child cope:</p><ul><li>Encourage your child to express their feelings in an age-appropriate way. This can help them feel understood and supported. For younger children, encourage play — drawing or role-playing with puppets/dolls — to help them process what they are going through.</li><li>Make your child the expert. Children can benefit from talking to others about what happened at the hospital and how they dealt with it. For example, having an IV line placed or doing an imaging test.</li><li>Talk to your child and prepare them for what they may experience. Create opportunities for them to ask questions. If they ask you questions that you feel unable to answer, ask your child’s treatment team for assistance.</li><li>Maintain structure as much as possible but be flexible as needed. For example, it may be beneficial to keep regular, daily bed-time routines; continue with behavior expectations typical for your child pre-diagnosis; etc.</li><li>Try to focus on things other than the brain tumour. Children can lead active and busy lives. Although your child’s activities may be affected by the treatment, try to focus on their interests and let them participate in activities when possible If your child cannot engage in physical or recreational activities anymore, think of alternate ways they can participate. When admitted, there are many activities, such as art/music therapy, games, etc., that your child can safely partake in. Your child's treatment team and/or school can work to help identify plans between settings.</li></ul><h2>Coping strategies: Including child's friends</h2><ul><li>Find support for your child from peers. Help your child keep in touch with friends, classmates, and siblings as much as possible through letters, e-mails, cards, and videos. You may be able to set up a website for your child that friends can check.</li><li>Encourage your child's friends to visit them in the hospital or at home when safe to do so.</li><li>Find support groups for children with similar conditions through the hospital or community organizations.</li></ul><h2>Coping strategies for your family</h2><ul><li>Follow the same rules at home with your child as you would before the diagnosis. For example, if you suddenly allow your ill child to engage in a behavior you would not usually permit, they will sense that something is wrong. This may create anxiety in your child and resentment in their sibling(s).</li><li>Don’t buy or allow your child lots of gifts. Although they may be happy briefly, getting gifts is not part of “normal” life and can create feelings of worry or unrealistic expectations. A few small gifts to reward their courage may be appropriate.</li></ul><h2>Guided meditations for parents and children</h2><p>Listening to a guided meditation can be a helpful way to cope with stress and focus on your thoughts. The following meditations can be used by children, teenagers and caregivers whenever you feel overwhelmed, stressed or need to bring yourself back into the present moment.</p><h3>Mental health meditations</h3><div class="asset-video"> <iframe src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/videoseries?list=PLjJtOP3StIuXFJ3jjjR3THLhHNMrFFJkM" frameborder="0"></iframe> </div><h3>Audio meditations</h3><div class="asset-video"> <iframe src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/videoseries?list=PLjJtOP3StIuUqygVImi9jHrS0JmqZFpWw" frameborder="0"></iframe> </div>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/helping_your_child_cope_with_a_brain_tumour.jpgHelping a child cope with a brain tumourMain
Iron deficiency anemia and protein-losing enteropathy related to excessive milk intakeIron deficiency anemia and protein-losing enteropathy related to excessive milk intakeIron deficiency anemia and protein-losing enteropathy related to excessive milk intakeIEnglishNutritionChild (0-12 years)NANAConditions and diseasesAdult (19+) CaregiversNA2019-01-16T05:00:00Z9.0000000000000055.40000000000002219.00000000000Health (A-Z) - ConditionsHealth A-Z<p>Milk can be a part of a healthy, balanced diet. However, drinking too much milk can lead to low levels of iron in the blood and some children can then lose protein from the gut.<br></p><h2>Excessive milk intake</h2><p>The recommended amount of cow’s milk for toddlers is 250 to 500 mL (1–2 cups or 8–16 oz.) per day. Some toddlers drink more milk than the recommended number of servings. This "milk diet" can lead to iron deficiency. A small group of these children also experience protein loss from the digestive system or gut. Iron deficiency can lead to anemia (low red blood cell count) and protein loss leads to hypoalbuminemia (low levels of albumin in the blood). Treatment usually requires limiting milk intake, offering iron rich solid food, and in children with moderate to severe anemia, iron supplements.</p> <p>Breast milk or formula is a good source of iron for the first six months of life. Iron stores in babies naturally decrease by four to six months of age. After six months, the amount of iron in breast milk is not enough, and solid foods are usually introduced.</p><p>When introducing solid foods, infants should start with meat or meat alternatives, in order to get enough iron and protein in their diet. Meat alternatives include fish, egg yolk, tofu, lentils and cheese. Iron-fortified cereals are also a good source of iron that can be started at four to six months of age. Breast milk and/or formula should continue until nine to 12 months of age, when homogenized (3.25%) cow’s milk may be started to complement solid food.</p><h3>Iron deficiency anemia</h3><p>Iron is an important mineral that we get from our diet that is needed to make haemoglobin. Haemoglobin is a protein in red blood cells that allows the cells to carry oxygen to the tissues in our body. Anemia occurs when you have low levels of haemoglobin in your body. When the anemia is caused by not having enough iron this is called iron deficiency anemia.</p><p>When a child has anemia, they are not getting enough oxygen delivered to the tissues in their body. This can cause them to look pale and tired, and cause weakness.</p><h3>Protein losing enteropathy</h3> <p>Drinking too much milk can also cause protein loss from the gut (protein losing enteropathy).</p><p>Children with protein losing enteropathy have severe protein loss through the gut and this results in low protein levels in the blood.</p><p>The main protein found in the blood is called albumin. Having low levels of the protein albumin in the blood (hypoalbuminemia) can cause the blood vessels to leak fluid into the tissue. Extra fluid in the tissue can cause swelling (edema) of the legs, back and face. Hypoalbuminemia also puts you at risk for infections.</p><p>Hypoalbuminemia and edema can be caused by other disorders. Your child’s doctor will ask questions about your child’s overall health, symptoms of diarrhea or blood in the stool, and family history of gut, liver, kidney or heart diseases.</p><p>If there are no other causes for protein loss, it is possible that too much milk is the cause.</p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>Too much milk can lead to iron deficiency anemia and protein loss from the gut.</li><li>Milk intake should be limited to a maximum of 500 mL (2 cups or 16 oz.) per day for toddlers and young children.</li><li>The main treatment for iron deficiency and protein loss from the gut due to excess milk intake is to reduce the amount of milk your child drinks and to increase the amount iron rich foods in their diet. For moderate to severe anemia, iron supplements are also needed.</li><li>See a doctor if your child drinks a lot of milk and is tired, weak, pale or has a swollen face, legs and feet.</li> </ul> <h2>Signs and symptoms of iron deficiency anemia and protein losing enteropathy</h2><p>Symptoms of anemia depend upon its severity, how fast the drop in levels of haemoglobin occurred and its cause. It also depends on how well a child’s body adapts to a low level of haemoglobin.</p><p>Symptoms of anemia include:</p><ul><li>pale skin</li><li>lack of energy</li><li>shortness of breath after exercise or play</li></ul><p>Protein losing enteropathy and hypoalbuminemia causes the blood vessels to leak fluid into surrounding tissue.<br></p><p>Symptoms of protein losing enteropathy and hypoalbuminemia include:</p><ul><li>progressive swelling of the feet, legs and face</li><li>muscle cramps or weakness</li><li>extra fluid around the lungs (pleural effusion)</li><li>swelling of the abdomen (ascites)</li></ul> <h2>Risk factors and prevalence of iron deficiency anemia</h2><p>Iron deficiency anemia is the most common type of anemia.</p><p>Around the world, iron deficiency anemia affects approximately 750 million children. In Canada, it is seen in 3.5% to 10.5% of the general population. Children have a greater risk of iron deficiency anemia due to their rapid growth, particularly in the first two years of life.</p><p>Children who are most at risk of developing iron deficiency anemia are those who are fed only breast milk or non-iron fortified cow’s milk formulas after six months of age, and those who drink an excess of cow’s milk. Children who are given cow’s milk before 12 months may also be at increased risk of developing iron deficiency anemia because their gut may not be ready to digest cow’s milk yet.</p> <h2>Cause of iron deficiency anemia and protein losing enteropathy</h2><h3>Iron deficiency anemia</h3><p>Iron deficiency anemia from excessive milk intake is caused by three things.</p><ul><li><strong>Not enough iron:</strong> Milk contains very little iron. In addition, if a child drinks too much milk, they will be too full to eat good amounts of iron rich foods.</li><li><strong>Poor iron absorption:</strong> Milk and other dairy products can interfere with the gut’s ability to absorb iron from other sources, such as meat and meat alternatives, and dark green vegetables.</li><li><strong>Microscopic bleeding:</strong> Too much milk can damage the lining of the gut (milk enteropathy). Milk enteropathy causes microscopic bleeding from the gut that you may not be able to see. Any type of bleeding from the body results in a loss of iron. Over time, this bleeding can cause very low levels of haemoglobin, contributing to the iron deficiency anemia.</li></ul><h3>Protein losing enteropathy</h3><p>It is not fully understood how milk intake leads to protein loss in the gut. One theory suggests a process called villous atrophy. The small intestine part of our gut has finger-like projections on its walls called villi. The villi play an important role in the absorption of nutrients. It is believed that an excess intake of cow’s milk can cause the villi to shrink (villous atrophy) and not absorb nutrients well. Villous atrophy causes the bowel walls to become leaky, allowing protein to leak through.</p><h2>Diagnosis of anemia and protein losing enteropathy</h2><h3>Iron deficiency anemia</h3><p>Iron deficiency anemia can be diagnosed by your child’s doctor. They will do a physical exam and ask about your child’s energy levels, general health, diet and family history.</p><p>A blood test, called a complete blood cell count (CBC), can make the diagnosis of anemia by measuring haemoglobin levels. When the anemia is caused by iron deficiency, the red blood cells will also look smaller and lighter in colour when seen under a microscope.</p><p>A ferritin test may also be done. Ferritin is a protein found in the body that stores iron. A low ferritin level can indicate iron-deficiency.</p><p>Additional useful tests that measure the body’s iron are called iron studies.</p><h3>Protein losing enteropathy</h3><p>Protein losing enteropathy and hypoalbuminemia are suspected in children with swelling and low albumin levels in the blood. Your child’s doctor will examine them for swelling of the legs, feet and face. They will also examine your child’s heart, lungs and abdomen for extra fluid.</p><p>A blood test is often done to check the blood albumin level. A urine test may also be done to make sure there is no protein loss from the kidneys. When the cause of low albumin is not clear, further tests may be done including stool tests. One of the stool tests that may be performed is a 24-hour collection of stool to check for a protein called alpha-1-antitrypsin. By comparing the amount of this protein in the stool to the amount in the blood, doctors can tell whether there is protein loss through the gut.</p> <h2>Treatment of iron deficiency</h2><h3>Diet</h3><p>Limiting milk intake to a maximum of 16 ounces per day is usually the only treatment needed. The iron levels will gradually rise and protein loss from the gut will decrease.</p><p>Iron rich foods can also help to treat iron deficiency. Many iron rich foods, such as meat and meat alternatives, are also high in protein. Offer your child foods such as meat and meat alternatives, and iron-fortified cereals a few times each day. From one year of age, young children should begin to have a regular schedule of meals and snacks. In general, you may follow the advice in <a href="https://food-guide.canada.ca/en/">Canada’s Food Guide</a>.</p><p>Limiting milk does not mean stopping it completely. It is known that milk is a good source of calcium, vitamin A and vitamin D. From one to two years of age, children should drink 250 to 500 mL (1–2 cups or 8–16 oz.) of homogenized (3.25% M.F.) cow’s milk per day. They should not drink more than 500 mL (2 cups or 16 oz.) per day.</p> <h3>Iron supplement</h3><p>Your child’s doctor might also prescribe iron supplements. After a few weeks, values such as the haemoglobin level generally start to improve. Treatment is usually continued for at least three months to fully replenish iron stores in the body.</p><p>Iron supplementation can cause an upset stomach. Your doctor might divide the dose in half and ask you to give it two times per day instead of as one large daily dose.</p><p>Dairy products (milk, cheese, yogurt) can have a negative effect on the absorption of iron. Try to give iron supplements two hours before or after eating or drinking any dairy products.</p><p>Vitamin C can help iron absorption from foods. Oranges and other citrus fruit are good sources of vitamin C. Be careful with offering too much juice, as it is high in sugar.</p><p>Protein losing enteropathy and hypoalbuminemia caused by too much milk gets better fairly quickly when the milk intake is limited to an appropriate amount.</p><h2>Complications of anemia and hypoalbuminemia</h2><p>Untreated anemia in children can have serious effects on a child’s growth. Untreated anemia can affect intellectual ability and overall development. This can lead to problems with attention, reading ability and school performance. In rare cases, extreme anemia can cause a stroke.</p><p>Hypoalbuminemia can also have serious effects on a child’s growth. Excess fluid around the lungs can cause problems with breathing. In rare cases, excess fluid can build up around the heart making it harder for the heart to pump. Protein loss in the gut can also cause a loss of the proteins needed to fight infection and prevent clots, putting children at risk of severe infections or blood clots.</p> <h2>Helping your child</h2><p>Limiting milk intake can be challenging. Many toddlers enjoy drinking milk in a bottle, and associate drinking milk with their bedtime ritual.</p><p>Here are some tips on how to help limit your child’s milk intake:</p><ul><li>If your child drinks more than 1200 mL (5 cups or 40 oz.) of milk per day, wean them slowly to smaller amounts. Cut the amount by half to start.</li><li>Offer solid foods first and only offer milk at the end of the meal. Alternatively, you could offer water with meals and milk only a couple of times a day with a snack. This way your child will not fill up on milk first.</li><li>Switch to a sippy cup early. This will prevent your child from taking the milk to bed and associating drinking milk with falling asleep.</li><li>Do not allow your child to sleep with a bottle of milk in bed. If you are having trouble with this then slowly start to dilute the milk with water until you are offering just water. This will also help in avoiding dental caries.</li> </ul> <h2>Follow-up</h2><p>Iron supplementation should be continued for at least three to six months to replenish the amount of iron that is stored in the body.</p><p>After starting treatment, your doctor will schedule a follow-up appointment. A repeat blood test is not always needed if your child’s symptoms improve with iron treatment and changes in diet.</p> <h2>​Virtual care services for children<br></h2><p>Boomerang Health was opened by SickKids to provide communities in Ontario with greater access to community-based services for children and adolescents. For more information on virtual care services in Ontario to support anemia, visit <a href="http://www.boomeranghealth.com/services/nutrition/">Boomerang Health</a> powered by SickKids.<br></p><h2>References</h2><ol><li>Abdullah, K., Zlotkin, S., Parkin, P. & Grenier, D. Iron-deficiency Anemia in Children. Canadian Paediatric Surveillance Program, resource article, 2011 (Accessed December 3, 2017).</li><li>Allen, R.E. & Myers, A.L. Nutrition in Toddlers. American Family Physician. 2006; 74(9): 1526-1532.</li><li>Bondi, S.A. & Lieuw, K. Excessive Cow’s Milk Consumption and Iron Deficiency in Toddlers: Two Unusual Presentations and Review. Infant, Child, & Adolescent Nutrition. 2009; 1(3). DOI: 10.1177/1941406409335481.</li><li>Critch, J.N. Nutrition for healthy term infants, six to 24 months: An overview. Paediatric Child Health. 2014; 19(10): 547-549.</li><li>Food Sources of Iron. Dietitians of Canada. (Accessed December 3, 2017).</li><li>Grueger, B. Weaning from the Breast. Paediatric Child Health 2013; 18(4): 210.</li><li>Kazal, L.A. Prevention of Iron Deficiency in Infants and Toddlers. American Family Physician. 2002; 66(7): 1217-1224.</li><li>Rabinowitz, S. & Ebigbo, N. Pediatric Protein-Losing Enteropathy. Medscape, Pediatrics; General Medicine, 2017 < https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/931647-overview> (Accessed December 3, 2017).</li></ol> https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/Drinks_for_your_toddler_or_preschooler.jpgExcessive milk intake Milk is part of a healthy diet. But too much milk can lead to low levels of iron in the blood and some children can lose protein from the gut. Main
Nutrition and mental health: Developing positive eating habitsNutrition and mental health: Developing positive eating habitsNutrition and mental health: Developing positive eating habitsNEnglishNutrition;Psychiatry;AdolescentTeen (13-18 years)BodyNAHealthy living and preventionTeen (13-18 years)NA2019-03-22T04:00:00Z10.000000000000061.0000000000000453.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Developing positive eating habits can be difficult. Find out some things you can do every day to work toward having a healthy attitude toward food.</p><h2>Plan and prepare meals</h2><p>Get involved in planning, shopping and preparing family meals. Doing so will help you learn to shop smartly, understand food labels and develop your skills in the kitchen. You may even enjoy sharing some of your favourite recipes with friends and family.</p><p>If you find yourself always rushing out the door to school or work, try preparing a breakfast wrap or some yogurt and fruit the night before. Breakfast is an important meal that will set you up for the day ahead!</p><h2>Eat as a family</h2><p>Busy schedules and after-school activities can make it hard to sit down to eat with your family every night. But sharing a meal with those closest to you even a few times a week without any distractions is a great way to strengthen family bonds, have fun and, if needed, share support after a tough day. These all help to boost self-confidence and communication skills, help improve how you perform at school and lower the incidence of weight issues and substance use disorders.</p><h2>Develop a healthy body image </h2><p>Like many teens, you probably see a constant stream of images and messages about physical appearance. With such highly promoted but narrow standards of beauty and fitness, it is hard to escape the idea that you should look a certain way. </p><p>When you feel overwhelmed by pressure to conform to an ideal body type, try to remember all the great things your body can do instead of simply how it looks. Eating disorders such as anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa or binge eating disorder can take root when someone feels badly about themselves and their appearance. Be sure to share any concerns about your body image with a parent, caregiver or another trusted adult. </p><h2>Keep a healthy attitude to food</h2><p>While most of your diet should be <a href="/Article?contentid=3773&language=English">rich in nutrients</a>, it is also ok to have some treats now and then. Rather than latching onto the latest fad diet or banning particular foods (unless you have an allergy):</p><ul><li>focus on eating the right amount of calories for your stage of growth and level of physical activity</li><li>consider eating more of one thing and less of another (for instance, more fruit and less juice or more grilled food and less fried)</li><li>consume a variety of foods, from all food groups, to help your brain and body work as well as possible</li></ul><p>The less control you feel you need to exert over food, the healthier your attitude towards it. That said, if you have any concerns about eating a balanced diet and maintaining a healthy weight for you and your needs, talk to a healthcare provider, your doctor or a dietitian.<br></p><h2>We want to hear from you!</h2><p>AboutKidsHealth is trying to improve the information and education we provide young people (aged 12-18) and families through our website. Please take 5 minutes to complete our <a class="redcap-survey" href="https://surveys.sickkids.ca/surveys/?s=XHD3EK3XD4">Adolsecent Health Learning Hub survey</a>.</p><br><h2>Resources</h2><p> <a href="https://www.health.harvard.edu/staying-healthy/listing_of_vitamins">Harvard Health Publishing - Listing of vitamins</a></p><p> <a href="https://www.mind.org.uk/information-support/tips-for-everyday-living/food-and-mood/#.XJU1eBNKiWZ">Mind (UK) - Food and mood</a><br></p><p> <a href="https://meant2preventkitchen.ca/">Meant2Prevent: Kitchen</a></p><h3>Kids Help Phone – <a href="https://kidshelpphone.ca/">kidshelpphone.ca</a></h3><p>Kids Help Phone is a 24/7 e-mental health service offering free, confidential support to young people.</p><p> <a href="https://kidshelpphone.ca/get-info/what-body-image-and-why-it-important"> What is body image and why is it important?</a></p>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/developing_positive_eating_habits.jpgDeveloping positive eating habits Developing positive eating habits can be difficult. Find out what your teen can do every day to develop a healthy attitude toward food. Teens

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